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BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE DOUBLE LOCKS AT GATUN. TOTAL 
RISE FROM SEA LEVEL TO LAKE LEVEL, 85 FEET. 



Scientific American 
Reference Book 

Edition V 1914 

Compiled and Edited 



ALBERT A. HOPKINS 

For Part I. Statistical Infonnation 



A. RUSSELL BOND 

For Port II. Scienlific Information 



Wiih 1000 lllai 



# 



MUNN Si, CO., Inc. 

NEW YORK, 1914 



• • 



- ' . . . • • 



COPYRIGHT. 1912. BY MUNN & CO.. INC. 



COPYRIGHT. 1913. BY MUNN & CO., INC. 



This work is protected by over eighty Copyrights, 
and no matter must be reproduced except by written 
permission. Rights of translation into all languages, 
including the Scandinavian, are reserved. 



Published October, 1912. 



New Edition. October. 1913. 



Printed in the United States by 
A. H. Kellogg Co., New York. 






PREFACE. 

The Editorial staff of the ''Scientific American'' re- 
ceives annually about 15,000 inquiries covering a wide 
range of topics — ^no field of human achievement or of 
natural phenomena is neglected. The information sought 
for, in many cases, cannot be readily found in text-books 
or works of reference. The need of a compendium of 
useful information presented itself some twenty years 
ago, and a part of the field was covered by the pubUcation 
in 1901 of the "Scientific American Cyclopedia of Re- 
ceipts, Notes, and Queries/' of which over 25,000 copies 
were sold. This book becoming obsolete in time was 
supplanted by its successor, the "Scientific American 
Cyclopedia of Formulas, " issued in 191 1 . There was, how- 
ever, another field which was not covered: the pubHc, 
or at least the public of the '' Scientific American," de- 
manded something which did not exist — they wanted a 
book which should deal with a vast range of topics other 
than formulse. They wanted information about the 
Antarctic region, the Panama route, shipping, navies, 
armies, railroads, population, education, patents, sub- 
marine cables, wireless telegraphy, manufactures, agri- 
culture, mining, mechanical movements, astronomy 
and the weather. The Editors of the present volume felt 
constramed to compile such a book, which was issued in 
1904, under the same title as this book. Its success was 
immediate, and an edition of 10,000 copies was inadequate 
to supply the demand. In 1905 a second large edition 
was issued, and was eagerly bought up by those who wished 
this useful companion for the desk or library. As the 

284808 



figures became obsolete, it was allowed to become ^'out of 
print, '^ and now in response to a considerable number of 
requests a new book is presented, following to some ex- 
tent the old lines, but entirely recompiled and rewritten. 

Immense masses of Government material have been 
digested with painstaking care by competent statisticians, 
and the result will, in the judgment of the Editors, fully 
warrant the expenditure of considerable effort and results 
in the production of a unique book. 

It is perhaps necessary to call attention to the fact 
that there are certain inconsistencies in the tables. In 
procuring the figures, for example, from different bm^eaus 
and departments of the Government, with reference to 
any subject, it is found that statistics vary in certain 
particulars. These differences are due to the different 
methods of tabulation or to different points of view. In 
many cases these discrepancies are noted in this book, 
to prevent the reader from forming erroneous conclusions. 
These cases must not be regarded as errors, and an attempt 
has been made to give, wherever possible, the date of the 
figures and the authority. Every available space has 
been taken up with useful information, whether germane 
to the chapter or not. 

The debt for advice and help is a heavy one. The 
compilation of this or any similar one would be impossible 
without the co-operation of many Government officials. 
Our thanks are especially due to Dr. Falkner, late 
Assistant Director of the Census, and to the Hon. E. Dana 
Durand, Director of the Census; the Hon. 0. P. Austin, 
late Chief of the Bureau of Statistics and now Assistant- 
Chief of the new Bureau of Domestic and Foreign Com- 
merce, and to Mr. N. Eckhardt, Jr., of his office; to the 
Hon. Eugene Tyler Chamberlain, Commissioner of Navi- 
gation; to Captain T. M. Potts, of the United States 

[iv] 



Navy; to Major J. D. Leitch, U. S. A., Secretary 
of the War College Division; to Mr. C. F. Talman, 
of the Weather Bureau, for his condensed chapter 
on the weather; to Senator Wm. Alden Smith; to Mr. 
Slason Thompson, of the Bureau of Railway News and 
Statistics; to the Hon. S. B. Donnelly, Public Printer; 
to Dr. J. A. Holmes, Chief of the Bureau of Mines ; to the 
Hon. Frank H. Hitchcock, Postmaster-General; to Dr. 
A. F. Zahm; to Dr. W. W. Share; to Dr. Geo. F. Kunz; to 
Mr. Perry B. Turpin; to Dr. F. L. Hoffman, Statistician of 
the Prudential Life Insurance Co.; to Captain J. L. Jayne, 
U. S. N., Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Observatory; 
to Captain A. W. Lewis, of the Associated Press; to Mr. 
E. Justice, of the North German Lloyd Steamship Co. ; to 
the painstaking assistants. Miss Henrietta von Tobel and 
Mr. Albert S. Regula; and to a host of other friends whose 
help was invaluable. A number of interesting com- 
parisons in Une are from Prof. A. L. Hickmann's Geo- 
graphical-Statistical Universal Atlas and PhiUps^ Chamber 
of Commerce Atlas. Acknowledgment is made for mat- 
ter from The American Almanac and Year Book, The 
World Almanac and the Chicago Daily News Almanac 
and Year Book, The Statistical Abstract of the United 
States, and the publications of the Census. Many items 
are credited where used. 



New York, 
October 15, 1912. 

PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION. 

The edition for 1914 has been brought up to date. 
The errors found were trifling, so that it is hoped that 
the verdict of users of this edition, as well as the 
press, will be favorable. Editions of a statistical work 
aggregating 35,000 are rare. 

New York, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I.— STATISTICAL INFORMATION. 

PAGE 

Chapter I. — Population and Social Statistics 1-42 

Chapter II. — ^Farms, Foods and Forests 43-74 

Chapter III. — ^Mines and Quarries 75-96 

Chapter IV. — ^Manufactures 97-136 

Chapter V. — Commerce 137-192 

Chapter VI. — ^Mercantile Marine 193-232 

Chapter VII.— Railroads 233-264 

Chapter VIII.— The Panama Canal 265-278 

Chapter IX. — ^Telegraphs and Cables 279-298 

Chapter X. — ^Wireless Telegraphy 299-310 

Chapter XI.— Telephone Statistics of the World 311-322 

Chapter XII.— Post Office Affairs 323-350 

Chapter XIII. — ^Patents, Trade-Marks and Copyrights 351-388 

Chapter XIV.— Annies of the World 389-408 

Chapter XV.— Navies of the World 409-436 

Chapter XVI.— Aviation 437-456 

PART II.— SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION. 

Chapter I.— Chemistry 457-462 

Chapter II. — ^Astronomy and Time 463-484 

Chapter III.— Meteorology 485-518 

Chapter IV. — ^Machine Elements and Mechanical Movements , ... . . 519-546 

Chapter V. — Geometrical Constructions 547-560 

Chapter VI. — ^Weights and Measures 561-586 

Note. — ^A complete Table of Contents is of little value where a complete 
Index is provided. Those interested in a subject will find little hardship in 
perusing the whole chapter devoted to it. 



PART I, 



I ♦ 



STATISTICAL INFORMATION. 
CHAPTER I. 



POPULATION AND SOCIAL 

STATISTICS. 



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



AREA. 



The TTnited States (total area of enumeration) 

Continental United States. , 

Noncontiguous territory 



Alaska , 

Hawaii 

Porto Rico 

Persons in military and naval service stationed abroad. . . 



1910 



93, 402, 161 



1900 



^ 77, 266, 680 



91,972,266 
1,429,885 



64,356 

191, 909 

1,118,012 

55,608 



75,994,575 
1,262,055 



63,592 

154,001 

« 953, 243 

91,219 



> Includes 953,243 persons enumerated in Porto Rico in 1899. 

s According to tlie census of Porto Rico taken in 1899 under the direction of the War Department. 

COMPARATIVE AREA OF THE UNITED STATES AND 

FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN I 




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AREA OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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SCIBaJTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CENTRE OF POPULATION. 



of population waa 23 milcfl 6A«t of BtLltunoPe. 
MftiywDd, EUnca which time it haa moved 
818113% westward. In ISOO it wag IS mllu 
w«rt of Bftltinmre, in 1810 40 milaa northwest 
bj; west from Wttshington, D. C; in 1820 16 



!iati.Ohio;inl890Z0m 

O^lumbuB, Indiana; and finally, ia 1010 in 
Che city of Bloomington. Indiana. Duriikd 
the 12J5 yean that the United Stata haa 
eiiated Qie centre has moved over 550 
milee weAtward, or in other wotrlA, fitnn 
w«t latitude TS degreeg 11 minute* 13 
seoonda to weet latitude ae dtgreea 33 mtnutw 




BT STATES igoo-i9ia 



INCREASE IN POPULATION. 



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Sl!u3i321 

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7,238.881 
S. 308. 183 




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SClKNTinC AMERICAN REFERENCE DOOK. 



POPULATION OF CITIES 



UNITED STATES 

Ceuu* of 1910 ■ 



r 100,000 populatioE 



100.2S3 : Iniiiikii 



DeDTCr, Colo. . 



EatisanCit, 
Loulsvilii), 































37J 


B57 







































PUikdeliiblk. P>. : 
PllUbuivh, P*. . . 
Portl&iid, Ore. . . . 
Providence. B.l. 



St! PmiI, ^Inn' : : 3M>' 



8e«ttle, ^uh. . . . 
Spoiune. Waah.. 
Sttscuw, N. Y.. . 
Toledo. Ohio. . . . 



WorceM«r, Mms. Ufi.M 



CitidH ot frpm 25,000 to 100.000 popaUtitin 



AiuUn. Tei 

Bactle Creek. Micb.. 

B»y Oit.y. Mich 

B&yooiie. M.J 

Berkeley, Cat 

Blagb&mtOQ, N. Y. . 
BtoominKtoD, III 



BnKridlae. Mmi. . 



OhmCMnoosa. Teiii 
Clwtea, Mm>. . . . 

Cbnter. Pa 

Ctdcopee. M«a. . . 

CUntcNi, lowk 

OolorMto Sprtnea 

Oolo. 

Oolnmbla, B. C fo, 

Couodl Blufti. Iowa, 29. 

Oovingbm, Ky "" 

Dallu, Tei 

DaavUle.IU 

Davanport, Iowa. . 



Dululb.Minn . 



Golvo 



OreenBay. Wis 

Hamjl ton, Ohio 

Harrlabuiv. Pa 

Hartford. Conn 

BaverhlU. Maw 

Hftzloton. Pa 

Hoboken, N.J 

Holyoke, Man 

BouslOD, Tei 

Huntington, W. Va., 

Jackson. Mich 

JockaoavUle, Pla 

Jamealown. N. Y 

JohnBtown. Pa. 

JoHet. lU 

Jopltn, Mo 

Kalamaioo, Mich . . . 



[ahtaa City. Eaui, , 
UngBton, N.Y... 
CnoxvlUe. Term . . 

a. Crone. Wis 

lancBster, Pa 



Madison. wIh, . . 
Maiden. Mass . . 
Manchealer, N, I 



Niagara Palla, N. Y.. 30,41 



12 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Norfolk. Va 67,462 

Norristown, Pa 27.875 

Ogden. Utah 25.580 

Oklahoma City, Okla 64.205 

Orange. N.J 29.630 

Oshkosh. Wis 33.062 

Pasadena, Cal 30.291 

Passaic. N. J 54.773 

Pawtucket, B. 1 51.622 

Peoria. lU 66.950 

Perth Amboy, N. J. . 32.121 

Pittsfleld. Aiass 32.121 

Portland. Me 68,571 

Portsmouth, Va 33.190 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 27,936 

Pueblo Colo 44.395 

Qulncy.Ill 36,587 

Quincy, Mass 32,642 

Racine. Wis 38.002 

Reading. Pa. 96.071 

Roanoke. Va 34,874 

Rockford. lU 45,401 

Sacramento, Cal 44,696 

Saginaw, Mich 50,510 



St. Joseph. Mo 77.403 

Salem. Mass 43.697 

Salt Lake City, Utah 92.777 
San Antonio, Tex . . . 96,614 

San Diego. Cal 39.578 

San Jose. Cal 28.946 

Savannah. Ga 65.064 

Schenectady, N. Y. . 72,826 

Sheboygan. Wis 26.398 

Shenandoah. Pa 25.774 

Shreveport. La 28.015 

Sioux City. Iowa 47.828 

Somerville, Mass 77.236 

South Bend. Ind 53.684 

South Omaha, Nebr. 26,259 

Springfield. lU 51 .678 

Springfield. Mass.. . . 88.926 
Springfield. Mo .... 35,201 
Springfield, Ohio. . . 46,921 

Stamford. Conn 25.138 

Superior. Wis 40.384 

Tacoma. Wash 83.743 

Tampa. Pla 37.782 

Taunton. Mass 34.259 



Terre Haute. Ind 58.167 

Topeka. Kans. . ; . . . 43.684 

Trenton. N.J 96 .815 

Troy. N. Y 76,813 

Utica.N.Y 74,419 

Waco. Tex 26,425 

Waltham. Mass 27,834 

Warwick, R. 1 26.629 

Waterbury. Conn. . . 73,141 

Waterloo. Iowa 26,693 

Watertown. N. Y. . . 26.730 
West Hoboken, N. J. 35.403 
WheeUng. W. Va. . . . 41,641 

Wichita. Kans 62,460 

Wilkes-Barre. Pa. . . . 67.105 
Williamsport. Pa. . . . 31.860 

Wilmington. Del 87,411 

Wihnington. N. C. . . 25.748 
Woonsocket, R. I . . . 38.125 

Yonkers. N. Y 79.803 

York, Pa 44,750 

Yoimgstown, Ohio. . 79.066 
Zanesville, Ohio 28,026 



EUROPE 
452,798.900 



N«th«nandt 
63SB.000 



Sweden 
6.476.000 




Companson of the population of all states of the world 

according to the last censuses and estimation. 
ASIA 865.92 3.(to0 ^„ ^ .««.,««« AMERICA 

AFRICA 152,033,000 175,046,000 



Hunga' 
2O.e9ij00O 





Portugal 
6,4p3200 

Bulgaria 
4.3^S;b00 

Switzerland 
3,742J00O 

Seryia 
2,8MXI0O 

Denmark 

2,775^ 

lthro«landO3.8»3M0 

Greece 
2,632.000 

O 

Norway 

2,393.000 

O 

Crete 

310J0O 

Q6.; 



British /^ \ 

Possess., f V„ „^ -^ 

Colonies I I *3.074.000 

and V / 

Protectorates ^^ -^ 

French /^ ^\ 

Possess. { J 31 .522.000 

and \ y 

Protectorates \ ^ , ^^ 



Belgian 
Congo 



Egypt 

with Anglo- 
Egypt. Sudan 
15.662.000 

German 
Possessions 



Portug. 
Possess 




Uruguay 

1.095.000 
Paraous 



BQusy 
O 636,1 



thereof 

iper I 
,232 



propAr^E^t 



^8^ 



Persia 
Phlllpplneji^ 



,000 



000 



Abyssinia 



( J 20 .000.1 

14.120,000 Psiu 

4,610.000 (3 

O Colombia 

8,249,000 4.320.000 Q 

Chile 
^~J 8,000,000 



,000 

Honduras 
O 551,000 

Panama 
450.000 

Nicaragua 
430.000 

Rep Dominic. 
O 420,000 

French Possess, 
o 418,000 

Costa Rica 
o 369,000 

British Poisesi Dutch Po«|«jQ 



Morocco Q 7,000,000 
Liberia 02,000,000 



Dan Possess, 
e 31.000 
Argentjije Rep. 

6,980.000 C J KcHk A»,r,„ 125fiti2,000 

^^ S,mAdm,r,a, 49.464.000 



AUSTRALASIA 
AND 
OCEANIA 
7,131.000 . 

British Possessions 

Q6.116,000 

German Possessions 
O 457,000 



o 



Luxemburg 
246,000 

o 

Moruco 

19jOOO 



Belgium 
6.694.000' 

Turkey ^J 
6,130.000^-^ 

!" Rumania C ) 
6.960.000^-^ 



San Marino 
10,000 

• 

Liechtenstein 
0.600 

* 
Andorra 
6.300 




Slam () 6.320.000 
Ai^hwiJstmn rj 5.000.000 




Tripolls 1.000,000 
Ital. Possess. 

•nd 731,000 

Protectorates 
"'a'LSlIf O3-250.000 8p.nPo...M 675.000 




(iortPow. 0896,000 
0«n«n 0500.000 

(•iMIPanlixnla)^ 62,000 

Oemiia PnH. O Q>7 c^rj\ 

fKUaeliM) *'i^AA^ 



3.302,000 O 

Venezuela 
2.686.000 Q 

Cuba 
2.150.000 O 

Bolivia 
2.049.000 O 

Haiti 
2.030.000 O 

Guatemala ind«0ondent Oceania 
1,992.000 



Dutch Possessiorts 
• 240.000 

Hawal and Guam 
(Unit Stat, o 204.000 
of AmarJ 

French Possessions 
•86,000 



•28,000 



I 



Pelar ra 



aplea Oi 
14,000 



nhmbitad) 



thereof Danish Possess. 

(Sfe«nl»nd) 12.000 



Ecuador 
1.400,000 O 

Salvador 
1,116,000 O 



Total population 

of the world 

1. 652,945,900- 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




PERCENTAGE OP UHBAN IN TOTAL POPULATION IN IQltt 



COLOR, NATIVITY AND PARENTAGE OF POPULATION, FOR 
PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 



oare than 25.000 in 
>mpd population of 



BS which bad in leiO 



wr oent.: oative whites o^ foi 
PBTOQtaw, 9,218,099. gr 32.3 pi 
i-bom whites, 7.478.990, or 2 
aeitnisB, 1,625,001, or 6.7 per c 
71,081, arO.2 per cent. For con 
■ ~ u ft whole, the equivale 

paroentageH ara: Native w 
rentace. 49,4SS,S75, or S3.S per ceai; 
hiteg of foreign or mixed pflrentage 



United States, 



hilea of 



the 229 dtie> taken tosethL. . 

IMF oent. of the satire papulation (91,972,266) 
of cODtlaeDtai United States io 1910. In the 



entue, the number in 
only S>.& per cei ' 
United States, i 



'er, of native whites oi 



lO BDd !c 

Siitkir 



peiceDtAce in the principal cities 



The foreisn-born wbile element is mainly 
KincentTsled in the NarChem and Baalem 
itates. and in many of Ihc cities in these states 
■be praportion of foreign-bom whit« in the 
otaf population is very large, Pasaaic, N. J., 



population (54.773). 

-■"- "' foraan-bom 

ies, and Lsw- 



11,319 forei 



', N. J., 44^5; New faedtoi 
lonsoeket. R, I., 43.4: Fal 
S; Chelsea, Mass., 42.4; Mai 



ot. There, art 

ily, Perth Am- 

. River, 'Mass. 
.Chester, N. U. 
Lowell, Mass. 



U., 



29,293 or fiO.S per ct 



ah. Fa., 40.6; New York, N. V. 
Mass.. 40.3. 

stitute one-fourth or more of 
lation izi each of 27 principal 

aely,*CharLaton,''s. "c.. 31,056 
nt.; Savannah, Ga„ 
.; iaeksonviUe, Fla., 



SCIENTIFIC AMBKICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 
AREA OF STATES AND TERRITORIES. 

anfnl Jolot ealenlallaiu nuda In tha OenenI Lend Offlcc, it» OMloglral Surver, tod tb* - 



Ulaixrippl. 



NenYoFt.., 
N'orthCunllT 
KorthDAot 

onto 

OkUbomL.. 



•t'^^iiur!! 



OwioK to Ibalr locatkn adjoliilDf Uie Orat LakH, Ui« Sla 
Ha ftddJtloDBj nurnhflr oT AquBTQ mileiiaa folEowa: UltDDlA, 1,i 
230 soiian mites □( Lsks HklilgaD: Kkdiicao, ItfSl matn 

UlimeHta. 3^4 unan mDcs ol Lake Bnperkir. HewVort, 3, 
Ohio, s,ta ngiure mllw oT Lak* Erie; PHmytmila, 8M u 
(qpara mllM ol Lake Bupttlor and TJO) aquara mllcaoi Lake 

ID addnioo tD tba w& anw soMd aSi>r«, CalUmla dalnu juii 
■Itfaln I EnidJib mfls ot ber «OHM: Oficod atimt JorlidlcUini ova 
._. -„ In vidib batmoi bitltuda «* DDctS and Um mmiiJ 

lUon ont a ttrip »l OiUI waut > iMfow fei oMUi, ad 

idlbaSablnalUw. 



below contain BppnnfaDlMlT 
s ot Lake Mlchl^i indlaiB, 
Superior. 13JM9 aquan rnOtt 
i oflaka SL Clair and Erie; 



Uuusn 
akeUkl 



. similar itiip ol the Pacdfle 0< 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



17 



AREA OF THE UNITED STATES BY SIZE OF STATES. 



STATE. 



CoBtinental United Stateg. 



Texas 

California... 

Montana 

New Mexico. 
Arizona 

Nevada 

Colorado 

Wyoming... 

Oregon 

Utah 



Minnesota 

Idaho 

Kansas 

South Dakota. 
Nebraska 



North Dakota. 

Oklahoma 

Missouri 

Washington. . . 
Georgia 

Florida 

Michigan 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 



Arkansas 

North Carolina. 

Alabama 

New York 

Louisiana 



Mississippi... 
Pennsylvania. 

Virginia 

Tennessee.... 
Ohio 



Kentucky 

Indiana 

Maine 

South Carolina.. 
West Virginia... 

Maryland 

Vermont 

New Hampshire. 
Massachusetts... 
New Jersey 



Conn^ticut 

Delaware 

Khode Island 

District of Columbia. 



Rank 

in 
gross 
area. 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 

48 
49 



AREA IN SQUARE MILES. 



Gross. 



3,026,789 

265,896 
158,297 
146,997 
122.634 
113,956 

110.690 

103,948 

97.914 

96,699 

84,990 

84,682 
83,888 
82,158 
77,615 
77,520 

70,837 
70,057 
69,420 
69,127 
59,265 

58,666 
57,980 
56,665 
56, 147 
56,066 

53,335 
52,426 
51,998 
49,204 
48,506 

46,865 
45,126 
42,627 
42,022 
.41,040 

40,598 
36,354 
33,040 
30,989 
24,170 

12,327 
9.564 
9.341 
8.266 
8,224 

4.965 

2,370 

1,248 

70 



Land. 



8,973,890 

262,398 
155,652 
146.201 
122.503 
113,810 

100,821 

103,658 

97,594 

95,607 

82,184 

80,858 
83,354 
81,774 
76,868 
- 76,808 

70,183 
69,414 
68,727 
66,836 
58,725 

54,861 
57,480 
56,043 
55,586 
55,256 

52,525 
48,740 
51,279 
47,654 
45,409 

46,362 
44,832 
40.262 
41,687 
40. 740 

40,181 
36.045 
29,895 
30,495 
24,022 

9,941 
9,124 
9,031 
8,039 
7.514 

4,820 

1,965 

1,067 

60 



Water. 1 



62,899 

3,498 

2,646 

796 

131 

146 

869 

290 

320 

1,092 

2,806 

3,824 
534 
384 
747 
712 

654 
643 
693 
2,291 
540 

3,805 
500 
622 
561 
810 

810 
3,686 

719 
1.550 
3,097 

503 
294 
2,365 
335 
300 

417 
309 
'3,145 
494 
148 

2,386 
440 
310 
227 
710 

145 

405 

181 

10 



» Does not include the water surface of the oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, or the 
Great Lakes, .lying within the jurisdiction of the United States. 



A census just completed by the Isthmian 
Canal Commission shows that in 1911 there 
were 154,255 persons in the Canal Zone. 
The City of Panama has a population of 



36,368, of which 18,237 are Mestizos, 10,963 
negroes, 7,008 white, and 1,180 Amarillos 
or yellows. Colon has 17,748 inhabit- 
ants. 



SCIKNTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES 
PEE 8QUABE MILE. 



c„™„,. 


uSSffii. '^^T' 


•sr 




7S,994,57S 1 
w'l55|7B3 i 

38M»;i;i 

31,«3,3|l 

i7;oeH', flW 

i2,86fi,()» 

9.03>i,4W 1 

6'3w!<M 
3,92n,2H 


973, SKI 

973,965 
BM,337 

7&3>8 

ii 

807,»80 

























































PRISON POPULATION IN 19X0. 



The prison population of tha United Sutea 

iustitutians. durinif the year 

These fiiures include ever, . 

from vaflruicy to murder m the tirst decree. 
They abo include cases in which ihe offender 



trigiO,n'a9 479.8BO. 















100.000. Thu 




tthebecin- 
































POPULATION PER SQUARE MILE; 1910. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

Mortality from Consumption by 4ge and Sex. 

PnideirthI lndii»tri«l Experience-^ 1897-1906. 



«^-ft« FEMALES. 




Mortaiitu from Consumption - Gen&al Papalaliott. 

1887-1906. 
Mortality <^/^ortAert Otie^- MonMy ofSmihetn Grics- 



Pntftmioaate CoommpilQa Monality -^ MALES. 





i]< di8 



■UtM In (be UolMd 



New Menoo with 21.374; South Dak 






INDIANS. 

lodiBQ popuUlloa of 53,121 and nnk at- 

^ l'X«°: 0«Koo,^New Y*°k, Nav^I,' 
N^brtiBka, Wyoming, Kaaaaa. Utah and othrr 
L nilid Mntoi is (lOlZj'siO^l?" » 'on o 



20 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Moitality from Consumiitioii in Dusty Trades. 

Pfudential Industrial Experience ^ 1897 H906. 



e 



HeaiBkDwxt 



MioKallhai 



Aaet 

3 
G 

3 



ii%-^ 



Cairal 
Oigaoi^ 



Afts 
Z5'3i 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 

3 



Apm 
35-44 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



45^54 

3 
3 
3 

3 
3 

3 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



3 
3 
3 

3 



ASrfe IkAgmtfemmitm frtgutney m Jnm h wy mukh/ Mconfmg to tkl km/ ^ dust enposuf 
TU pnfiorUoHt^ oooaumption mortMy in mwanot txpvienca maa ^Mtgst m tradea ex- 
posing to th* continuous inhthtmn <f contidvtbl* amounts ^ mttallic and minaral duaia 



Mortality from Consumption -Zj^rositr^p totktiHicDust. 

Prudential Industrial Experience ^ 189?* 1906. 



PRINTERS. 



Cmmaftm 


Ml 


ff 


^gjjAg 


r^ 


K 








Bmmma 

BmtDimm 
AaHmt 

Jka 


M 


ll 








ptioa. 




"77] 


1 ' 

Mnm 


-*-*-i£«^*** 


M-M Bni^H^^^ 


^ffZI 








M 






« 










'*■*'* F"!''''!"''!'^ 








417 












If.// ■■■■■^■■■B 


1 








mi 


'1 1 


4 
















4S44 ■BH 














mi 


















tt£j BH^ 1 














ma 




^^ 



Ncm^ (ktdSUitA d imma SjtrJSSXi mm km (mm $ tm. Japtperiamltaot' 
Mkk^ammaSUmHfm^immtWK ymt $mad mM fnairtm ^ 3l\ 



COMPOSITORS. 



hmdfdCmm0k 

Amamk 
Br^kHHmam 

BmtOmm 
SakA 

RrU 


^ 


>gj 


ifii 


1A 


^ 


r 








M 


1 


11 








nr 


1 


1 






1 


J4_ 

m 


te. aHirCeums 


t 


la-ju MH^K^M 


■N 1 ' 






H/* 




1 1 1 


n 












■ 






us 


•*-// P'^P^^^^^' 
























ms 


1 T 
















4f-M HDI 


LL * 












«ut 




■-w 








u 



^ /bt (ktfK8*At/ mm»*n SaJS/lmm Sa^Cmty'w.Jlipimtimm mtaOf 
Mm tu imam mtaaamatdlitm mirSi tutmiimanSf^aammt^tafW 
tUtiMm dfaoB Bffmmjan Cmmaom mmattmrnt amMtm^v ^ 315. 



Recent statistics show that at the end of 
May, 1910, there were 431 state and local 
anti-tuberculosis associations, 286 special 
dispensaries, 393 special sanatoria and 
hospitals, and 22,720 beds for tuberculosis 



cases. It was estimated that there were 
300,000 indigent consumptives in the United 
States, in May, 1910, and that it would cost 
$50,000,000 yearly to take care of them in 
institutions. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 
eUIClDES IN ONE HUNDRED AMERICAN CITIE8, 1801-1913. 



ytA«3. 




Stlicido. 


.^f 




1.1,3.1,^,188 

liSS 

■•11:1 

n,74:!,oOi 

iiil! 

W,41B.m 

Sii 


1:!!5 

2,007 
S.S9f 

i 

li 

«,377 
SliOM 
























































































IKS::::::::;;::---::::::;'---:::; 









Courtvr ol Tlie 8p«ctstai. — F. L. Hoirman, Cc 



ipubtion of 
IB 1912 there 



COMPARISON 



-v.... 


Suicida 
pet lOO.OOO dI 
Population in 100 
AnKTkan Cilia. 


Bu9iai«F>iliitoia 
the United suit* 




3.6 

11 

Is 

9.3 
0,1 

!1 

71 





















































































1,000 enstiag buduew ooDcenu. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DEATHS IN REGISTRATION AREA. 

Dlr-five and fifty; 321.4 



nciBtratioD, the 



and CUdou 



•^•v 



are maJcB uid 4fiA.l 



If the United Statea for 



todiMAH 






"S'"" 



j( typhoid fever; 1,S03 of msUriB: BBUdlpai, 
130; meules, £,922; Hwlet fevsr, S^3: 
whooping cough, B,eSZ; diphtheria and croup, 
11,174; iDllueniB, 0.2441 otJier epidemia d&- 
enHB. B,133; tuberculosiB. M,I05: Dancer uid 
" ' 44.024; diabatcL 

■ 1 and of 



were idbUb and 381.076 were females. Tht 

than ODe year of age wae 149,322; of thoee 
from one to five yean of age, 60,160; from 
five to twenty-five. 83.S09; from twenty-five 
to fifty, 184,214; from fifty to seventy-five, 
247.00S: ovei seventy-Bve. 113,37G; and ol 



of the di 
the reepi 

67.348; I 

accidenti 

3,007; at 

The n 



IB syatem and o: 
, 81,428; diseasea 
)9.83p; dlaeues of 



per hundred thoueaod 
>re important of these 
; Typhoid fever, 21.0; 



d deathe, 177.0 ooi 
irst year of life; 7 
e and five; 100.0 ] 
-five; 219.6 betwf 



DEGENIffATlVrffr5rASES-0,S. 

Increase m Deaf h-Rafe per 10.000 



iHEAfiTi BLOOD VESSELS, 
KIDNEYS. ETCt 




THE PENALTY OF NEGLECT 
le in life waste from disuses of the heati, blc 
Bnlion of Ihe American people.. They are o 
> of Ihe body, and the penalty Is needlets 
annually. This can only be checked hy Ih. 
y improvemeht in hygiene and sanitation. 



1 vessels, kidneys— apoplexy, 
■doprion of more heallhfijj_, 



Tbe suloide reoard of 100 Americsa dtiea 
for tile year sodins 1913 shows a suicide 
mortality of 4,307 out of a total population for 



SUICIDE RECORD OF 1912. 



Iw ^"^ 



u only 16 B. The e 



yeBra, has shown i 

•— -Ifflioy, being 10.7 

durlog the next B 



Grat St« yeaiB, 
1, aud inoreaslag 



was 44.0 per 100.000 of poputatioll, atima 
the seoeral average for all the citiee of 20.2 
Abstract from article by F. L. Hoffman ir 
"The Spectator." October 2, 1913. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK, 



I AKL- Indreasb, SFsciPTiNa 
a Wife, 1887 to 1906. 



(Boum: Reportiof 




ComnwreeMKl L«b«.) 






UmUgm. 


DIvorcM. 


Cahmdar r«ir. 


Nuniber. 


'W 


Toul 
number. 


Increase 


iSSd" 


"'^'° 




»„». 


is. 


Number, 


Pm 




4S3,06ft 




■ .' ^ 


^3M 

f-SSS 

1,039 

fi 

sliiw 

IS 

3, MS 

1;S 


■■1. t2» 


348 

33,0 
33,1 

32.8 

317 
3S.S 


II 

la 

W.OTfl 






is 




^■: - 


M- 
















'--. '.. M 




B-:-:i:ee-:-::-: 


87. 


leca 


1 


"" 


"■' 




FoKBiON-BoRN White Population Oi 

THE U. S. BY COONTKT OP filBTH. 



CODllTBT. 


„■. >» 


J^. 


Total forelgii- 
bora while.... 


13,3iI,Saail},213,SI7 


J,m,68S 


Anslri^Unngary. . . 


1,6*8,701 
'498^900 

Is 

iili 

m.floo 

1,2S0,K)0 

4si3oa 
iT.ia 

'2U.M 
146,600 


2,SI3,4U 

'■S:S 

1,818,232 
483,963 

1,082,124 

liajs 

III 

llU^US 

i,m,74 


'C'S^ 






^SS""""':: 


-314,211 




















1,066,160 






"^■-isc 


188,378 










OttHr Europe 


299. 2M 














Canada and New- 


23,255 
116,892 


All other counwies. 





24 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DIVORCES: NtTMBER AKD Causes, Speciftino those Granted to Hus- 
band OR Wife, by Quinquennial Periods, 1887 to 1906. 

[Souroe: Beports of the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce and Labor.] 



Cause., 



GEA.NTED TO HUSBAND. 



Adultery 

Cruelty 

Desertion 

Drunkenness 

Neglect to provide. 
Combinations of 

causes, etc 

All other causes 2.. 



preceding 



Total. 



GSANTED TO WIFE. 



Adultery. 

Cruelty 

Desertion 

Drunkenness 

Neglect to provide. 
Combinations of 

causes, etc 

All other causes*... 



preceding 



Total. 



1887-1891 



Num- 
ber. 



17,139 

4,047 

27,150 

592 



2,654 
3,398 



54,980 



10,880 

25,200 

35,666 

5,397 

4,605 

13,770 
6,826 



102,344 



Per 
cent. 



31.2 
7.4 

49.4 
1.1 



4.8 
6.2 



100.0 



10.6 

24.6 

34.8 

6.3 

4.5 

13.5 
6.7 



100.0 



1892-1896 



Num- 
ber. 



19,956 

6,068 

31,805 

765 

2 

3,190 
3,836 



65,622 



13,714 

34,509 

43,153 

6,913 

6,857 

15,757 
8,414 



129,317 



Per 
cent. 



30.4 
9.2 

48.5 
1.2 
0) 

4.9 
5.8 



100.0 



10.6 

26.7 

33.4 

5.3 

5.3 

12.2 
6.5 



100.0 



1897-1901 



Num- 
ber. 



24,260 

9,385 

43,186 

986 

1 

3,681 
4,798 



86,306 



16,915 
48,797 
58,382 
8,828 
10,423 

19,979 
11,090 






174,414 



Per 
cent. 



2&1 

10.9 

50.0 

1.1 

0) 

4.3 
5.6 



100.0 



9.7 

28.0 

33.5 

5.1 

6.0 

11.5 
6.4 



100.0 



1902-1906 



Num- 
ber. 



29,526 

13,678 

54,142 

1,093 

3 

4,805 
5,994 



109,241 



21,360 
64,541 
74,01$ 
11,942 
12,779 

25,013 
13,748 



223,401 



Per 
cent. 



27.0 

12.5 

49.6 

1.0 

0) 

4.4 
5.5 



100.0 



9.6 

28.9 

33.1 

5.3 

5.7 

11.2 
6.2 



100.0 



Inbreaae 

1902-1906 88 

compared 

with 
1887-1891 



Num- 
ber. 



12,387 

9,631 

26,992 

501 

3 

2,151 
2,596 



54,261 



10,480 

39,341 

38,352 

6,545 

8,174 

11,243 
6,922 



121,057 



Per 
cent. 



72.3 
238.0 
99.4 
84.6 
0) 

81.0 
76.4 

98.7 



96.3 
156.1 
107.6 
121.3 
177.5 

81.6 
101.4 

118.3 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



* Includes causes unknown. 




APPROXIMATE DISTRIBUTION OF PURSUITS, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 











husband. 


OrvitodWwlte. 


Total. 




Number. 


Par cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


NujnlMi. 


P«c«t. 


T th 1 


II 
ii 


1 


IS 


J 


ii 

JOiTSO 
3i;,3M 

ikIsoo 


11 














































































































MT.4M 


100.0 


«os,iie 


„.. 


goo, 684 












CAUSES FOR DIVORCES 1S02-1906. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



27 



IMMIGBANT AXJSNS ADMITTS]>, TS ASS ENDED JUNE SO, 1903 TO 

1918; By Race oft People. 

(Soul'oe: Reports of the Comml^ioner General of Immigration, Department of Qmimeroe and Labor.) 



Race or people. 



AfHcan (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian, Moravian.'. 
Bulgarian, Servian, 

Montenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian, Slovenian . . . 

Cnban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, 

Herzegovinian 

Dntch, Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

FlUpino 

Finnish. 

French 

German,...,.. 

Greek ,. 

Hebrew 

Irish .., 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Jafumese 

Korean ..i : 

Lithuanian...^ t,.^ 

Magyar.. ^ 

Mexican.^.. k.k.<, 

Pseificlibla^der 

Polish. 

Pwtugucse. 

Rbmnanlaa 

Hussiaxi 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 
Scandinavian......... 

Scotch.. 

Slovak. V 

Spanish 4 

Spanidi^Amedean 

Syrian w 

Turklah......^... 

Welshi.i...... 

West Indian («xD«pt 

Cuban)...; 

All other peoples 

Total, 



1908 



2,174 
1,759 
9,591 

6,479 

2,192 

33,907 

2,944 

1,736 

6,496 

83 

28,451 

033 

18,864 

7,166 

71,782 

14,376 

76,203 

35,366 

37,429 

196,117 

20,041 

•564 

14,432 

27,124 

486 

52 

to,Z4B 

8,433 

4,740 

3.606 

9,843 

79,347 

6,219 

34,427 

3,207 

978 

5,561 

449 

1,497 
SB 



1904 



2,386 

1,745 

11,911 

4,677 

4,327 

21,242 

4,811 

2,036 

7,832 

258 

41,479 

. 29 

10,157 

11,557 

74,790 

12,625 

106^236 

37,076 

36,699 

159,329 

14,382 

1,907 

12,780 

23,883 

447 

12 

67,757 

6,338 

4,364 

3,961 

9,592 

61,069 

11,483 

27,940 

4,662 

1,666 

3,063 

1,482 

1,820 

1,942 
(568 



657, 046 812, 870 1, 026, «I99 



1906 



3,598 

1,878 

11,767 

S,^23 

1,971 

.36,104 

7,259 

2,639 

8,498 

145 

50,865 

5 

17,012 

11,347 

82,360 

12,144 

129,910 

54,266 

39,930 

186,390 

11,021 

4,929 

18,604 

46,030 

227 

17 

102,437 

4,855 

7,818 

3,746 

14,473 

62,284 

16,144 

.52,368 

5,590 

1^068 

4,822 

3,145 

2,831 

1,648 

851 



1906 



3,786 

1,895 

12,958 

11,548 
1,485 

44,272 
5,591 

4,568 

9,735 

' 271 

45,079 



14,136 

10,379 

86,813 

23,127 

153,748 

40,969 

46,286 

240,528 

14,243 

127 

14,257 

44,261 

141 

13 

95,835 

8,729 

11,«25 

5,814 

16,257 

68,141 

16,463 

as, 221 

5,332 

1,585 

6,824 

2,033 

2,367 

1,476 
1,027 



1,100^736 



1907 



5,235 

2,644 

13,554 

t 

.27,174 

770 

47,826 

5,475 

7,393 
12,467 

1,072 
51,126 



14,860 

9,392 

92,936 

46,283 

140,182 

88,706 

51,564 

242,497 

30,824 

39 

^,884 

00,071 

91 

3 

138,033 

9,648 

19,200 

16,807 

24,081 

53,^ 

20,516 

42,041 

9,495 

1,060 

5,880 

1,902 

2,754 

1,381 
.2,058 



1,285,349 



1006 



4,626 

3,299 

10,164 

18,24« 
1,263 

20,472 
3,323 

3,747 

9,526 

1,716 

49,056 



6,746 
12,881 
73,038 
28,806 

103,387 
36,427 
24,700 

110,547 
16,418 

2? 

13,720 

24,378 

6,682 

2" 

66,105 

6,809 

9,629 

17,111 

12,361 

32,789 

17,014 

16,170 

6,636 

1,063 

5,520 

2,327 

2,504 

1,110 
1,530 



1909 



4,307 
8,106 
6,850 

6,214 

1,841 

20,181 

3,380 

1,888 

8,114 

337 

39,021 



11, 
19, 

58, 
20, 
57, 
31, 
26, 
165, 
3, 

15, 

;», 

15, 

77, 

4, 

8, 

10, 

15, 

H 

16, 
22, 

4, 
3, 
1, 

1, 

1. 



687 
4S3 
534 
2G2 
551 
185 
150 
248 
275 

11 
254 
704 
501 

7 
^ 
606 
041 
038 
808 
906 
446 
586 
939 
890 
668 
820 
699 

024 
537 



782,870 751,786 



1910 



4,966 
5,506 
8,462 

15,130 
1,770 

39,502 
3,331 

4,911 
13,012 

1,782 
53,496 



15,736 

21,107 

71,39 

39,135 

84.260 

38,382 

30,780 

192, 

2,7»B 

19 

22,714 

'.77,9Xi 

17,760 

01 

128,848 

7,657 

14,199 

V,294 

27,907 

52,037 

24,612 

32,416 

5,837 

900 

6,317 

1,283 

2,244 

1,160 
3,330 



1,041,570 



1911 



6,721 
3,092 
9,223 

10,222 
1,307 

18,982 
3,914 

4,400 

18,862 

517 

57,258 



9)779 
18,132 
66,471 
37,021 
91,223 
40,246 
30,312 
673)159,638135; 

4,575 
8 
17,027 
19,996 
18,784 
12 
71,446 

7,469 
•6,311 
18,721 
17,724 
45,859 
'25,625 
21,415 

8,068 

1,153 

5,444 
Old 

3,248 

1,141 
3,323 



878,687 



1919 



6,759 
5,222 
8,439 

10,65^ 
1,606 

24,366 
8,155 

3,673 

10,935 

165 

49,689 



6,641 

18,382 

65,343 

31,566 

80,595 

33,923 

26,443 

{,830 

6,172 

33 

14,078 

23,599 

22,001 

3 

85,163 

9,403 

8,329 

22,558 

21,965 

31,601 

20,293 

25,281 

9,070 

1,342 

5,525 

1,336. 

2,239 

1,133 
3,660 



838,172 



28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



m 



TOTAL NUMBlEB Ot IHMI<}BAKTS IK SPECIFIED YSAB3, 1892 TO 
1911^: Bt Sex and Age; also Immigrants Debari^ed and Returned Within 
One Year after Arrival, and Illiterates over 14 and 16 Years of Age. 

(Sources: Records of Bureau of Statistics prior to 1996; for subsequent years, reports of the Commissioner 

General of Immigration, Department of Commerce and Labor.] 



Year 


Total 
immi- 
grants. 


Bex. 


Ages. 


De- 
barred 
from 
land- 
ing. 


Re- 

turned 
within 
1 year 
after 
land- 
ing. 


Re- 

turned 
within 
3 yeazs 

aftAT 

land 

ing. 


Able to 

read, 

but not 

write. » 


Un- 


ended 
June 
30- 


Male. 


Fe. 

male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 to 45 
years. 


45 years 
and 
over. 


able to 
read or 
write. » 


1892t.. 


623,084 
502,917 
314,467 
279,948 
343,267 
230,832 
229,299 
311,715 
448,572 
487,918 
648,743 
857,046 
812,870 
1,026,499 
1,100,735 
1,285,349 
782,870 
761,786 
1,041,570 
878,687 
838,172 


385,781 
315,845 
186,247 
150.924 
212,466 
185.107 
135,775 
195,277 
^4,148 
381,065 
466,360 
613,146 
549,100 
724,914 
764,463 
929,070 
^,912 
519,069 
786,038 
670,057 
529,931 


237,303 
187,072 
128,220 
120,024 
130,801 
95,725 
93,524 
116,438 
144,424 
156,863 
182,374 
243,900 
263,770 
301,585 
336,272 
3.S5,373 
275,958 
231,817 
305,532 
306,580 
308,241 


* 89, 167 

« 57, 392 

Ml, 756 

« 33; 289 

« 52, 741 

138,627 

238,267 

43,983 

.54,624 

62,662 

74,063 

102,431 

109,150 

114,668 

136,273 

138,344 

112,148 

88,393 

12ff,509 

117,837 

113,700 


« 491, 839 

« 419, 701 

> 258, 162 

9233,543 

s 254, 519 

• 165,181 

'164,905 

248,187 

370,382 

396,516 

539,254 

714, aw 

657,155 
855,419 
913,955 
1,100,771 
630,671 
624,876 
868,310 
714,709 
678,480 


M2,078 

<25,824 

« 14, 560 

< 13, 116 

436,007 

« 27, 024 

« 26, 127 

19,545 

23,566 

28,840 

35,426 

40,562 

46,565 

56,412 

50,607 

46,234 

40,051 

38,517 

62,751 

46,041 

45,992 


2,164 

1,053 

2,389 

2,394 

2,799 

1,617 

3,030 

3,798 

4,246 

. 3,516 

4,974 

8J69 

7,994 

11,879 

12,371 

.13,064 

K),902 

10,411 

24,270 

22,349 

16,057 


637 

677 

417 

189 

238 

263 

199 

263 

356 

863 

465 

547 

300 

-98 

61 

70 

lU 

5£ 

23 

9 

IC 








1803...' 
1894... 
1895... 
1896... 
1897... 
1898... 
1899... 
1900... 
1901... 
1902... 
1903... 
1904... 
1905... ^ 
1906..; 
1907... 
1906... 
1909.., 
1910... 

idir... 

1912... 


479 

747 

615 

925 

1,955 

2,066 

2,672 

2,779 

2,440 


69,582 
16,784 
2,612 
5,066 
1,672 
1,416 
1,022 
2,097 
8,058 
2,917 
8,341 
3,953 
8,209 
4,755 
5,829 
2,310 
2,431 
4,571 
2,930 
3,024 


61,038 
41^614 
42,302 
78,130 
43,006 
43,0S7 
60,446 
93,576 
117,587 

m,i8$ 

185,667 
168,903 
230,882 
266,068 
337,573 
172,293 
191,049 
253,509 
182,273 
177,284 



1 For the years prior to 
of age. and over. 
J Under 15 years. 



1895 the figures are for persons over 16 
s 15 to 40 years. 



years; for 1895 to 1910 for persons 14 years 
< 40 years and over. 



SUMMARY OF BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 



A summary of the number of persons killed 
or injured, per explosions, for successive ten- 
year periods, shows that the boiler explosions 
of this country have been becoming less and 
less serious. In 1871 there were. 89 ex- 
plosions recorded, resulting in the death of 
383 persons and injuries to 225, or 4.3 persons 
kill^ and 2.53 injured per explosion. In 1881 
with 159 explosions, there were 251 persons 
killed and 313 injured, or 1.57 killed and 1.96 
injured per explosion. In 1891, 257 ex- 
plosions resulted in the death of 263 persons 
and injuries to 371, or 1.02 killed and 1.44 
injured per explosion. In 1901, 423 ex- 
plosions resulted in 312 deaths and injuries 



to 646, or 0.73 persons killed and 1.52 injured 
per explosion. In 1911, there were 499 ex- 
plosions resulting in the death of 222 persons 
and injuries to 416, or 0.47 persons killed 
and 0.83 injured per explosion. This decrease 
is most probably due to the improvement that 
has taken place in the design, construction, 
and operation of steam boilers, and not to the 
increased use of sectional boilers, for ex- 
perience has indicated that the bursting or 
rupture of such boilers is frequently at- 
tended with serious consequences in the way 
of killing or injuring the attendants. 

Courtesy of " TAe Locomotive," Jan. 1909. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





AdmltMd. 


Dtpartti. 




RB«ot people 


Imml- 

as 


§£ 


ToliL 


Eml- 


Noneml- 


TotaL 


(+)« 
(-)" 


Alricufbl 


10, «7 

a.tn 
«,es» 

85,163 

li 

I'lM 

a; MO 


3,008 
US 

a; 078 
2M 

Jfl,3l» 

<m 
i',m 
ii},iDa 

4;7H 

ESO 


1Z,BM 

'11 

41, MO 


'■??l 
1,1W 
7,3« 

ii 

11 

4,09« 
13,000 
M>1 

''m 

4,1U 

"■g 

S7,7oJ 

i 
1 

wo 


ii,m 

!!:S 

4,301 


2,1*9 

if 

'V; 188 

49. 7« 

J:i 

10,607 

ii 

1 


+ 0.180 
+ ((.SSS 






flilgHlm, ee;itan.»Dii'ldon- 






t 1^ 


D^Uw, BoSDiui. and 


















11 






















+ 8,887 
















+ J.lll 






+ 10,744 

+ 18,172 

IS 


'sra.as'!"':. 










♦ '-a 








^si^'^^'^T.^"^".]-. 




















m.m 


IT!, 983 


1,0I7,1M 


333,2ta 


282,030 


015,292 








'KKmisjSffir. 


2, we 


6,SK 


9, us 


m 


8,770 


9,au 


- ., 



■Depaned via CuixlUn bMdv. Beporud b; CHmdlan ODTemment u Canadluic. 



ABBtVALs OF Passenqers at the 
Ports of the United States. 

Tbe to(^ number of passeagen that arrived 
St the various ports of Hie United Sutes 
durins the year 1900 waa fiU4,4TS, of which 
number 120.477 were United States oitiieaH 
retuining from foreign countries; 25,420 
wore non-immigrant aheps; and 448,573 
were immigranls. In 1605 the tataX number 
if pasiMngere arriving at the porta of the 



:> the Stales; 40.889 were no 

iliens; and 1,020.439 immicTsnt 

;ar ISII the total uumEer 

irrivina at Ihe porta of the UniU 

1.295,428. of which numb 

were Uuited States citizens retumii 

151,713 wore non-immigrant alien 

5,687 were immigraatB, ^n 1812, tl 

""" "'••''- ^*^i^1i™wa™l"^,956. 
: United Stat 



e United S 



; 178,8f 



idS3S,172wi 



80 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Sex, Aoe, Literacy, Financial Condition, etc., op Immiorant 



Baoe or people. 



A'rican(black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Mora- 
vian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, 'Servian 
and Monten^in 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slove- 



nian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian 
I and 'Herz^ovinian . . 
Dutch and Flemish. . . . 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (North) 

Italian (South) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican. .4 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwe- 

* gian Danes and 

Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish- American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except 

Cuban) 

Other peoples 



Num- 
ber 
ad- 
mitted 



Total. 



Admitted in PhUip- 
pine Islands 



6,759 
6,222 

10,657 
1,608 

24.366 
3,155 

3,672 

1Q,935 

165 

49,689 

6.641 
18.382 
«5.343 
31.566 
80,595 
33,922 
26,443 
I35,g30 

6,172 
33 
14,078 
23,590 
22,001 
3 
85,163 

9,403 

8,329 
22,558 
21,965 



31.601 
20,293 
25,281 
9,070 
1,342 
5,525 
1,336 
2,239 

1,132 
3,660 



838,172 



2,536 



Sex. 



Male. 



3,828 
4,476 

4,565 

9,626 
1,367 

17,383 
2,098 

3,152 

6,806 

153 

27,133 

3,354 
10,327 
36,479 
28,521 
42,751 
17,012 
18,607 
94,460 

1,930 
» 14 

8,098 

13,792 

15,367 

nr 2 

50.028 

5,938 

6,752 
19,464 
13, 121 



19,078 

10,637 

15,639 

6,900 

930 

3,646 

1,266 

1,419 

690 
3,335 



529,931 



2,098 



Fe.. 
mate. 



2,931 
746 

3,874 

1,031 
241 

6,983 
1,057 

A20 

4,127 

' 12 

22,556 
3,287 
8,055 

28,864 
3,045 

37,844 

16,910 
7,936 

41,370 
4,242 
19 
5,980 
9,807 
6,634 
1 

35,135 
3,465 
1,577 
3,094 
8,844 



12,528 

9,656 

9,642 

2,170 

412 

1.879 

80 

820 

542 
325 



308,241 



438 



Age. 



Under 

14 
years. 



614 
290 

1,610 

453 
207 

2,063 
455 

130 

2,352 

2 

8,395 

713 

3,320 

11,484 

1,144 

20,091 

2,357 

3,033 

20,081 

328 

2 

1,186 

3,740 

4,188 



8,477 
1,863 
484 
1,043 
1,265 



2,867 

3,593 

2,997 

1,294 

193 

761 

26 

344 

115 
151 



113, 700 



547 



14 to 44 

years. 



5, o4n 
4,779 

6,339 

9,945 
1,327 

21.660 
2,389 

3,466 

7,758 

157 

35,774 

5,769 

13,019 

49,340 

29,976 

64,927 

29,671 

22,334 

107, 216 

5,546 

30 

12,635 

18,697 

15,910 

3 

74,911 

6,939 

7,304 

21,114 

20,314 



27,270 
14,593 
21,519 
7,196 
1,029 
4,475 
1,283 
1,697 

902 
3,423 



678,480 



1,912 



45 

years 

and 

over. 



301 
153 

490 

259 
74 

643 
311 

76 

825 

6 

5,520 

159 
2,043 
4,519 

446 
5,577 
1,894 
1,076 
8,633 

298 
1 

267 
1,162 
1,903 



1,775 
601 
541 
401 
396 



1,464 
2, 107 
765 
580 
120 
289 
28 
198 

115 
86 



45,992 



77 



Literacy, 14 years and over 



Can read 

but can 

not write. 



Male. 



19 
7 

4 

15 



5 
2 



13 

2 
18 
44 

4 

223 

11 

6 
24 

4 



193 



27 



003 
8 
5 

45 
36 



5 
3 
19 
13 
1 
5 



1,376 



Fe- 
male. 



22 



17 

4 

16 

68 

4 

70 

13 

3 

8 

6 



326 

7 

28 



953 
2 



6 
34 



13 
5 

18 
3 



6 



1,648 



Can neither 
read nor write. 



Ifale. 



894 
1.000 

16 

2.995 
8 

4,545 
25 

1,247 

86 

9 

116 

28 

776 

1,272 

5,465 

5,637 

219 

884 

36,481 

232 

3 

3,104 

1,253 

7.035 



14,563 
2,661 
2,302 
6,894 
6,'218 



32 
44 

2,667 

1,052 

14 

1,161 

642 

2 

19 
1.498 



111,998 



151 



Fe- 
male. 



291 
182 

fl9 

341 
163 

1,501 
29 

170 
70 



124 

32 

308 

1,464 

1,405 

9.498 

171 

461 

18.165 

1,503 

7 

3.359 

903 

2.711 



11.444 

1,563 

561 

1,537 

3,816 



17 
34 

1,540 

596 

12 

1,024 
30 
10 

5 
100 



65.286 



83 



Illiteracy in the United States. 

The statement shows that in 1910 there 
were 71,580,270 persons 10 years of age or 
over in the United States, of whom 5,516,163 
were unable to read or write, constituting 7.7 
per cent, of the population. 

The native whites, who constituted nearly 



75.0 per cent, of the entire population, had 
the smallest number of illiterates. 1,534.272, 
or 3.0 per cent. 

The foreign bom whites had 1,660,361 illite- 
rates, or 12.7 per cent.. of their number. 

The colored had 2.331,530 illiterates, or 30.5 
per cent. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Aliens Adhitted, Fiscal Ybar Ensbd Tune 30, 1912, bt Racis oa Fcofles. 



Money. 




™sp.Ld. 


tlDlDgto]oin 


- 


Aliens brinjinj- 








other 
Uian 












Shown. 


m. 


■""""■ 


Relative. 


Friend. 


SIS^ 


150 or 


Laslhin 


aotMuid. 




(SO, 
















B78 


4,572 


177,831 


<,9S4 


J,S24 


2S1 


1,32S 


8M 


1,SS8 






1»,981 


4,470 


'731 










1,284 


4,497 


370, 2!3 


4,888 


3,5M 


60 


«,m 


1,290 


218 




B,OSS 


298,092 


9,43s 


l,Wl 




4,91S 


»,343 


398 




997 


73,603 


448 


1,051 






S61 


280 


1,33( 


18,B!8 


is!;72e 


IB, 347 


4,988 


^ 


'I:S 


••s 


,,sa 


396 


2,878 


rno.MS 


3,231 






2,498 




IM 


2,085 


3,815 


57-,43S 


5.9W 


4,784 




7,220 


2:784 


931 




21 


25, JM 


132 


26 




50 


45 


70 


ia,s»i 


H,5!6 


4,Ulii,i>M 


2S.822 


18,602 


1,365 


30,501 


9,159 


10, MB 




fsa? 


^171,830 


3, Oil 


2,381 


309 








si das 


5. 911 


!.1,-,S„«3 


10, 8M 








2; 338 


4,077 


17,125 


2«,001 


;i. 645,1)30 


37,871 


^2W 






12,143 


6,294 


2,737 


2S.I89 


i.M,M» 


28, sn 


2,971 




23,052 


7,795 


710 




33.3ii 


L»'J.»8 


26,772 


M,639 


284 


76,083 






6:234 


21, MO 




20,731 


12,784 




28,248 




2;b*4 




Hi,7M 




18,427 


6,533 








1,249 


'11 


81,903 
2,441 


^^■Jloioi 


K,580 


*6m 


*87 


1^412 
6,2« 


*'^ 


'■a 














23 




1 


690 








6,784 




13,230 


779 


89 


!,0S2 








8,708 




19,092 


3,696 


911 


1,160 
3,205 


11; 494 


lis 


13; «« 

65,733 




Ml 


8,686 


8,730 


.2,302 




■■■■»;i^* 


i.m 


454 


a: 641 


aHi722 




i'mI 


'■^ 


S'261 


S 


496 














B;064 


8,621 


S73 


'43! 


ie;424 


607, «3 


17,603 


4:299 


« 


17,947 


3,288 


730 


6,912 


20 26* 


1,495,773 


23,300 


8,641 


870 


20,617 


8,018 


2,068 


i.m 


7!4S5 


^'577; 071 


iMra 


b'.IM 


270 


If; 


ai^ 


2,758 




3i3«7 






1,38 


=.^ 




''1 


8,985 










1,90 
















94 






308 








14S;421 








I,M9 


614 


288 










m 




694 










112;058 




330 


73 


2,208 


■1,245 


207 




504, BM 


30,353,721 




289,857 


11,713 


6S7,607 


117, 8»U 


62,806 




















1,^5 


la 


l«.m 


1,C0 


1,07* 


38 


1.130 


199 


1.207 



FATAUTIE3 OF SPORT. 
DuriDE the vear 1912. 433 persona were killed in the 
over 2.000 loiured. The killed and injured in 9ome of the ep 
In- 
Killed, iured. 



riouB braneheB of sport and 
Killed, jured. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPERBNCE BOOK. 



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If the real oapaciiy of power propelled machiaerj 



THE ELEVATED SIDEWALK: HOW IT WILL SOLVE CITY 
TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 33 



INTENDED FUTURE PERMANENT RESIDENCE OF ALIENS ADMITTED 
AND LAST PERMANENT RESIDENCE OF ALIENS DEPARTED, 
FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1912. 



State or Territoiy, 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arfsona 

ArVansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dctoware 

District oi Columbia. 

Florida 

G«orgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 



Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts... 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana.^.;..... 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hamp^ire. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina. . 
North Dakota.. « 
Ohio 



Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . . . . . 

Philippine Islands. 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington... 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Outside United States. 
Unknown * 



Total. 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
ia«nt 
aliens. 



988 

276 

2,902 

313 

28,905 

4,215 

23,227 

1,061 

1,685 

5,356 

.826 

6,654 

1,480 

67,118 

7,753 

7,147 

2,901 

727 

1,811 

5,691 

5,413 

70,171 

83,559 

12, 149 

329 

8,980 

3,565 

4,490 

1,026 

6,120 

47,211 

757 

239,275 

421 

3,947 

38.148 

681 

4.136 

109.625 

13 

1.406 

9, 795 

275 

1,792 

797 

22,885 

2,631 

2,847 

1,510 

11,882 

6,212 

14,016 

1,051 



838,172 



Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 



107 

68 

1,058 

41 

4,601 

410 

2,049 

110 

317 

2,806 

116 

951 

127 

5,919 

657 

589 

220 

94 

371 

235 

424 

8,142 

8,210 

1,298 

52 

872 

343 

353 

94 

258 

5,009 

141 

27,437 

53 

262 

3,065 

72 

463 

10,216 

14 

650 

1,128 

33 

194 

111 

2,114 

221 

259 

166 

1,261 

507 

1,050 

140 

88,525 



Departed. 



178,983 



Emigrant 
aliens. 



280 

95 

272 

114 

7,578 

1,725 

7.437 

317 

369 

3,043 

15g 

907 

356 

28,355 

4.718 

1,302 

767 

210 

538 

777 

1,422 

15,406 

8,161 

4,987 

100 

4,030 

963 

928 

248 

1,451 

17,278 

211 

84,533 

45 

385 

18,473 

261 

1,873 

60,528 

5 

423 

2,779 

54 

252 

121 

644 

1.095 

714 

426 

3.580 

4,263 

4,726 

494 



33,060 
333,262 



Nonemi- 
grant 
tuiens. 



188 

97 

240 

70 

6,900 

1,064 

8,160 

79 

308 

2,798 

102 

2,024 

364 

11,796 

1,194 

1,051 

412 

138 

269 

488 

538 

10,671 

4,465 

2,946 

85 

2,097 

897 

708 

214 

543 

6,106 

294 

36,763 

64 

528 

8,125 

122 

1,286 

17,180 

3 

207 

1,582 

39 

243 

115 

415 

731 

361 

222 

2,756 

1,641 

1,632 

332 

145,377 



282.030 



34 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



OCCUPATION OF ALIENS. 



OecapatiOQ. 



Admitted. 



Immi. 
srant 
tuiens. 



PROFESSIONAL. 

Actors 

Architects 

Clergy 

Editors 

Electricians . , 

Engineers (professional) 

Lawyers 

Literary and sdentiflc persons 

M usicians 

Officials (Ch>vemment) 

Physicians 

Sculptors and artists 

Teachers 

Other professional 

Total professional 

SKILLED. 

Bakers 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Brewers. 

Batchers 

Cabinetmak^s 

Carpenters and Joiners 

Cigarette makers 

Cigar makeis 

Cigar pack^s 

Clerks and accountants 

Dressmakers 

Engineers (locomotive, marine, and stationary) 

Furriers and fiir workers 

Gardeners 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and s teel workers 

Jewelers 

Locksmiths 

Machinists 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other than iron, steel, and tin).. 

Millers 

Millinon 

Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saddlers and harness makers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters 

Tailors 

Taimers and curriers 

Textile workers (not specified) 

Tinners 

Tobacco workers 

Upholsterers 

Watch and clock makers 

Weavers and spinners 

Wheelwrights 

Woodworkers (not specified) 

Other skilled 

Total skiUed 



Nonbn' 

migrant 

aliens. 



873 
288 

1,063 
136 
741 

1,563 
203 
425 

1,286 
382 
459 
587 

2,035 

1,554 



11,685 



3,678 

3,100 

3,954 

396 

165 

3,143 

345 

11,034 

82 

720 

112 

12,701 

5,244 

1,331 

565 

1,391 

533 

1,366 

300 

1,883 

2,098 

4,124 

4,555 

1,342 

669 

588 

1,006 

5,889 

2,816 

71 

351 

319 

584 

953 

416 

7,636 

8,671 

1,169 

972 

18,836 

385 

1,051 

737 

66 

231 

672 

2,909 

262 

324 

6,371 



127,016 



970 
256 

1,028 
185 
306 

2,118 
696 
457 
703 
780 
789 
304 

1,211 
896 



Departed. 



10,599 



761 

654 

645 

42 

91 
673 

95 
2,657 

23 
1,109 

94 

6,381 

743 

1,063 

69 
622 

79 
417 
122 
162 
901 
2,251 
1,340 
493 
126 

79 

153 

1,468 

651 

43 
113 
234 
259 
244 

41 
387 
850 
431 
262 
1,486 

39 
239 
104 

77 

49 

70 
613 

32 

63 
2,081 



30,271 



Emi- 
crant 
uiens. 



Non-* 

emigrant 

aliens. 



325 
86 

44 

124 
443 
41 
80 
281 
134 
131 
167 
617 
334 



3,056 



650 

676 

492 

19 

41 

464 

175 

2,081 

9 

1,157 

19 

1,850 

616 

272 

126 

256 

63 

497 

82 

47 

883 

625 

731 

4,139 

85 

38 

111 

10,911 

438 

25 

65 

135 

90 

102 

28 

257 

1,123 

729 

298 

2,650 

57 

756 

102 

14 

31 

49 

482 

17 

44 

1,391 



35,898 



1,2m 

404 
1,334 



367 

2,645 

840 

440 

050 

1,015 

1,126 

644 

1,671 

1,365 



14,178 



814 

666 

704 

65 

114 

665 

282 

3,888 

10 

2,040 

30 

6,384 

903 

1,048 

106 

776 

83 

743 

179 

73 

1,816 

1,774 

1,582 

681 

181 

69 

164 

7,295 

883 

65 

119 

268 

362 

305 

46 

336 

1,007 

553 

466 

1,797 

61 

851 

135 

69 

89 

94 

775 

42 

110 

2,549 



44,117 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



35 



OCCUPATION OF ALIENS— Continued. 



OocupstioiL 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Agents 

Bankers < 

Draymoi, hackmen, and teamsters 

Farm laborers 

Farmers 

Fishehnen 

Hotel keepers 

Laborers 

Manufacturers 

Hercbants and dealers 

Servants *>. 

Othw miscellaneous 

Total miscellaneous 

No occupation (including women and children) 

Grand total 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 



1.061 

257 

S22 

184,154 

7,664 

755 

277 

135,726 

416 

10,240 

116,529 

10,480 



468.401 



231,070 



838, 172 



Nonim- 

mi^;rant 

aliens. 



1,497 

759 

276 

27,091 

3,985 

286 

340 

21,673 

697 

10,958 

16,737 

6,351 



90,650 



47,463 



178,983- 



Departed. 



Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 



194 

99 

223 

3,978 

7,807 

302 

148 

200,279 

98 

5,654 
13,449 

3,696 



244,827 



49,481 



333,262 



Non« 

emigrant 

aliens. 



1,865 

1,366 

442 

16,743 

7,040 

384 

479 

80,616 

1,175 

15,081 

21,239 

9,063 



156,313 



67,422 



282,080 




SWEDES 6 
DUTCH 5'5 
FIXMINOS 
DANES 2.8 
NORWEOIANS 8. 



POLES V^ 

LITHUAN. 
MAeVARS 9 ^«, 
O'lZ 



GIPSIES 0'3 
IRANIANS 0-4 
BASQUES 0-6 
ALBANIANS I'S 
ARMENIANS \% 
CAUCASIANS 3 
RMAETOROMANS 
AND FURLANS 0*5 
WALLOONS V^ 



^^'^^'^IC Rm 119 W\^^' 

THE RACES OF MANKIND. 



36 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RELIGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



DENOMINATION S. 



Summary for 1912. 



Adventists (6 bodies) 

Baptists (15 bodies) 

Brethren (Dunkards, 4 bodies) 

Brethren (Plymouth, 4 bodies) 

Brethren (River, 3 bodies) 

Buddhists (2 bodies) 

Catholic Apostolic (2 bodies) 

Oatholic (Eastern Orthodox, 7 bodies) 

Oatholic (Western, 3 bodies) 

Christadelphians 

Ohristians 

Ohnstian Catholic (Dowie) 

Christian Scientists 

Christian Union 

Church of God (Winebrennarian) 

Church of the Living God (Colored. 3 bodies) 

Church of the NtlKr Jerusalem (2 bodies) 

Communistic Societies (2 bodies) 

Congregationalists 

Dis^les of Christ (2 bodies) 

BvangeUcal (2 bodies) 

Faith Associations (9 bodies) 

Free Christian Zion Church 

Friends (4 bodies) 

Friends of the Temple 

German Evangelical Protestant 

German Evangelical Synod 

Jewish Congregations 

Latter-Day Saints (2 bodies) 

Lutherans (23 bodies) 

Scandinavian Evangelical (3 bodies) 

Mennonites (12 bodies) 

Methodists (16 bodies) 

Moravians (2 bodies) 

Non-Sectarian Bible Faith Churches 

Pentecostal (2 bodies) 

Presbyterians (12 bodies) 

Protestant Episcopal (2 bodies) 

Reformed (4 bodies) 

Salvationists (2 bodies) 

Schwenkfelders 

Social Brethren 

Society for Ethical Culture 

Spiritualists 

Theosophical Society 

Unitarians 

United Brethren (2 bodies) 

Universalists 

Independent Congr^ations 



Ministers. 



Grand Total for 1912 , 
Grand Total for 191 1 . 



1,172 

41.419 

3,484 



224 

15 

33 

. 263 

17,645 



1,129 
35 

2.460 
295 
509 
101 
128 



6.125 

8,054 

1.523 

241 

20 

1.476 

3 

59 

1,038 

1,084 

3.360 

9,038 

611 

1.087 

42.849 

149 

50 

732 

13.576 

5,516 

2,113 

2.994 

6 

15 

7 



527 

2.262 

702 

267 



174.396 
171,905 



Churches. 



2,522 

56,918 

1,239 

403 

105 

74 

24 

274 

14,132 

70 

1,182 

17 

1,230 

237 

595 

68 

143 

22 

6.070 

12.467 

2.627 

146 

15 

1.167 

3 

66 

1,326 

1,769 

1,420 

14,566 

848 

635 

61,027 

143 

204 

510 

16,776 

7,804 

2.653 

872 

8 

17 

6 

2.000 

134 

476 

4,216 

709 

879 



220,814 
220,160 



Conununicants. 

95,608 

5, 894.232 

119,644 

10,566 

4,903 

3,165 

4,927 

434,000 

12,907.189 

1,412 

102,902 

5,865 

85.096 

13.905 

41.475 

4.286 

9.554 

2.272 

742.350 

1.497.545 

184.866 

9.572 

1.835 

124,216 

376 

34.704 

258.911 

143,000 

352,500 

2,353,702 

70,500 

57,219 

6,905,095 

19,970 

6,396 

22,416 

1,981,949 

980,851 

459,106 

27,345 

941 

1,262 

2,450 

200,000 

3.368 

70.542 

320,960 

51,716 

48,673 



36,675,357 
36,095,685 



tf Decrease. 



e CensuB of 1806. 



The Religions of Mankind 

according to the numbers of their adherents. 



The Religions of Europe 

according to the numbers of their adherents. 



3, 



f^A 



stants 

210 milj' 

dox\ = l2-7 
6i 

ttholii 
Rom«n\416 
Catholics ^v7p 
284nnfll, = 17-2p.fc 
of th« worid's population 



Mohamr 
230i 

:s:14p.6| 



r 



Hindus, 
-220i 
I 13'3p/ 



thtf«of Armenians. Melchites, 
Co9to and otttara 7.000,000 



Total 
1,650 miliioni 



Buddhists (F^^ 

Follower* of 
Shintoism, Confucianism ' 
and Taoism 483 millions 

= 29-3 p^ 

^tliana and\ 
"of no racognlsad fal th | 
98mHl. = D'ep.c. 



Roman 

Catholics 
Incl. Greek Catholics 
Armenians, 
Mechltarists and others 
204 millions 
= 45 p.c of the population 
of Europe 



Orthodox ^^ *'^* 
Greel< Catholic 
(Orientals) 

115 mill. / j^/ 
= 25-3 p.<y "' 

of the/ ^^ Calvlnists. 
population' /^ Unitarians etd 
[Of Europfc -/ 74 millions 



X 



^y Luth«rfan^ 



%. 



Total 



453 millions Vii 



thereof Greek Catholics, Armontans 
and others 6 millions 



v>*S^ 



Heathens, of no recognisad faith 
and others 2 mW.sO'S p.c. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



37 



ORDER OF DENOMINATIONS. 



Denominations. 


Rankin 
1912. 


Communicants. 


Rankin 
1890. 


Conununicants. 


Roman Catholic 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 


12.888,466 

3,293,526 

2,475,609 

1,919,873 

1,912,219 

1,368,150 

1,340,887 

1,175,923 

970,451 

807,693 

742,350 

620,234 

547,216 

473,295 

. 316,949 

301,448 

300,147 

296,000 

292.845 

258.911 

234,721 

200,000 

183,318 

175,000 

169.710 

139,617 

132,316 

118,564 

100.568 


1 

2 

4 

5 

3 

7 

8 

6 

9 

12 

10 

11 

13 

14 

20 

16 

15 

21 

18 

17 

24 

39 

22 

138 

26 

27 

33 

28 

31 


6.231.417 

2.240.354 

1.280,066 

1,209,976 

1.348.989 

788.244 

641.051 

800 450 


MethodiRt Episcopal 

R^ular Baptist (South) 


Methodist Episcopal (South) 

Re^ar Baptist (Colored) 

Presbyterian (Northern) 


Disciples of Christ 


Reffular Baptist (North) 


Protestant Episcopal 


532,054 
357.153 
612 771 


Lutheran Synodical Conference. . . 
ComnreKationalist 


African Methodist Episcopal . . . : . 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion. 

Lutheran General Council 

Lutheran General Synod 


452.725 
349,788 
324.846 
164.640 
202 474 


United Brethren 


Reformed (German) 


204,018 
144,352 
179,721 


Latter- Day Saints 


Presbyterian (Southern) 


German Evangelical Synod 

Colored Methodist Episcopal 

'SDirituali»?t8 


187.432 

129.383 

45.030 


Methodist ProteRtfttit , . . , 


141.989 


Greek Orthodox (Catholic) 

United Norwegian Lutheran 

United Presbyterian 


100 

119,972 

94.402 


Lutheran Synod of Ohio 


69.505 


Reformed (Dutch) 


92.970 


Orthodox Friends 


80.655 







ORDER OF DENOMINATIONAL FAMILIES. 



Denominational Families. 



Catholic (Roman, etc.) 

Methodist 

Baptist 

Lutheran 

Presbyterian 

Episcopal 

Reformed 

Latter-Day Sidnts 

United Brethren 

Friends 

Brethren (Dimkard) . . 
Adventists 



Rankin 
1912. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Communicants. 



12,907,189 

6,905,095 

5,894,232 

2,353,702 

1,981,949 

980.851 

459,106 

362,500 

320,960 

124,216 

119,644 

96,808 



Rankin 
1890. 



1 

2 

3 

5 

4 

6 

7 

9 

8 

11 

13 

14 



Communicants. 



6,257,871 

4.589.284 

3.717.969 

1.231.072 

1,278,362 

540.509 

309,458 

166.125 

225.281 

107.208 

73.795 

60.491 



— Courtesy of the Christian Advocate. 



FOURTH OF JULY FATALITIES. 




1903 100* 1905 1906 JM7 iSi 190 Bu 9ti i»lt Vw. 



Fourth of July fatalities in 1913 were 
reduced to 32 as a result of the movement 
to do away with the old custom of causing 
dangerous explosions for fun. In 1912 
there had been 43 deaths. The number of 
persons injured in 1913 was 1.131 as against 
988 in 1912 and 1.546 in 1911. The loss 
sustained by Fourth of July fires caused 
by gunpowder throughout the country 
excMded half a million doUais. 



38 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PENSION ACT APPROVED MAY 11, 1912. 



That any person who served ninety days or 
more in the military or naval service of the 
United States during the late Civil War, who 
has been honorably discharged therefrom, 
and who has reached the age of sixty-two or 
over, shall, upon making proof of such facts, 
according to such rules ^nd regulations as the 
Secretary of the Interior may provide, be 
placed upon the pension roll and be entitled 
to receive a pension as follows: In case such 
person has reached the age of sixty-two years 
and served ninety days, thirteen dollars per 
montii; six months, thirteen dollars and 
fifty cents per month; one year, fourteen 
dollars per month; one and a half years, 
fourteen dollars and fifty cents per month: 
two years, fifteen doUars per month; two ana 
a hau years, fifteen dollars and fifty cents per 
month; three years or over, sixteen dollars 
per month. In case such person has reached 
the age of sixty-six years and served ninety 
days, fifteen dollars per month; six months, 
fifteen dollars and fifty cents per month; one 
year, sixteen doUars per month; one and a 
half years, sixteen dollars and fifty cents per 
monui; two years, seventeen dollars per 
month; two and a half years, eighteen dollars 
per month; three years or over, nineteen 
dollars per month. In case such person has 
reached the a^e of seventy years and served 
ninety days, eighteen dollars per month; six 
months, nmeteen dollars per month ; one year, 
twenty dollars per month; one and a half 
years, twenty-one dollars and fifty cents per 
month; two years, twenty-three dollars per 
month; two and a half years, twenty-four 
dollars per month; three years or over, 
twenty-five dollars per month. In case such 
person has reached the age of seventy-five 
years and served ninety days, twenty-one 
doUars per month; six months, twenty- two 
dollars and fifty cents per month; one year, 
twenty-four dollars per month; one and a half 
years, twenty-seven dollars per month; two 
years or over, thirty dollars per month. That 
any person who served in the military or 
naval service of the United States during the 
Civil War and received an honorable discharge 
and who was woimded in battle or in line of 
duty and is now unfit for manual labor by 
reason thereof, or who from disease or other 
causes incurred in line of duty resulting in" 
his disability is now unable to perform manual 
labor, shall be paid the maximum pension 
under this Act, to wit, thirty doUars per 
month, without regard to length of service or 
age. 

That any person who has served sixty days 
or more in tne mihtary or naval service of the 
United States in the War with Mexico and has 
been honorably discharged therefrom, shall, 
upon making like prooi of such service, be 
entitled to receive a pension of thirty dollars 
per montii. 



AU of the aforesaid pensions shall com- 
mence from the date of filing of the appUca- 
tions in the Bureau of Pensions after the 
passage and approval of this Act: Provided, 
That pensioners who are sixty-two years of 
age or over, and who are now receiving 
pensions under existing laws, or whose claims 
are pending in the Bureau of Pensions, may, 
by appUcation to the Commissioner of 
Pensions, in such form as he may prescribe, 
receive the benefits of this Act; and nothing 
herein contained shaU prevent any pensioner 
or person entitled to a pension from prosecut- 
ing his claim and receiving a pension under 
any other general or special Act: Provid&i, 
That no person shaU receive a pension under 
any other law at the same time or for the 
same period that he is receiving a pension 
under the provisions of this Act: Provided 
further. That no person who is now receiving 
or shaU hereafter receive a greater pension, 
under any other general or special law, than 
he would, be entitled to receive under the 
provisions herein shall be pensionable under 
this act. 

Sec. 2. That rank in the service shall not 
be considered in appHcations filed hereunder. 

Sec. 3. That no pension attorney, claim 
agent, or other person shaU be entitled to 
receive any compensation for services rendered 
in presenting any claim to the Bureau of 
Pensions, or securing any pension, under this 
Act, except in apphcations for original pension 
by persons who have not heretoiore received 
a pension. 

Sec. 4. That the benefits of this Act shall 
include any person who served during the late 
CivU War, or in the War with Mexico, and 
who is now or may hereafter become entitled 
to pension under the Acts of June twenty- 
seventh, eighteen hundred and ninety, 
February fifteenth, eighteen himdred and 
ninety-five, and the joint resolutions of July 
first, nineteen hundred and two, and June 
twenty-eighth, nineteen hundred and six, 
or the Acts of January twenty-ninth, eighteen 
hundred and eighty-seven, March third, 
eighteen hundred and ninety-one, and 
February seventeenth, eighteen hundred and 
ninety-seven. 

Sec. 5. That it shaU be the duty of the 
Commissioner of Pensions, as each appUcation 
for pension under tJiis Act is adjudicated, 
to cause to be kept a record showing the name 
and length of service of each claiinant, the 
monthly rate of payment granted to or re- 
ceived by him, and the county and state of his 
residence; and shall at the end of the fiscal 
year nineteen himdred and fourteen tabulate 
the record so obtained by States and counties, 
and shall furnish certified copies thereof U{>on 
demand and the payment of such fee therefor 
as is provided by law for certified copies of 
records in the executive departments. 



PENSIONS. 



On June 30, 1912, the pensioners on the 
roll of the United States Government were 
as follows: War of 1812, widows, 238; Indian 
wars, survivors, 1,210, widows, 2,439; War 
with Mexico, survivors, 1,313, widows, 5,533; 
Civil War, by Act of May 11, 1912, survivors, 
13.246; by Act of Feb. 6, 1907, survivors 



333,579; by the general law, invalids, 103,237 
widows 64,135, minor children 351, mothers 
1,413, fathers 202, brothers, sisters, sons and 
daughters 331, helpless children 515; by the 
Act of April 27, 1890, invalids 47,201, minor 
children 4,063, helpless children 416; by the 
Act of April 19, 1908, widows 232,947, army 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



39 



nurses 362. War with Spain, invalids 23,841, 
widows 1,238, minor children 304, mothers 
2,951, fathers 508, brothers, sisters, sons and 
daughters 6, helpless children 2. By regular 
establishment, invalids 14,373,' widows 2,869, 
minor children 171, mothers 1,129, fathers 
159, brothers, sisters, sons and daughters 4, 
helpless children 8. Thus the total number 
of pensioners on June 30, 1912 was 860,294; 
the number of soldiers and sailors on the 
pension roll at the close of the year was 
538,000, the number of dependents and widows 
was 321,932, and the number of army nurses 
was 362. 

The total amount available for pensions for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912 was 
$153,004,727.89. and of this amount $152,- 
986,433.72 was disbursed, leaving an unex- 
pended balance of $18,294.17. The amount 
expended for Navy pensions was $5,319,822.08. 

With the total number of pensioners 860,- 
294, and the total annual value of the pensions 
$151,558,141.40, the average value of each 

Eension for all classes amounts to $176.17; 
y regular establishment each pension has an 
annual average value of $174.33; by Act of 
May 11, 1913, $260.09; by Act of Feb. 6, 
1907. $176.41; by the general law. Civil War, 
$221.71; by Act of June 27, 1890, $144.79; 
by Act of April 19, 1908, $144.76; by the 
war with Spain, $128.82; for survivors of the 
Civil War, $197.09. 

Beginning with the year 1866 the number 
of pensioners for certain years was as follows: 



1866, 126,722; 
1880,250.802; 
1895,970.524; 
1910, 921,083; 



1870, 198.686; 
1885, 345.125; 
1900,993.529; 
1911, 892.098; 



1875,234,821; 
1890,537,944; 
1905,998,441; 
1912, 860,294. 



PENSIONS OF THB SEVERAL WARS AND OF THE 
F&ACE ESTABLISHMENT. 

The amounts that have been paid for 
pensions to soldiers, sailors, and marines, 
their widows, minor children, and dependent 
relatives on account of military and naval 
service in the several wars and in the regular 
service since the foundation of the Govern- 
ment to June 30, 1912, are as follows: 
War of the Revolution 

(estimate) $70,000,000.00 

War of 1812 (service pension) 45,890,843.39 
Indian wars (service 

pension) 

War with Mexico (service 

pension) 

Civil War 4,129,699,071.99 

War with Spain and insur- 
rection in Philippine Isls... 38,1 14,062.42 

Regular establishment 25,014,227.64 

Unclassified 16,488,476.49 



11,713,609.61 
46,447,872.44 



Total disbursements for 

pensions $4,383,368,163.88 

HISTORICAL 

There are now no pensioners on account of 
the Revolutionary War on the roll, the last 
pensioner of that war having died during the 
year 1906. The last survivor of the Revolu- 
tion was Daniel F. Bakeman, who died at 
Freedom, Cattaraugas County, N. Y., on 
April 5, 1869, aged 100 years 6 months and 
8 days. 

The last surviving pensioned soldier of the 
War of 1812 was Hiram Cronk, of Ava, N. Y., 
who died May 13, 1905, aged 105 years and 
16 days. 



POPULATION OF CANADA. 



The population of Canada by first census 
of 1665 was 3,251; in 1763, 70.000; in 1871, 
3,485,761; in 1881, 4,324.810; in 1891. 
4,833,239; in 1901, 5,371,315. Canada 
began the 20th century with the same popula- 
tion as the United States began the 19th- 
Revised returns of the census in 1911 give 
the population at 7,204,838, an increase of 
1,833,523, or 32 per cent, in ten years. 

The population of Canada by provinces, 
as shown by the census of 1901 and 1911, is as 
follows: 



Alberta 

British Columbia 

Manitoba 

New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 

Ontario 2 

Prince Edward Island . . . 

Quebec 2 

Saskatchewan 

Northwest Territories. . . . 
Yukon 



1911 
374,663 
392,480 
455,614 
351,889 
492,338 
,523.274 

93.728 
,002,712 
492.432 

17,196 
8,512 



1901 

73,022 

178,667 

255,211 

331,120 

459,574 

2,182,947 

103,259 

1,648,898 

91.279 

20,129 

27,129 



7,204,838 6,371,315 



RHODES SCHOLARSHIPS. 



Under the will of Mr. Ocil Rhodes a number 
of Colonial, American and German scholarships 
were established, in order to instill into the 
minds of colonists the advantage to the 
Colonies as well as to the United Kingdom of 
the retention of the unity of the Empire; 
to encourage In the students from the United 
States of Ajnerica an attachment to the 
country from which they have sprung; and 
to further a good understanding between 
England, Germany, and the United States. 

There are in all seventy-e^ht colonial 
scholarships for male studente or$l,500 each 
a year for three years at the University of 
Oxford, Hiese colonial scholarships being 
spread over most of the colonies, twenty-four 
being allotted to Canada, eighteen to Australia, 
twelve to Cape Colony, nine to Rhodesia, and 
three each to Natal, New Zealand, Newfound- 
land! Bermuda and Jamaica , 



Two Oxford scholarships are to be allotted 
to each State and Territory of the United 
States of America, tenable for three vears, 
each of $1,500; also, five German scholar- 
ships, each of $1,250, tenable at Oxford for 
three years, the holders to be nominated by 
the German Emperor. 

So that the students who shall be elected 
to the scholarships shall not be merely book- 
worms, regard is to be had, not only to liieir 
"literary and scholastic attainments," but 
also to tneir " fondness of and success in manly 
outdoor sports, qualities of manhood, truth, 
courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and 
protection of the weak, kindliness, unselfish- 
ness, and fellowship," moral force of char- 
acter and instinct ^ of leadership. "No 
student shall be qualified or disqualified for 
election to a scholarship on account of his 
race or religious opinion." 



40 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



EDUCATION. 



School Attendance in the United 

States. 

The statistics relative to school attendance 
in the United States has just become available. 
The total number of persons of school age, 
that is to say, from 6 to 20 years, inclusive, 
in continental United States in 1910 was 
27,750,599, of whom 17,300,202, or 62.3 per 
cent, attended school. 

Persons from 6 to 9 years of age numbered 
7,726,234, of whom 5,678,320, or 73.5 per cent, 
attended school, while those from 10 to 14 
years of age numbered 9,107,140, of whom 
8,028,660, or 88.2 per cent, attended school. 

Of the whole nvunber of persons from 15 to 

17 years of age, namely, 6,372,177, those at- 
tending school nimibered 2,748,387, or 61.2 
per cent., while of the 5,546,048 persons from 

18 to 20 years of age, mere were 844,836, or 
16.2 per cent, who attended school. 

For the combined group, 6 to 14 years, in- 
clusive — the most common years of school at- 
tendance — there was a totalof 16,832,374 per- 
sons reported in 1910 and of this number 
13,706,980, or 81.4 per cent., attended school. 

It will be noted that the period of maximum 
school attendance is in the ages 10 to 14 years. 
For these years a comparison can be made 
with the census of 1900. In 1900, 79.8 per 
cent, of the children attended school, as com- 
pared with 88.2 per cent, in 1910. The f9llow- 
ing summary gives the percentage of children 
10 to 14 years of age attending school in each 
of the years 1910 and 1900 by geographic 
divisions: 1910 1900 

United States 88.2 79.8 

New England 94.1 90.0 

Middle Atlantic 92.9 85.7 

East North Central 93.8 88.1 

West North Central 93.6 88.3 

1910 1900 

South Atlantic 78.7 65.6 

East South Central 79.0 65.8 

West South Central 80.5 68.3 

Mountain 90.2 85.2 

Pacific 94.1 91.8 

In the Northern and Western divisions over 
nine- tenths of the children in these ages are 
enrolled in schools. In the three Southern 
divisions, the proportion approximates eight- 
tenths. A comparison of the two yeara shows 
an advance in all sections, but it is most 
marked in the Southern states, reflecting the 
great progress of popular education in those 
states m recent years. 

The age of compulsory school attendance 
where it exists diners vmder the laws for dif- 
ferent states. . It generally begins when a child 
reaches 8 years of age and ceases when he 
reaches 14 years of age. The percentage of 
children in the ages 8 to 13 years, both inclu- 
sive, who attend school is undoubtedly higher 
than for the children 6 to 14 years, given in 
the table. The latter group comprises some 
children who have not Degun and some who 
have finished their schooling. 

Public High Schools and Private 
High Schools and Academies. 

In the school year 1912 there were 11,224 
public high schools and 2,044 private high 



schools. In the public high schools there 
were 22,923 male secondary teachers and 
28,930 female secondary teachers; 489,048 
male secondary students and 616,312 female 
secondary students. 

In the private high schools there were 5,307 
male teachers and 7,076 female teachers 
there were 66,742 male secondary studen 
and 74,725 female secondary students. 

Public and Private Normal 
Schools. 

In the school year 1912 there were 222 
public normal schools having 1,487 male 
teachers and 2,577 female teachers. There 
were 17.726 male students and 65,749 female 
students. There were 55 private normal 
schools, having 144 male teachers and 257 
female teachers, and 2,135 male students 
and 4,375 female students. 

Universities, Colleges and Tech- 
nological SCHOOM. 

In the school year there were 594 institu- 
tions of this class, having 24,476 male pro- 
fessors and instructors and 5,494 female pro- 
fessors and instructors. In the preparatory 
schools there were 40,154 male and 23,197 
female students. In the collegiate depart- 
ment there were 117,856 male and 68,779 
female students. The total receipts, exclu- 
sive of additions to endowment funds, was 
189,627,484. 

Undergraduate Students in Uni- 
versities, Colleges and Schools 
OF Technology. 

Out of 694 institutions included under the 
above head, there were 144 colleges for men, 
having 37,633 undergraduate students. There 
were 109 colleges forewomen, having 21,423 
undergraduate students. There were 341 co- 
educational institutions having 80,215 male 
and 47,353 female undergraduate students, 
making a total of 127,668. 

Professional Schools. 

In the school year 1912 the number of 
schools and students was as follows: 

182 schools of theology served 11,242 
students; 118 law schools had 20,760 students 
enrolled; 115 medical colleges had 18,451 stu- 
dents enrolled; 52 dental colleges had 7,190 
students; 76 schools of pharmacy had 6,168 
students; 21 schools of veterinary medicine 
had 2,282 students. 

Schools for the Blind, Deaf and 
Feeble-Minded. 

In the school year 1912 there were 60 
State schools for the blind in the United 
States, having 4,992 pupils. There were 64 
State schools for the deaf, having 11,244 
pupils. In addition there were 68 public day 
schools for the deaf, having 1,928 pupils and 
19 private schools, having 518 pupus. There 
were also 33 State institutions for the feeble- 
minded caring for 21,357 inmates, while 20 
private institutions cared for 749 inmates* 



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13 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RETFERENCE BOOK. 




Training Schools fob Nurses. Com- 

mekcial sch001«, manual and 

Indubtrial Trainino 

Schools. 



b tiumbar 6b,7S9 were ci 



T tbe ii 



of ii 



r 100.000 o[ pnpulati 



lation wu a M.2. 

'y of°^8rili is'tliB laraest university "in 
vorld with 17.512 studenU. after which 
»a Berlin with 14, M3; Moscow with 

10,3»g: Caira. 10,000; St. Petersbure. 9.SS0; 

Vienna, 8,457 -- ■ ■ " ■ 

T.MS: Naples. 



8,457: Mun 



7.586: 

:ic, 5,804; Madrid 



CHAPTER II. 



FARMS, FOODS AND FORESTS. 



FARMS. FARM LAND, AND FARM PROPERTY OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 



Population...-. 

Urban population '. 
Rural population '. 



Number of all firms 

Land area of the country acres. 

Land in farms acres. 

Improved land in farms .acres. 



Average acreage per farm 

Average improved acreage per farm. . 
Per cent of total land turea in farms. . 
Per cent x^ land in farms improved. . 
Per cent of total land area improved. 



Valveofbzmpioperty, total. ( 

Land 

Buildings 

Implements and machinery 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees. 



Average value of all propertyper farm 

Average value of all property per acre of land in farms, 
Average value of land per acre 



itio 

(April 15) 



91,972,266 
42,623,383 
49,348,883 

6, 861, 608 

1,903.289,600 

878,798,325 

478,451,750 

138.1 
75.2 
46.2 
54.4 
25.1 

$40,991,449,090 

28,475,674,169 
6,325,451,528 
1,265,149,783 
4,925,173,610 

$6,444 
46.64 
32.40 



1M0 

(June 1) 



75,994,575 
31,609,645 
44,384,930 

6,7S7.S78 

1,903,461,760 

838,591,774 

414,498,487 

146.2 
72.2 
44.1 
49 4 
21.8 

$90,489,901,164 

13,058.007,995 

3,556,639,496 

749,775,970 

3,075,477,703 

$3,563 
24.37 
15.57 



mCKBASE.> 



Amouot. 



15, 977, 691 

11,013,738 

4, 963, 953 

694, ISO 

-172,160 
40.206,551 
63,953,263 

-ai 

3.0 



$90,M1,M7,9S6 

15,417,666,174 

2,768,812,032 

515,373,813 

1,849,695,907 

$2,881 
22.27 
16.83 



Per omt. 



21.0 
34.8 
11.2 

10.9 



4.8 
15.4 

-5.5 
4.2 



100.6 

118.1 
77.8 
68.7 

6ai 

80.9 

91.4 

106.1 



t Porall^imoriiicomnled pUunThavine, in 1910,2,300 or more inhabitanU. The figure for IBOO does not r»pf«Milt tbe orbM populattoa aooordlns to that 
■emaaa but ia th« popuhiUon in that year of (he territory claailfiod H urban in 1910. 
• Total, exeluaiTC ol urban. 

NUMBER AND ACREAGE OF FARMS AND NUMBER OF ACRES 

IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED. 

[Source: Reports of the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce and Labor.] 





Number of 
farms. 


Number of acres in farms. 


Per cent of farm 
land— 


Census year. 


Improved. 


Unimproved^ 


Total. 


Average 

number 

of acres 

to a farm. 


Im- 
proved. 


Unim- 
proved. 


1860 


1.449,078 
2,044,077 
2,659,985 
4,008,907 
4,664,641 
6,737,872 
6,361,602 


113,082,614 
163,110,720 
188,«21,0Q9 
284,771,042 
357,616,755 
414,498,487 
478,451,760 


180,828.000 
244,101,818 
218,813,942 
251,310,793 
265,601,864 
424,093,287 
400,346,575 


293,660,614 
407,212,538 
407,736,041 
636,081,886 
628,218,619 
838,591,774 
878,798,325 


202.6 
199.2 
158.8 
133.7 
136.6 
146.2 
138.1 


38.6 
40.1 
46.3 
63.1 
57.4 
49.4 
54.4 


6L6 


1860 


59.9 


1870» 


53.7 


1880> 


46.-9 


1890» 


42.6 


1900* 


60.6 


1910» 


45.6 







1 Not including farms of less than 3 acres which reported the sale of less than 9500 worth of prod- 
ucts in the census year, 
s Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. 
* Exclusive of Alaska, Hawaii, and iPorto Rico. 

43 



|||P55|||; 



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15355 !!l| I Si 



I IP'"' IP' 



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lilfiaiFLsi 



iIj 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN BEFERENCE BOOK. 



45 



WEALTH PRODUCTION ON FARMS: 

[Sonioe: Reports of the Department of Agrlcoltore.] 



Calendar year. 



1899 
.1900 

1001 

1902 
1903. 
1904 
1905 



Wealth pro- 
duction. 



Dollars. 
4,717.000,000 
5,017,000,000 
5,817,000,000 
5,617,000,000 
5,887,000,000 
6,122,000,000 
6,274,000,000 



Calendar year. 



1906 ; 

1907............ 

1908.. 

1906 .• 

1910 *. 

1911 

1912..-. ..J 



Wealth pro- 
duction. 



DoUara. 
6,764,000,000 
7,488,000,000 
7,891,000,000 
8,498,000,000 
9,037,000,000 
8.819,000,000 
9,299,000,000 




PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF 
WHITE AND YOLK OF EGG. 




9CARB0NATE 



ACTUAL COMPOSITION OF EGG. 
WEIGHT 60 GMS. 




# 4OQ.00O 

9 SMtMOtolMlOOO 

O UMMMto«N^OWM!niL 
O 



CORN: ACREAGE BY STATES, 1909. 



46 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CEREAL CROPS: ESTIMATED PRODUCTION AND VALUE. 







Total. 




Average. 




Commodity 


Area. 


Production. 


Farm Value 
Dec. 1. 


Farm Value 

per bushel 

Dec. 1. 


Yield 

per 

acre. 


Farm Value 

of yield 

per acre. 


Com: 

1866-761.. 

1912 

Wheat: 

1866-761.. 

1912 

Oats: 

1866-761.. 

1912 

Rye: 

1866-761.. 

1912 

Barley : 

1866-761.. 

1912 

Buckwheat: 

1866-761.. 

1912 

• 


Acres. 

32.715.700 
107.083.000 

20.470.300 
45.814,000 

9.746,000 
37.917.000 

1.346.800 
2.117.000 

1.196.500 
7.630.000 

729.900 
841.000 


Bushels. 

969.947.600 
3.124.746.000 

244.672.300 
730.267.000 

272.992,800 
1,418.337.000 

18,266,600 
36,664.000 

26.992.300 
223.824.000 

13.368.800 
19.249.000 


Dollars. 

464.634.800 
1.620.454.000 

257.686.800 
666.280.000 

102,422.700 
462.469.000 

14.669.000 
23.636.000 

21.382.200 
112.957.000 

9.736.200 
12,720.000 


Cents. 

47.8 
48.7 

108.6 
76.0 

37.8 
31.9 

78.1 
66.3 

79.0 
60.6 

72.6 
66.1 


Bshls. 

26.1 
29.2 

11.9 
15.9 

28.1 
37.4 

13.6 
16.8 

22.9 
29.7 

18.3 
22.9 


Dollars. 

12.48 
14.20 

12.92 
12.12 

10.62 
11.93 

10.62 
11.16 

18.09 
15.00 

13.27 
16.12 



lAverage per year for 
Statistical Abstract of 



the period. 

the U. S. — Report of the Department of Agriculture. 




9 MO 000 to 400.000 

O MO^OOO to 400,000 

o iooioooto«n,ooo 

O Laa than 100.000 



WHEAT: ACREAGE BY STATES, 1909. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




OVER HALF THE CEREAL ACREAGE IN CORN. 



In the Uoilsd States an a 

cereals is id eom, a little less than one-fourtl) 
in wheat, and slisbtJ^ less than one-sixth in 



ihs leadine ploee in the imDortant • 
dueing regions, but in the New Ed 
MiddS Aflantio divisions the fiftt pi 



48 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



HAY CROP . ESTIMATED ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND VALUE, 1912. 

The average price of hay per short ton on 
December 1, 1912 was $11.79, and the average 
yield per acre for ihe year was^ 1 .47 short tons. 
The average f ann value of yield per acre on 
December 1, 1912 was $17.30. 



For tiie year 1912 the production of hay in 
the United States was 72,691,000 short tons, 
and the total acreage of land in hay was 
49,530,000. The total farm value of the United 
States on December 1, 1912, was $856,695,000. 




9 S(KliOMto4Ml«ie«oni. 

O an^ooo to 300,000 

O UOtOOOto«n,OOOMrM. 

O Lea than 100^000 



HAY AND FORAGE CROPS, 1909. 



INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM. 



The "initiative" is a political device by 
which the people are enabled to pass laws or 
ordinances without change or modification 
by the ordinary legislative bodies. It has 
been called the positive or constructive side 
of direct legislation, just as the referendum, 
which enables the people to reject proposed 
laws, is the negative side. By this method 
a minority ranging in number from 5 to 25 
per cent, may file a petition for a law, or, 
when a city.^an ordinance. The measure must 
then, without change^ or revision, eo before 
the people for their judgment, and, if it is 
approved by a majority of the votes cast, it 
becomes law without further process. Laws 
and ordinances so passed are not subject to 
veto. 



The "referendum" may be defined as the 
submission of a proposed law, or ordinance, 
which has been passed by the people's 
representative in a legislature or council, to 
a vote of the people for ratification or re- 
jection. It has been in use in a restricted 
form, in the United States for many years, 
especially in passing upon constitutions and 
constitutional amendments. It is only since 
1898, however, that the referendum, m con- 
nection with the initiative, has been used as 
an instrument of direct legislation both by 
states and cities. The states which have 
adopted ^e initiative and referendum are 
Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, 
Maine, Missouri, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, 
South Dakota and Utah. Nevada nas 
adopted the referendum only. 



THE RECALL. 



The "recall" is a method of procedure by 
which the people are enabled to remove from 
his position any public elective ofl&cial at will. 
This requires a petition signed by a certain 
specified percentage or number of voters. 
The usual percentage in' such cases is 25^ In 
most cities uiider ihe commission form of 
government the recall of elective public 



officers is provided for through the filing of 
petitions signed by from 15 to 75 per cent, of 
the voters. In South Dakota cities the per- 
centage is only 15, while in Illinois it is 55, 
and 33 in Louisiana. In Oregon all state 
officials, including judges and members of the 
legislature, are subject to the recall.— CAtcago 
Daily News Almanac^ 1912. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFEIRENCE BOOK. 



49 



TOBACCO CROP IN CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: 1912. 



For the vear 1912 there were 1,225,800 
acres of land planted in tobacco, and the total 
product derived therefrom amounted to 962,- 
855,000 pounds. The value of this product 
was estimated at $104,603,000. Kentucky 
ranked first in the tobacco producing states 




HOLLAMO 
7.5 



BELGIUM 
66 





UMITEO STATES 
5.8 



^ERMAMY 
3.5 






AU6T-HUH<ARY CANADA AU6TRALIA^ 
2.68. 2.72 2.58 



7 




^ 



FRAMCE ^ 
Z.2 



uniTED KinaooM 

1.98 



A YEAR S CONSUMPTION OF TOBACCO 
(in pounds per head) 



of the Union, Virginia second, then followed, 
in their respective order, North Carolina, 
Ohio, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 
Connecticut, South Carolina, Maryland, In- 
diana, West Virginia, Massachusetts, Mis- 
souri, New York, and Illinois. 




UNITED 5TATE5 
^6,-411.000 




INDIA 
5.000.000 ? 






/RUSSIA DUTCH E.mOlE) JAPAH 
KA^ 7,000 1,001,000 695,000 




>AU5T-HUMqARY QERMAftr CUBA 

801.000/^ 577,000 367.000 

A year's chop op tobacco 

(per cwt., 112 pounds) 




OATS: ACREAGE BY STATES, 1909. 



50 SCIENTTFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




CopnlsM, UuDn A 



WHAT OUR WHEAT CROP MEANS. 



SCIBNTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 
WOOL PRODUCTION: 1912. 

On April 1, 1S12 the toUl number of aheep | pouc 

DliheanD(Bgeww3S.481.OO0uidlbeaverB«i per pound of scoured w 

weifht of B^cefortheyeBr»iieS.82pouD(b. «u 47.7 cents, sod tbo 

■ lamo year Bcoured wool to Ootol 

pounds of Market) was $T5,Sl9,2i 



T iei2 the t 






POTATO CROP: 1912 

V^UB p 
yield pe 



t tor 



potstoea. Their total farm value on Uecem- I farm vn 
ber 1. l»n wu t212.5a0,00a, ms.liing Iho | was S57 

SUGAR BEETS: 1911. 

During the yeu 1911 there were 6fl aucsr | States worked S,0e2^3| 

473.877 acrsa ,_. „.. - _. 

.The factories c^e United | produced and 34,120,000 BallooB of I 




PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF CABBAGE AND BREAD. 



62 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COTTON PRODUCTION AND STATISTICS: 1912. 



According to the revised estimates of the 
Department of Agriculture, the area planted 
in cotton in 1912 was 34,766,000 acres, of 
which 483,000 acres, or 1.4 per cent, were 
abandoned, leaving 34,283,000 acres as the 
area from which the crop was harvested. 
This is a reduction of 1,762,000 acres as com- 
pared with 1911. This total of 34,283,000 
acres was divided among the several states as 
follows: Texas, 11,338,000 acres; Georgia, 
6,335,000; Alabama, 3,730,000; Mississippi, 
2,889,000; South CaroUna, 2,695,000; Okla- 
homa, 2,665,000; Arkansas, 1,901,000; North 
Carolina, 1,545,000; Louisiana, 929,000; Ten- 
nessee, 783,000; Florida, 224,000; Missouri, 
103,000; Virginia, 47,000 and California, 
9,000 acres. 

The average production of lint per acre in 
1912 was 191 pounds, as compared with 208 
pounds in 1911 and 171 pounds in 1910. 
The average yield per acre in North Carolina 
was 267 pounds; Missouri 260, Virginia 250, 
South Carolina 209, and in Texas 206 pounds. 
No other state had an average as high as 
200 pounds. 

The production of cotton in the most im- 
portant states during 1912 was as follows: 
Texas, 4,888,623 bales (round bales counted 
as half bales); Georgia, 1,888,963; Alabama, 
1,367,136; South Carolina, 1,259,762; Okla- 



homa, 1,057,125; Mississippi, 1,049,604; all 
other states, 2,579,650 bales, or a total for the 
United States of 14,090,863 bales. The aggre- 
gate value of this cotton crop for 1912 was 
$920,630,000. 

The total number of ginneries in 1912 was 
28,358, of which number 25,279 were active 
and 3,079 were idle. The average number of 
running bales ginned per estabfishment was 
535. 

The World's production of cotton for mill 
consumption, by countries for the year 1912 
was as follows: United States, 13,696,000 
bales, or 62.8 per cent of the world's produc- 
tion; India, 3,518,000 bales; Egypt, 1,523,000 
bales; China, 1,074,000 bales; Russia, 950,000 
bales; Brazil, 320,000 bales; all other countries 
736,000 bales, making the total for the year 
21,817,000 bales. 

On March 1, 1913 there were in the United 
States 30,575,028 active cotton spindles, 
11,853,142 of which were in cotton producing 
states and the remainder in other states. 
The number of spindles in the principal coun- 
tries of the world on March 1, 1913 was as 
follows: Great Britain, 55,576,108; Germany, 
10,920,426; Russia, 8,950,000^ France, 7,400,- 
000; Austria, 4,864,453; Italy, 4,580,000; 
Spain, 2,200,000; Switzerland, 1,398,062; 
India, 6,400,000; Japan, 2,250.000. 



The imports of cotton, for the seven 
months, Sept. 1912 to March 1913, amounted 
to 167.749 bales; of this amount 143,710 bales 
were imported from Egypt and 1 1 ,989 bales 
from Cluna. The exports for the same period 



amounted to 7,175,601 bales; of this amount 
2,979,601 were exported to the United King- 
dom; 1,970,519 bales to Germany, 911,100 
bales to France; 351,487 bales to Italy and 
963,363 bales to all other countries. 




COTTON: ACREAGE BY STATES, 1909. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RES^RENCB BOOK. 53 




DAIRY COWS ON FARMS: NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 



of (222,861,440, a 



MILK, BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

:3 eaUoiib, vhIub t3T,eG5,047: but 

flR2.5KT nniinda. value tS2,311,5 

If 100,378, 

^"e^i la auch was 



>alue of (170,510,619, 

made during the vear wu l,fll9.415,- 
■ounds. valued St S402,a72,069. Ths 

miule on fBiins BmDunMd to 9,405.864 
«, valued at 11,148,708 and tnat made 
lanes nmouated to 311,128.317, valued 
1,239,924; tbuH the total production inr 
iai was 320,532,181 pounde, haviag s 

I total reported value of dairy products 
n tarme in 1909 was $437,769,412 and 
ade up as tollows; Mdk eold. 1.937,255,- 



cheose, 8.136,901 pounds. 

The quantity of milk sold a 

ported as 1,937,255,884 BsUoni , 

third of the total praduetion. HowcveT, it 

■houtd be borne in mind that a treat deal of 



tity of Hucb cream or butt«r fat is reported. 

part of milk reported as sold was doubtisu 

The average value of butter sold by farmers 
in the United States was 24.2 cents per pound 
in 1909, as compared with 16.7 cents in IS99. 

value wa^ highest in New l^ngland, 28.9 cents. 
The average value of ' 




HERCENTAGE COMPOamON OF APPLE AND CUCUMBER. 



SCIENTIFIC AMEMC4N REFERENCE BOOK. 




Ou;OMAItG&SlNE. 


Flaxseed Crop: 1912. 


During (be year 1912 a total quantity of 
126.261,147 pounds of oleomarEarine was pro- 
duosd in (be United States. The internal 
revenue tai paid tor this total production 

e91,664'^ouads a" on°e-fourt'h"'o't n'^nt p^r 


In 1912. the 2.851,000 acres planted to 
The total farm value, on December 1 was 
paid per busheril.l47. ^The average yiek 
S'rni value of yield per acre was 111.29, 


Cottonseed Products; Prdduction 

AND MANUFAfTTUBE, 1911. 

During the yc»r 1911 there were 0,997,000 
short tons of cottunoced produced in the 

taluB ™ Wn^of "cottonseed lised for^^n^- 

Tho cottonseed producla having a value of 
1131.340,000 were as follows: Oil 201,650,000 

mB^!"2!l51,ol)0 short tons with"a v^aiSe^rf 
S49,720,000; hulls, 1,642.000 short tons with 
a value of (9,890,000; lintfits, 533,098 bales 
Of eoO pounds net, vitlue (S,150.000. 


Bees. 
Aeoordin)! to the Census report for 1»10 
there were id the Unite.1 Htales 3,445.006 col- 
onies of bees. wLlh a value of 110,373,615. or 
sn average of S:<.01 per colony. Nine and 
two-tenths per cenl., or .'585,955 farms in the 
United States, reported hee colonies. 

Florist and Nursery Phoddcts. 


In 1909 there were 10.614 florist estab- 
lishments reporting iiroduets valued at 

i31.051.000. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





PERCENTAGE COMPOSI- 
TION OF BANANA, CAR- 
ROT, ASPARAGUS, LET- 
TUCE AND TOMATO. 




iiiiiliiiii 

|S8tCS8S|=S 



^figl iii 

IS I KSSS5!! 

li 

ijiii 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



57 




ALL CATTLE ON FARMS: NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 




ALL HORSES, MULES AND ASSES AND BURROS ON FARMS: 

NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 



58 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




ALL SWINE ON FARMS: NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 




# S00,0008fa(eap. 

9 150,000 to 800,000 Bheep. 

O 100,000 to 1U.000 sheep. 

O 60,000 to 100,000 sheep. 

O Less than »0,000 sheep. 



ALL SHEEP ON FARMS: NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



59 



NUMBER AND VALUE OF POULTRY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1910. 



JUMD. 



Total 

Chickens » 

Turkeys 

Ducks 

Qeese 

Guinea fDwIs 

Pigeons 

AU other* 



1010 (Apr. 15). 



Farms reporting. 



Number. 



5,586,012 



5,577,318 
852,679 
503,073 
661,189 
339,922 
99,409 
2,006 



Percent 

ofaQ 

feums. 



88.1 



Number of 
fowls. 



295,876,176 



Value. 



$153,894,142 



88.0 

13.4 

7.9 

10.4 

5.4 

1.6 

(») 



280,340,643 
3,688,688 
2,904,859 
4,431,623 
1,765,083 
2,730,996 
14,834 



140,192,912 

6,605,640 

1,566,176 

3,192,86; 

613,282 

762,372 

460,899 



1900 (June!). 



Number of 
fowls. 



260,628,354 



233,566,021 
6,594,695 
4,785,850 
5.676,788 



1 Included with chickens. 



* Not reported. 



* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 




ALL FOWLS ON FARMS: NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 



Rice Crop, 1912. 

For the jrear 1912 the total 722,800 acres 
planted to rice in ihe United States produced 
a total of 25,054.000 bushels of nee. The 
total farm value on December 1, 1912 was 
123,423,000 making the average price per 
bushel 93.5 cents. The average yield per 
acre was 34.7 for whole of the United States. 



Hops: 1911. 

The total production of hops in the United 
States in 1911 amounted to 40.000,000 lbs., 
as against 44,000,000 lbs. in 1910, or 27.2 
per cent, of the world's production. During 
1910, the exports amounted to 12,748,617 lbs. 
and the imports to 5,S23,520. 



«0 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Egg Statistics. 

According to a recent report of the Census 
Bureau, the production of eggs on farms of the 
United States in 1909 was 1,591 milHon dozen, 
valued at $306,689,000, equivalent to 19.3 
cents per dosen. This production is equiva- 
lent to 207 eggs p>er capita of population. As 
less than 1 per cent, of the eggs produced are 
exported and almost none imported, produc- 
tion may be i^arded as equivalent to domes- 
tic consumption. In the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1910, the exports of eggs were 
5,326,000 dozen and imports 818,000 dozen. 
A small proportion of the production is used 
for manufacturing purposes. The census re- 
port does not include the production of eggs 
m cities, towns, or villages. According to an 
estimate given in the census report oi 1900, 
the production of ^gs oft farms was equal to 
about 5 per cent, ofthe production on farms; 
on this basis, about 80 miUion dozen eggs 
would have been produced off farms in 1909. 

According to the census figures the produc- 
tion of eggs increased 23 per cent, from 1899 
to 1909; out the commercial movement shows 
a much greater increase. Seven cities com- 
bined (New York, Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, 
Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and San Francisco) 
received about 369 million dozen eg^ in 1909, 
an increase of 70 per cent, over their receipts 
in 1899. Population had increased between 
1900 and 1910 about 21 per cent, in the United 
States, but 31 per cent, in the seven cities 
named above. The receipts at these seven 
cities in 1909 were equivalent to about 23 per 
cent, of the production as reported by the 
census, as compared with 16 per cent, in 1899. 

In January, 1910, and again in June, 1910, 
the Department of Agriculture made an in- 
vestigation through its agents, in 63 cities 
throughout the United States, concerning the 
price which retail dealers were paying for e^gs 
and the price which consumers were paying 
for fresh eggs; at the same time inquiries were 



made through correspondence with crop re- 
porters of the Bureau of Statistics adjacent 
to these cities conoemiog Uie prices received 
by producers.^ From the reports received it 
appears that in June, 1910, consumers paid 
an average of 24 cents per dozen; retail dealers 
paid 19.8 cents, and near-by producers re- 
ceived 18.7 cents; in January, 1910, consumers 
paid 38.1 cents, retailers paid 32 cents, and 
near-by producers received!^30.4. The average 
price to producers for the entire United States 
m the middle of June, 1910, was about 18.3 
cents, and in the last week of January, 1910, 
about 29 cents. 



LOSS. 
0.58€frms., 




COMPOSITION OF MILK. 



It has been estimated that the average man 
must be suppUed daily with an amount of 
energy in the form of food which is the equiva- 
lent of from 3,000 to 3,500 calories. In order 
to obtain this enei^ one would have to con- 
sume about eight pmts of milk daily, or about 
a tumblerful every hour of the working day. 



ORCHARD AND VINEYARD PRODUCTS. 



Products. 


Trees of Bearing 
Age: 1910. 


Products of 1909. 


Trees 

Reported 

June 1, 

1900. 


Products 

of 

1899, 




Farms 
reporting. 


Number. 


Bushels. 


Value. 


Bushels. 


Fruits: 
(orchard) 

Apples 

Cherries 

Peaches 

Pears 

Plums, etc... 

Fruits: 

(vineyard) 
Orapes 

Fruits: 

(sub-tropi- 
cal) 
Oranges 


2,980,398 
1,248,667 
1,843,610 
1,276.366 
1,120,130 

923,396 


151,323,000 
11,822,044 
94,507,000 
15,172.000 
23,445.009 

224,098,000 

9,367,047 
938,870 


147,522,000 
4.126,099 

35,470,000 
8.841,000 

16,480,170 

2,570,996,000 

> 19.289.391 
2.728,341 


$83,231,000 

7,231.160 

28,781,000 

7,911,000 

10.299.495 

22,025,000 

17,257,278 
2,939,512 


201,794,000 
11.943.287 
99,919,000 
17,716,000 
30,780,892 

182,228.000 


176,397.000 

2.873,499 

15.434,000 

6.625,000 

8,764.032 

1,300,751.000 


Lemons 















^Boxes. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




JAW LEVERAGE REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS MEATS. 



CUTS OF MEAT. 



The method of diTidJng up the car- 
CBSBM of slaughtered animals varies 
considerably in difiereDt tooalitiea. In 
order that there may be no confusion 



I this a 



of beef. ^ 
IS snown In tne aiagri 
page 62. 

THE FUNCTIONS AND USES OF FOODS. 



Office of Expert 
In this article a number of the 
terms used in discussing food are de- 
some o£ the principles 
ion are briefly stated, 
rage composition of a 

foods is quoted as well as 
inly accepted dietary stand- 
Witb the aid of such data, the 
... . ve value of any given diet may 
be computed and its comparative value 
ascertained. 

Ordinary food materials, such aa 
meat, fish, eggs, potatoes, wheat, etc., 
consist of: 

Btfuse. — As the bones of meat and 
fisb, shells o( shellfish, skins of pota- 
toes, bran of wheat, etc. 

Edible Fortion. — As the flesh of 



of nul 
The a 

number 

Ihe^co*^" 



■iment Stations. ' 

meat and fish, the white and yolk of 
eggs, wheat flour, etc. The edible por- 
tion consists of water and nutritive 
ingredients, or nutrients. The nutri- 
tive ingredients are protein, fat>, car- 
bohydratet and mineral mattert. 

The water, refuse, and salt of salt- 
ed meat and fish are called non-nutri- 
ents. In comparing the values of dif- 
ferent food materials for noariahtnent 
they are left out of account. 



Food i 



USE OP r 



'TRIE NTS. 



1 the body to build 
and to furnish en- 
r in which the rala- 

are utilized in the 

:)dy may be expressed in tabular form 
1 follows: 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REPBHENCB BOOK. 



ProWn. 

White (■Ibumv 

ofmilk,leBDn 

P.t« 

F«t ol nioat^ 

CHbohydntca. . . 



lat, gluMn of wbwt, eto. 



Foim t>Uy limie. 



1S8 S. 



Buonr, ataroh, iito. 

Uioenl uuitten (uh) 

Plioepli»t«a of lime, poImIi. »od«. t 



. . Aid ,i 



The Fuel Value of Foo<I.— Heat and 
muKular power are forma of farce or 
eoerfy. The energ; is developed aa 
tbe food lo conaumed in tbe body. The 
unit commanlr used in this measure- 
ment is tbe calorie, the amount of lieat 
which would raise tbe temperature of 
a pound of water 4 de^, Fahrenheit. 

Instead of this unit some unit of 
mechanical energy might be used — for 




DIAOKAU OF CnTB OT UUTTOK. 

Instance, tbe foot-ton. which repre- 
sents the force required to raise one 
ton one foot. One calorie is equal to 
very nearly 1.53 foot-tons. 

The following general estimate has 
been made for the average amount of 
potential energy in 1 pound of each of 
the classea of nutrients : 

Cslorin. 

In 1 pound of proteiD 1,840 

In 1 pound oC fats 1,220 

In 1 pound of culwhydntlei. . 1.860 
In. other words, when we com- 
pare the niilrients in respect to 




a pound of protein of lean meat or al- 
bumen of egg is just about equivalent 
to a pound of sugar or starch, and a 
little oyer two pounds of either would 




PIAQBAU OF ( 

be required to equal a pound of the fat 
of meat or butter or the body fat. 

Within recent years analyses of a 
large number of samples of foods have 
been made in this country. In the 
tables on pages 63-6B the results of 
a number of these analyses are grven: 




onrs or beet. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



63 



AVERAGE COMPOSITION 


OF AMERICAN FOOD ] 


PRODUCTS. 




Food Materials (as purchased). 


Ref- 
use. 

PerCt. 
17.3 
A9.1 
5.5 
13.3 
12.7 
12.8 
31.2 
20.1 


Water. 


Pro- 
tein. 


Fat. 

Per Ct. 
12.5 
11.1 
19.9 
16.9 
17.9 
16.1 

9.2 
20.0 
15.5 

9.2 
18.6 

5.2 

8.4 
15.1 
15.4 

23.8 

19.2 

6.9 

22.5 

18.7 

8.2 
5.8 
7.5 
6.0 
6.6 

36.9 
14.5 
17.1 
24.5 
24.0 

1911 
19.7 

18.6 
29.7 
26.0 
29.8 
13.0 

33.2 
33.0 
86.2 
59.4 

19.7 
40.4 

18.6 

2.8 

.4 

4.3 

1.1 

1.4 
12.3 
29.8 
18.4 

.2 
4.4 
4.2 

.7 
4.8 
3.8 


Car- 
bohy- 
drates. 


Ash. 


Fuel 

Value 

per 

Lb. 


Animai. Food. 
Beef, fresh: 

Chuck, including shoulder 


PerCt. 
54.0 
63.8 
56.1 
52.9 
52.4 
54.0 
45.3 
45.3 
64.8 
62.5 
46.9 
43.2 
57.0 
49.5 
52.0 

49.2 
58.9 
53.7 
51 8 
51.8 

52.5 
63.4 
68.3 
54.2 
56.2 

39.0 
51.9 
46.8 
41.6 
43 3 

45.5 
50.3 

48.5 
45.1 
40.8 
44.9 
66.5 

35.8 

30.7 

7.9 

18.4 

55.2 
22.2 
57.2 

88.6 
92.9 
84.5 
90.0 

43.7 
47.1 
38.5 
42.4 

58.5 
61.9 
40.4 
50.7 
35.2 
71.2 
40.2 


Per Ct. 
15.8 
15.3 
18.6 
16.4 
19.1 
16.5 
14.2 
14.4 
19.4 
19.2 
15.2 
13.2, 
16.5 
14.4 
16.1 

14.3 
11.9 
26.4 
25.5 
26.3 

15.7 
18.3 
20.1 
15.1 
16.2 

13.8 
15.4 
13.7 
12.3 
13.0 

15.4 
16.0 

15.1 
14.3 
13.2 
12.0 
18.9 

14.5 

12.6 

1.9 

9.5 

18.2 
27.9 
19.6 

2.1, 
4.4' 
4.6 
1.8 

12.8 
13.7 
13.4 
16.1 

11.1 
15.3 
10.2 
12.8 
9.4 
20.9 
19.0 


Per Ct. 

• ••••■ 

• •••••, 

• • • • • a 

• • • • • 

• • • • • 

■ • • • • 

• • • . • • • 
. • i • 

• ■ • • • 

• • • • • A 

* i ." i ' 

5.0 

1.1 

5.5 
5.6 

"2."6' 


PerCt. 

0.7 
.8 
.8 
.9 
.8 
.9 
.7 
.7 
.9 

1.0 
.8 
.6 
.9 
.7 
.8 

4.6 
4.3 
8.9 
1.3 
4.0 

.8 

1.0 

1.0 

.7 

.8 

.6 
.8 
.7 
■ .7 
.7 

.8 
.9 

.7 
.8 
.8 
.7 
1.0 

4.2 
5.0 
3.9 
4.5 

3.8 
7.3 
3.4 

1.5 
1.2 
1.1 
1.5 

.7 
.7 

.7 
.8 

.8 

:? 

.9 

.7 

1.5 

18.5 


Calo- 
ries. 
820 


Chuck ribs 


755 


Flank 

Ijoin, 


1,185 
1.020 


Porterhouse steak 

Sirloin steak 


1,110 
985 


Neck 

Ribs 


650 
1.110 


Rib rolls 


1,015 


^toMnd. ............. 


8.5 
19.0 
38.3 
17.4 
20.6 
16.3 

8.4 
6.0 
4.7 


745 


Rump. ....... . . r , 


1,065 


Shank, fore 


465 


Shoulder and clod 


660 


Fore Quarter. . .* 


905 


Hind Quarter 


950 


Beef, corned, canned, pickled, and dried: 
Corned beef. . . 


1,271 


Tonmie. pickled. 


1,030 




780 


Canned boiled beef 


1^425 




• • • ■ 

23.3 
11.7 
3.4 
24.5 
20.7 

9.9 
17.7 
22.1 
21.2 
19.3 

19.1 
13.8 

18.0 
10.3 
19.3 

12.4 


1,280 


Veal: 


635 


TjCir. . ' 


585 


Lififf cutlets 


690 


Fore quarter 

Hind quarter 

Mutton: 


535 
580 

• 

1,815 


Xjeir. hind 


900 




975 


Fore Quarter 


1,265 




1,255 


Lamb: 


1,090 


Lieir. hind 


1,130 


Flank 


1.065 




1,520 


Lioin choDs 


1.340 


Shoulder . 

Tenderloin 


1,480 
900 


Pork, salted, cured, and pickled : 

Ham. smoked 


12.2 
18.9 


1,670 


flhoulder. smoked 


1.625 


Salt Dork 


3,670 


Bacon, smoked 

Sausage: 


8.7 

3.3 
3.9 


2,685 
1,170 


Farmer 


2,225 


Frankfort 


1.170 


Soups: 

Cpl*»rv. cream of. .....>.... 




250 


Beef 




120 


Meat stew. 




370 


Tomato 




185 


Poultry: 

Chicken, broilers 


41.6 
25.9 
17.6 
22.7 

29.9 
17.7 
44.7 
35.1 
50 1 


295 


Fowls 


775 


Cioose ' 


1,505 




1,075 


Fish: 


215 


Hfl.libtit Rieaks or sections. ... ....... 


470 




365 


Perch, yellow, dressed 

Shad, whole. 

Shad roe ......' 


265 
380 
600 


Fish, salt: Cod 


24.9 


.4 1 


315 



64 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOOD 


PRODUCTS— CofifmiMi. 


Food Materials (as purehased). 


Ref- 
use. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teini. 


Fat. 


Car- 
bohy- 
drates. 


Ash. 


Fuel 

Value 

ES". 


Fish, canned: 

SsJmon ^ 


PerCt. 
14.2 
15.0 


PerCt. 
56.8 
53.6 

88.3 
80.8 
36.7 
30.7 
65.5 

11.0 
87.0 
90.5 
91.0 
26.9 
74.0 
27.4 
34.2 

11.4 
11.3 

12.0 
12.0 
78.4 
10.1 
13.6 
12.5 
7.3 
12.3 
11.4 


PerCt. 
19.5 
23.7 

6.0 

10.6 

7.9 

5.9 

11.9 

1.0 
3.3 
3.4 
3.0 
8.8 
2.5 
27.7 
25.9 

13.8 
13.3 

11.4 
14.0 

3.0 
11.1 

6.4 

9.2 
16.1 

8.0 
.4 


PerCt. 

7.5 

12.1 

1.3 

1.1 

.9 

.7 

9.3 

85.0 

4.0 

.3 

.5 

8.3 

18.5 

36.8 

33.7 

1.9 
2.2 

1.0 
1.9 
1.5 
1.7 
1.2 
1.9 
7.2 
.3 
.1 


PerCt. 

3.3 

5.2 
.6 
.2 

■'5 '6' 
5.1 
4.8 
54.1 
4.5 
4.1 
2.4 

71.9 
71.4 

75.1 
71.2 
15.8 
75.5 
77.9 
75.4 
67.5 
79.0 
88.0 
90.0 

53.1 
47.1 
52.1 
49.7 
53.2 
63.3 
69.7 
70.5 
73.1 

69.3 
96.0 
81.2 
100 
71.4 

59.6 

22.0 

6.9 

7.7 

4.8 

2.6 

19.7 

2.6 

2.5 

6.8 

8.9 

10.8 

62.0 


PerCt. 
2.0 
5.3 

1.1 
2.3 
1.5 

.8 
.9 

3.0 
.7 
.7 
.7 

1.9 
.5 

4.0 

3.8 

1.0 
1.8 

.5 

.9 

1.3 

1.6 

.9 

1.0 

1.9 

.4 

.1 

...... 

1.1 
2.1 
1.5 
1.3 
1.5 
1.5 
1.7 
2.9 
2.1 

3.2 

> ■ • • 

.2 

• • • • 

3.5 

1.7 

.7 

.9 

.9 

.8 

.7 

.4 

.8 

1.2 

.5 

1.1 

2.9 


Calo- 
ries. 
680 


8*T\di«M". ...,., 


950 


Shdlfish: 

^sters, "solids" 


230 


Cfama. 




340 


Crabs. 


52.4 

61.7 

»11.2 


195 


Lobsters 


140 


TlMpr Hen9' 6ggs. 


635 


Dairy products, etc.: 

Butter. 


3,605 


Whole mUk. 




325 


Skim milk. & . 




170 


Buttermilk 




165 


Oondenw?d milk. . 





1,520 


Cream 


910 


Cheese* Cheddar 




2,145 




1,950 


Vegetable Food. 
Floor, meal, ete. : 
Entire-wheat flour. 




1,675 






1,670 


Wheat flour, patent roller process — 
Hfieh-irrAde and medium. . • 


« 


1,650 


Ix>w grade 




1,665 






415 


Pushed wheat .... 




1,685 






1,620 


Com meal. ... 




1.655 






1,860 


Rice. 




1,630 


Tapioca. 




1,650 


Starch 




1,675 


Bread, pastry, etc.: 

White bread 




35.3 

43.6 

35.7 

38.4 

35.7 

19.9 

6.8 

4.8 

5.9 

25.1 


9.2 
5.4 

8.9 
9.7 
9.0 
6.3 
9.7 
11.3 
9.8 

2.4 


1.3 

1.8 

1.8 

.9 

.6 

9.0 

12.1 

10.5- 

9.1 


1,215 






1.050 


Graham bread. . . . . . , 




1,210 


Whole-wheat bread 




1,140 


Rye bread. •. 




1,180 


Cake \\\\.'...\.\.. 




1,675 


Cream crackers, r . . . . . . . 




1,990 


Oyster crackers 




1,965 


Soda crackersr . ' 


1.925 


Sugars, etc. : 

Molasses 




1.290 






1,785 


Honey ' 




18.2 


.4 




1.520 


Sugar, granulated 




1,800 


Maple sirup 










1,330 


Vegetables .-^ 

Beans, dried 




12.6 
68.5 
83.0 
70. 0* 
77.7 
75.6 
75.4 
81.1 
80.5 
88.1 
78.9 
66.4 
9.5 


22.5 
7.1 
2.1 
1.3 
1.4 
.9 
3.1 
.7 
1.0 
3 5 
1.4 
1.3 

24.6 


1.8 
.7 
.3 
.1 
.2 
.1 

1.1 
.2 
.2 
.4 
.3 
.4 

1.0 


1.605 


Beans, Lima, shelled 




570 


Beans, string 


7.0 
20.0 
15.0 
20.0 

" • • • • • 

15.0 
15.0 

io.'o" 

20.0 


180 


Beets 


170 


Cabbage * 


125 


Celery 


70 


Com, green (sweet), edible portion 

Cucumbers 


470 
70 


Lettuce 


75 


Mushrooms 

Onions. 


210 
205 


Parsnips 

Peas (Piaum sativum), dried 


240 
1,655 



> Refuse, oil. ^ Refuse, shell. 

' Contained on an average cane sugar 2.8 and reducing sugar 71.1 per cent. The reducinff 
sugar was composed of about equal amounts of glucose (dextrose) ana fruit sugar (levjiloee). 

* Such vegetables as potatoes, squash, beets, etc., have a certain amount of inedible 
material, skin, seeds, ete. The amoimt varies with the method of preparing the vei^etebles, and 
cannot be accurately estimated. The figures given for refuse ot vegetebles,^ fruits, ete., are 
assumed to represent approximately the amount of refu.se in these foods as ordinarily prepared. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFBEENCE BOOK. 



AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF 


AMERICAN 


FOOD 


PRaDVCTB--Conliniud. 




Ref- 


Witter 


Pro- 


fat. 


bohy-j Ash. 


v^.1, 

■f^. 




PerCt 


PerCt 


P Ct 

h 

.9 

\i 

ii 

V! 
J!:! 


PerCt. 
0-S 

4 
4 

"':( 
■•:*■ 

1? 
J1 

ii 

29.1 

Ii 

r. 


1 

!:i 

S.7 

2:7 

Ii 

i 

1;! 

A8.5 


1? 


1^ 






13 

1 

94 

1 
i 

1 
i 

3 


1 
? 

a 



I 

5 

J 






S8:! 


















60.0 






























FruiW^bHTies. sliol, trnkV ' 


1 

Is 








































^:S 




















lO.O 








""^o-d. 


l1 


































i 




Sssi::;::-:;;;;:;;:;;;;; 


l-S 










SslsKSSi-::;-;;;:; 


if 


Mi9ceIlaD«au3: 










Cereal coftee. infusion (1 port boiled in 
SO part* ™»r) '....., T 




lis a 





I FniilB contra 
;>0rly oLassed , 

edible material i: 
Tbe edOftle matei' 
is here cltueed v 



.^.„ .. ^ refiue. In otiiers, aa apples and pearfl. moi^ 

rdinarily rejected with the sltin and seeds and other inedlt 

the refuse. The figures ^V refuse here (iven represent, as 11 



etc.. which are 



lUilkandshel]. 



Iie^sl 



iter S.Z, protein IS-S, f: 



66 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES: 1908. 

Species. Pounds. Dollars. 

Alewives 89,978.000 689,000 

Black bass 3,313,000 255,000 

Bluefish 7,647,000 606,000 

Bream or Sunfish 4,738,000 120,000 

Buffalo fish 16,729,000 498,000 

Butterfish 6.855,000 237,000 

Carp, Gennan 42,763,000 1,135.000 

Catfish 17,817,000 785,000 

Cod 109,463,000 2,9O3,C0O 

Croaker 8,143,000 226,000 

Cusk 6,344,000 105,000 

Drum, fresh-water 6,632,000 154,000 

Drum, salt-water. *. 4,576,000 164,000 

Eels 3,368,000 203,000 

Flounders 23,346,000 688,000 

Haddock 69,987,000 1,308,000 

Hake 34,340,000 464,000 

Halibut 34,441,000 1,562,000 

Herring 125,050,000 796,000 

Herring (lake) * 41,118,000 989,000 

Mackerel 12,103,000 848,000 

Menhaden 394,776,000 893,000 

Mullet 33,703,000 908,000 

Perch, white 2,412,000 137,000 

Perch, yellow 7,898,000 258,000 

Pike and Pickerel 2,959.000 174,000 

Pike perch 15,247,000 680,000 

Pollock 29,462,000 402,000 

Pompano 670,000 71,000 

Rockfish 2,454,000 66,000 

Salmon 90,417,000 3,347,000 

Scup 8,414.000 290,000 

Sea bass 6,352,000 284,000 

Shad 27,641,000 2,113,000 

Smelt 4,340,000 174,000 

Snapper, red 13,498,000 636,000 

Spanish mackerel 3,806,000 194,000 

Squetea«ue 49,869,000 1,776,000 

Striped bass 3,657,000 314,000 

Sturgeon 2,072,000 167,000 

Suckers 8,555,000 215,000 

Swordfish 2,714,000 198,000 

Trout 12,024,000 800,000 

Whitefish 7,722,000 624,000 

Lobsters 15,279,000 1,931,000 

Shrimp 14,374,000 390,000 

Clams, hard 7,805,000 1,317,000 

Clams, soft 8,654,000 563,000 

Oysters 233,309,000 " 16,713,000 

M^ussel shells 81,869,000 392,000 

Pearls and slugs 300,000 

Terrapin 368,000 80,000 

Turtles 1,088,000 40,000 



Sponges 622,000 646,000 

Alligator hides 372,000 61,000 

Mink skins 22,000 89,000 

Muskrat skins 149,000 136,000 

Otter skins 7,600 30,000 

Whalebone 63,000 215,000 

ScaUops 2,414,000 317,000 

Oil, sperm 3,391,000 252,000 

Oil, whale 573,000 30,000 

Irish moss 772,000 26.000 

The total quantity and value of the products of the fisheries of the United States including 
the items mentioned above and all other fish products was 1,893,454,000 pounds, valued at 

$54,031,000. No later figures are available at time of publication. In many cases there 
was an increase, in other cases a decrease. 



SCIBNTIPIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




68 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ESTIMATED AREA OF EXISTING NATIONAL FORESTS JANUARY 

31, 1913. 



Alaska 

Arizona . . . 
Arkansas. . 
California . 
Colorado... 

Florida 

Idaho 

Kansas 

Michigan . . 
Minnesota 
Montana. . 
Nebraska. 



Acres. 

26,748,850 

13,339,390 

2,225,890 

26,921,945 

14,648,890 

674,970 

19,550,827 

303,937 

163,771 

1,570,850 

18,977,580 

556,700 



Nevada. 

New Mexico... 
North Dakota 
Oklahoma. . . . 

Oregon 

Porto Rico . . . . 
South Dakota. 

Utah 

Washington . . . 
Wyoming 



Total area 



Area embraced in additions to national forests from June 
30, 1911 

Area embraced in eliminations from national forests from June 
30, 1911.... , 

Area embraced in existing national forests June 30, 1911 

Area embraced in existing national forests January 31, 1913.. . 



Acres. 

5,595,310 

10,173,890 

13,920 

61,640 

16,023,220 

65,950 

1,337,750 

7,735,639 

11,684,360 

8,633,463 

187,008,796 

Acres. 

484,204 

4,083,651 
190,608,243 
187,008,796 



Area decreased during the period June 30, 1911, to January 
31, 1913 



3,599,447 



NATIONAL MONUMENTS. 



States and names. 


Pate created. 


Area. 


states and names. 


Date created. 


Area. 


Alaskar 

Sitka 

Arizona: 

Grand Canyon *. . 

Montezuma Castle 


Mar. 23.1010 

Jan. 11,1908 
Dec. 8,1906 
Mar. 20,1909 
Dec. 19,1907 
Sept. 15,1908 
July 31,1911 

May 6, 1907 
..... do. ..••... 


Acres. 
157,00 

> 806, 400. 00 

160.00 

» 600. 00 

1640.00 

10.00 

< 25, 625. 60 

15,120.00 

11,280.00 

295.00 

12,080.00 

1800.00 

300.00 
13,883.06 

15.00 

U60.00 


New Mexico: 

Chaco Canyon 

ElMorro 

Gila Clifl Dwell- 
ings* 


Mar. 11,1907 
Deo. 8, 1906 

Nov. 16,1907 
Nov. 1,1909 

July 12,1909 

.Feb. 7,1908 

July 31,1909 
Sept. 25,1909 
May 30,1910 

Mar. 2,1909 

Sept. 24,1906 
Sept. 21, 1909 


Acres. 
20,629.40 
160.00 

160.00 


Navajo 


GranQuivira 

Oregon: 

Oregon Caves *... 
South Dakota: 

Jewel Cave - 


1160.00 


Tonto * 




Tumacacorl 

Petrified Forest.. . 
California: 


1480.00 
11,280.00 


Cinder Cone * 

Lassen Peak *.,.. 


Utah: 

Mukuhtuweap.... 

Natural Bridges.. 

Rainbow Bridge.. 
Wa.shiQgton: 

Mount Olympus « 
Wyoming: 

Devils Tower 

Shoshone Cavern. 

Total 


1 16,840.00 


MuirWoods 

Pinnacles 


Jan. 9, 1908 
Jan. 16,1908 
July 6, 1911 

Dec. 17,1908 
May 24,1911 

June 23, 1910 

May 16,1911 


4 2,740.00 
160.00 


Devil Postpile*... 
Colorado: 

Wheeler* 


1608,640.00 


Colorado 


1,162.91 


Montana: 

Big Hole 

I^ewis and Clark 


210.00 


11,509,027.97 


Cavern 













1 Estimated area. 

* Under jurisdiction of Department of Agriculture. 

* Based on 15 known ruins; within Indism reservation. 

* According to second proclamation. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



69 



LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS STATISTICS. 



In 1909 there were in the United States 
40,671 establishments; 784,989 persons en- 
gaged in the industry, of which number, 
48,825 were proprietors and firm members, 
19,840 were salaried officers, superintendents 
and managers; 18,088 were male, and 3,717 
female clerks. The average number of wage 
earners was 695,019: the number in the 
maximum month, November, was 739,160, 
and in tib^e minimum month, January, 
649,239. The total number of wage earners 
on December 15, 1909, or the nearest re- 
presentative day, was 838,160, of which 
number, 826,978 were males, and 4,027 
females, all being 16 years of age and over; 



while 6,886 males, and 269 females, were 
imder 16. The capital invested was $1,176,- 
675,407. The total expenses were $995,- 
622,839, of which the officials received 
$22,448,332, clerks $17,979,364, wage earners 
$318,739,207, fuel and rent of power $3,- 
082,287, other materials $503,035,292, rent of 
factory or works $2,623,146. taxes including 
internal revenue $9,863,384, contract work 
$32,491,242, and other miscellaneous work 
$76,360,585. The primary horse-power was 
2,840,082. The value of products $1,156,- 
128,747. The value added by manufacture, 
which is the difference between cost of materi- 
als and value of products, was $648,011,168. 



LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS, 

The total value of the lumber and timber products of the United States, in 1909, was 
$724,705,760. The total quantity of lumber made was 44,509,761 M. feet, board measure, 
valued at $684,479,859: Of this amount the softwoods comprised 33.896,959 M. feet, 
board measure, valued at $477,345,046. They were subdivided as follows: 

16,277,185 M. ft. yellow pine, valued at $206,505,297 

1,499.985 " " western " " " 23,077,854 

3,900,034 " " white " " " 70,830,131 

4,856,378 " " Douglas fir " " . . . , 60,435,793 

3,051,399 " " hemlock ' " 42,580,800 

1,748,547 " " spruce " " 29,561,315 

956,635 " " cypress " " 19,549,741 

621,630 " " redwood " " 7,720,124 

346,008 " " cedar " " 6,901,948 

740,158 " •* all other kinds " " 10,182,043 

Of the total quantity of liunber, the output of hardwoods was 10,612,802 M. feet, board 
measure, valued at $207,134,813. They were divided as follows: 



4,414,457 M. 


ft 


1,106,604 " 


u 


706,945 " 


u 


663,891 " 


u 


452,370 " 


u 


399,151 " 


u 


347,456 " 


u 


265,600 " 


« 


291,209 " 


M 


333,929 " 


M 


46,108 " 


M 


56,511 « 


M 


1,528,571 " 


U 



oak, valued at $90,512,069 

maple, valued at 17,447,814 

red gum, valued at 9,334,268 

chestnut. " " 10,703,130 

birch, " " 7,666,186 

basswood, " " 7,781,563 

elm, " " 6,088,098 

Cottonwood, " " 4,794.424 

ash, " " 7,116,089 

hickory, " " 10,283.776 

wahiut, " " 1,972,835 

sycamore. " " 834,612 

all other kinds, valued at 32,599,949 



• Shingles, 1911. 

During the year 1911 there were 12,113,867 
thousand shingles produced in the United 
States. They were cut from the following 
woods in the following quantities: Cedar 
9,592,179 thousand; cypress 1,230,645; yellow 
pine 650,332; redwood 395,786; white pine 
83,679; spruce 12.381; chestnut 40,840; hem- 
lock 26,171; western pine 15,882; and all 
other woods 65,972 thousands. Washington 
produced 63.9 per cent, of all the shingles 
used and Alabama, Arkansas, California, 
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, 
North Carolina, Oregon and Wisconsin pro- 
duced from one per cent, to three per cent, 
pf the total production. 



Poles and Ties, 1911. 

During the year 1911 there were 135,- 
053,000 ties used by the steam and electric 
railroads of the United States. Of this num- 
ber 59,508,000 were oak; 24,265,000 southern 
pines; 8,015,000 cedar; 7,542,000 chestnut; 
11.253,000 Douglas fir; 4,138,000 tamarack; 
5,857,000 cypress; 3,686,000 hemlock; 2,696,- 
000 western yellow pine; 1,820,000 redwood; 
1,293,000 gum; and 4,980.000 of all other 
kinds. During the same period there were 
3,418,020 poles purchased for electric wires 
of all kinds. They were of the following 
woods: Cedar 2,100,144; chestnut 693,489; 
oak 199,590; pine 161,690; cypress 72,995; and 
all other kinds 190.112. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




LUMBER CUTS BY STATES. 1907 



Production of Turpentine and 

Resin: Quantttt and Value, 

1908-1910. 

During the year ISIO there were 27,750.000 
gallona ot tuipentine produced, having a total 
value of 117,680.000, against 38,389.000 
lulloDB and a value at 114,112,400 in 1S08. 
The lotal produetioD of resin in 1010 was 
3,404,000 barreh of 2S0 poonda and was 
valued at (I8,2SS.000. For the year 190S 
there were 4,288,283 barrels prodmied having 
a total value of (17,783.550. 



m 



RELATIVE CUTS FOR 1907. 




SCIbNTlFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PnLP Wood: 1911. 

The totol oonBUmptioa of pu!p wood in Uio 
United States in leil amounted to 4,328,052 
eordB. with 2SS active mills. The kinde of 



; hemlock ai 6,663 
■tic and imported, 



leech, 14,320 cords; Hlsbwood. etc., 2S0,534 
nrds: bU oilier. iSBJSS coids. 

The productiim of sir-diy pulp in 1911 
unounlfld to 2,6S6,134 tone, exceedins tlie 
mtput in !B10 bj- 153,168 tooa. or 6 per cent, 
rhe method o( manufacture wu dulributed 
IS follows: Mechanical. l,2Zg,719 tona; 
lulphite. 1.126.496 toDa; eoda. 317,764 ton«; 
lulphate, 12,155 tons. 




PKOBABLE FUTURE LAND CLASSIFICATION OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN ] 



TT 



SI 



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Ha" 
Tlii 

Tm 
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74 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 






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<-»>SSsS£5sSsS§sss§S95$Ss8 


a 


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s 




00 


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10 

H 


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ V_ ^ }j «.{ C<4 ^ ^ (,}(,«) ^ 




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S 


^&s>^s>s^|E(2^&^g?.g^|«og^g| 




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o o 


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00 


!^ ^ ^ ^ iO to & ?• 00 S> 0> O & O ?S ^ (O ^ & O Zi 


b- 


?i?i^^^%Ss>t^t:.o(>S>o>o^li^%^?.% 


« 


e4Sico&^^o%«e&t^?>woftO<-^oco^»oo 


10 


rH »^ t^ »^^^ 


-* 


^ Ih w oi Si CO w ft ^ ^ ^S" vo Si to 8b ?. 00 & » JO fi> 


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5 2 * cd ^ 

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■g^ ©T-S ft 

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" i^isji if U 

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|d-a||5g:g.t fo 



2 2 o5 

a,.d-9 






So*3 -» ? ^.i4«3 ft 
^ d S Q o U^x! !? 



CHAPTER III. 



MINES AND QUARRIES. 




CLAY PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1907, 

A pyramid of burned day would be 4,294 feet high and repnacala a. value of 1158,942,869. 



76 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUBDIVISIONS OF GEOLOGIC TIME AND STRATA. 



e bj ProfeMor Wlllard C. Hmj«a. of the United States Geo- 
lodcal SurreyJ 



(Preputd teyieMly for the Anerieaa AlmuuK 

The rocks (orminc the earth's crest are dlrlded Into three claaaes: <a) Sedimentary, Indndlnr all rocks 
formed hjr aqaeona, organic, cladal and eeiian a<eocl«s: (b) Ineous, Including all rocks that nave been 
solldUed from a molten condition, both Ti-lcanlc and phitonic; (c) Meumorpblc. Including altered rocks of 
either sedimentary or Igneous origin. In which the scquired are more prominent than the original character- 
istics, together with the ancient crjstalitne schists of uucertatn origin. 

The ssdImentsEy rocks are sobdlTided into formstlons. which sre groaps of strata of similar composition 
or containing the same fossils. The formstlons sre groaped into Isrger aggregates called sysUms. wbiob 
co r resp o nd to dirisions of the time sesle called periods. Tbc systems snd their corresponding periods are 
of world>wide oocnrrenee. snd standard terms are employed tbrongbont the world. Formations, bowerer, 
are loeaL and cannot generally be MentiHed in more than s single geologic prorlnce. The following stsndsrd 
column is applicable only to the United States. It represents the most recent nssge ss sdopted by tbs 
United SUtcs Geologlcsl Sarrey. 



Sttbdt«U^o«6eologie 


SubdiTisiMu of Rock Strata. 


Bras. 


Sjitema. Series. 


Groups and Formations. 




rQnatcimaiy 


Recent Pleistocene 
fPUocene 


South Atlantio and Gulf Qoastal 
Flsitt. 




.TertiaiT ..; 


Lafayette graTd. 
• Shell Creek limestone. 
.Caloosabatchee Umestonsb 

Chesapeake sands. 

rOak Grove bsdk 


Cmonie 


Miocene 


^ «.««i,. 


Oligoooie 




rCrstaooov. ..••......> 


Chipola group. 




-Bocone 


Cbattahoodiee be^ 
Vicksboig limestonsk 

Jackson dayk 
Claibom Umestono. 




'Upper Crstaceons 

> Comanche 


Hatchetigbee days. 
Midway lisMstooe. 

Texas Orsat FUins Bsfisn. 

'Montana ssndstoae. 
■ Colorado sbalesi 
LDakoU mndiUme. 




Jnrusie , 

uTrianie ..... 


Washita graop. 
' Frederidtsburg groim. 
iTiinlty^ndir ^ 

Vorth Atlantio Ossstsl Flalp. 

(Aruodd sands. 
{ Patuxent days. 

Rrunswick sandstone. 

- Lackatong shale. 
LStockton sandstone and shale. 

Vew Yorii'PennsylvanIs Region. 
Dnnkard ssndstone. 

rMooongebelssandslone and shale. 
, Conemaugh sandstone and shale. 

AUeghMiy sandstone and shale. 

Pottanlle — coni^omeraie. 

{ Manch Chunk shale. 
I Pocono sandstooQ, 

Chemung sandstone. 
; Portage sandstone. 

Hsmilton shale. 
I Marcellua limestone. 

'Comiferous limestone. 

- Schoharie grits. 

.Oreskony ssndstone. 

' ■ 

Lower Bddenberg limestOMk 
Salina sandstone. 
' Nisgara limestone. 
Clinton ssndstone. 
Medins sandstone. 

Hudson slate. 

Utica shale. •• 

- Trenton UmestooSL 
ChozT limestone. 
Csldlerous limestons. 

Potsdam sandstone; 
Acadia limestone. 
Oeorsia slate. 


ICefOffolff T 


Lower Potomac 

Newark 


Age crnptilss 




'CaiboBiferons • • • 

Deronlaa 


Permian 


As0 of Mfocent 

Age Qi flsbss 


• PenasyWanian 

Miaaissippian 

rNeodeTonian 

^EodeTontan 

'Ontarian .%.. 

• 
Potsdamian 


Palsiole 


Mlnvlan 


Age of InvertebntsB. . . 


' Cambrian 




• ^ 






rEeweenawan. .-. 

. Upper Boropian ... 

^Lower Hnrooian .... 
Laurenllan 


Lake Superior BsgiOD. 

Keweenaw slate. 

Banbury slatb. 
; Vulcan slsts. 

fNegsunee formation. 
i RandTQle ddomiu. 
tSturgeott qnaitaits. 


Asok 


Ardieon «.... 



SCIENTTFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



77 



MINERAL PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Product. 



IIETALS. 

Pig iron (spot valoe) long tons. 

Silver, commercial value troy ounces. 

GK>ld, coining value do. 

Coppor, value at New York City pounds. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. 

Zinc, value at St. Louis do . . . 

Quicksilver, value at San Francisco flasks . 

Aluminum pounds. 

Antimonial lead short tons. 

Tin pounds. 

Platinum, value at New York City troy ounces. 

Total value of metals x 



1910. 



Quantity. 



27.303,567 
67,137,900 
4,657,018 
1,060,159,500 
372,227 
252,479 
20,601 
47,734,000 
14,069 



773 



M0NMETAL8 (SPOT VALUE). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Natural gas '. 

Petroleum barrels. 

Peat 



Clay products » r 

Cement " barrels. 

Lime short tons. 

Sand (molding, building, etc.) and gravel do. . . 

Sand-lime brick 

Slate 

Stone. 



Corundum and emery short tons. 

Garnet for abrasive prnposes do. . . 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

Oilstones, etc 

Pumice short tons. 

Arsenious oxide poimds. 

Borax (crude) short tons. 

Bromine pounds. 

Fluorspar short tons'. 

Gypsum do . . . 



Jvps 
.itni 



Lithium minerals do 

Phosphate rock long tons. . 

Fyrite do 

Sulphur , do — 

Salt ban-els. . 

Barytes (crude) short tons. . 

Mineral paints do 

Zinc oxide do 

Asbestos do 

Asphalt do 

Bauxite long tons. . 

Chromic iron ore do 

Feldspar short tons. . 

Fuller's earth do 

Gems and precious stones 

Glass sand ". short tons. . 

Graphite (crystalline) pounds. . 

Graphite (amorphous) short tons. . 

Ma^esite do 

Manganese ore long tons. . 

Manganiferous ore do 

Mica (sheet) r pounds. . 

Mica (scrap) short tons. . 

Mineral waters gallons sold. . 

Quartz short tons. . 

Talc and soapstone .do 

Talc, fibrous do ... . 

Thorium minerals (monazite) and zircon pounds. . 

Titanium ore (rutile) do. . 

Tun^ten ore short tons. . 

Uranium and vanadium minerals.. do 



Total value of nonmetals 

Total value of metals 

Estimated valueof mineral products unspecified/. 



Grand totat. 



417,111,142 
75,433,^ 



209,556,048 



77,785,141 

3,481,780 

66,949,347 



1,028 
3,814 



23,271 
2,094,000 

42,357 
245,437 

69, 427 
2,379,057 



2,654,988 

238,154 

255,534 

30,305,656 

42,975 

85,685 

59,333 

2,693 

260,080 

148.932 

205 

81,102 

32,822 



1,461,089 

5,590,592 

35,945 

12, 443 

2,258 

CI, 101 

2,476,190 

4,065 

62,030,125 

63,577 

79,006 

71,710 

99,301 

566 

1,821 



Value. 



•425,115,236 

30,854,500 

96,269,100 

137,180,257 

32,755,979 

27,267,732 

058,153 

8,955,700 

1,338,090 

23,447 

25,277 



760,743,467 



469,281,710 

160,275,302 

70,756,158 

127,896,328 

140,209 

170,115,974 

68,752,092 

13,894,962 

19,520,919 

1,169,153 

6,236,759 

70,520,584 

15,077 

113,574 

796,294 

130,006 

28,217 

228,694 

52,305 
1,201,842 

41,684 

430, 196 

6,523,029 

(«) 

10,917,000 

958,608 

4,605,112 

7,900,344 

121,746 

2,174,735 

5,325,636 

68,357 

3,080,067 

716,258 

2,729 

502,452 

293,709 

295,797 

1,516,711 

295,733 

81,443 

74,658 

22,892 

186,765 

283,832 

53,265 

6,357,590 

193,757 

864,213 

728,180 

12,006 

44,480 

807,307 

(«) 



1 242,701,402 

760,743,467 

300,000 



2.003,744.869 



a Included under unspecified. 



SCIBMTinc AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



■rindEtones, tl23, 



Eypsum, 






in o[ cbins clay tl,4ei. 

1118,395: Ume. Sa5.2S6: 
a, 11,224,987; marb 



'SSSS ' 



recioui 8U>n», (4O,H20,- 
); crapUte, 11,495,729: 



tM.379; 
; lead ptuQts- 
Jl.^OB.- 
Sl.OS?.- 



1184,301; 

13,870; chromic iron er- »-n'. ■' i-.i ■■iii'' 

bbIu, f3,50a; cobalt <._J„. ore, iii,d i 

muufscturah'etc''. °]r3S^5,e3er^i'raii 
15,402.936; l«d. in ore, buw bullian, 
■beets, msDUf&cturei. etc., S631,eS4; 

KUiew ore, Sl.lSe.791: mckel. in ore, E 

oxide, etc., (4,050,030; pUtiaum, UM6.2t 



into'. Aliiuin, fegs,7»4i aniline ulu, UIO,- 
193: Bnenio Eulphides, etc., (247.323: aebes- 
toe, tl ,703,839 ; upbnlt, (780,336: barytea. 
(18.726; burium compounds, (398,213; borBi, 
(23.628: bumtonee and millitonea. (36.028; 
cement, hydrauUc, (242,722: clay, (235.254; 
day products, brick and tile, etc., (166.133; 
pottery, etc., (10.838,615; coal, anthracite, 
(12,550 and bituminous. 13,804.797: coal-tar 

Eoducts, (8,235.891: cobalt. (48.104; cote, 
54.455; corundum and emery. (336.844: 



', (110.932: peat, (39,372: petroleum, 
0,884; Diokcnle and paraffin. (792.818: 
ce. (118.977: pyrite. (3.788.803: shale. 
030: Hand and gravel. (147.288; oenoa 
umber, (59.334: alate, (8,387: sulphur, 

841; veaetian red, (20,189: lino oudel 



io(190.,807.64t,oratote 
ited States di ' 






(105,679.926: 



(13,905: sine, in ore, pies, sheet 
(actures, (1,935,877. The ei 
metallic products were as tol 
(598,930; cement, hydrauUr 



(18,093,285, bitumi 



., (2,284,354. 
. '(34,490,989: cokel 



(1.810,182; petroleum. (101 
and paraffin wai, (7,047.81 
sulphur, (545,420. line oiid 



1530-1540. raiage of Pen 



1648; 




1886. OpeaiuE of the "banket" reel of 
(he Rand, South Africa. 




Discovery of gold in Braiil. 


1880, Development of Mank^'s method 




Discovery of placers of Garaiua. 




leso'. 


and the successful refining of 




Geraee^ 


thb impure copper by electri- 


1728. 


Silver mines opened m Russia. 


city. 




Discovery of jpld in the Ural. 
Discoveryof Placers in Cnlifomia. 


1890. Introduction of the cyanide pro- 


1848! 


cess in the Rand, Boulb Africa. 


1848. 




1897. Discovery of placers in the 










inSile^ 




1851. 


Discovery of placers ia Australia. 


s4s?'%yH'''£/?s>? 


18S3. 


Introduction of hydraulic mining 




in California. 


"iCv York^pri^ for'^ the mTws. as "oUo™ 








cold in California, amounting 


Gold per fine ounce. (20.67183462SS323; 




to (65.000,000 for the year. 


(ol^fi^/TleaTpcr'po'uiid, (6.044; and zmc per 








cess at Grass Valley, CaUfomia. 


pound. (O.0U. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



79 










o 



MEXICO RHODESIA INDIA NEW ZeALAND CANADA QOLD COAST 

15,80Q,7I8 $2,176,886 $2.l33.6dl tZ^OZZ^BQ il,6d8,d68 £1,130,975 

A YEAR'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD 

(in ix>unds sterling) 



Gold and Silver. 

During the year 1880 there were 1,741,500 
fine ounces of gold produced with a value of 
$36,000,000 and 30,318,700 fine ounces of 
silver, having a value of $34,717,000. In 
1890 the 1,588,877 ounces of gold were valued 
at $32,845,000 and the 54,516,300 fine ounces 
of silver $57,242,000. For the year 1900 the 
3,829,897 ounces of fine gold produced had a 
value of $79,171,000 and the 57,647,000 
ounces of silver a value of $35,741,000. 
During the year 1911 there were 4,687,053 
fine ounces of gold produced with a total 
value of $96,890,000 and 60,399,400 fine 
ounces of silver with a value of $32,615,700. 



Platinum. 

In 1911 the production of crude platinum 
was 628 troy ounces, valued at $18,137 as 
compared with 390 troy ounces in 1910 valued 
at $9,507. This entire output was recovered 
from placer mines in California and Oregon. 
The total quantity of refined i>latinum pro- 
duced in aomestic refineries in 1911 was 
about 29,140 fine ounces, of which only about 
940 ounces, valued at $40,890, were derived 
from domestic sources of various kinds. The 
total imports for the year amounted to 
$4,866,207. The total world's production of 
platinum in 1911 amounted to 314,323 troy 
ounces. 







DO 
CEo> 

<(3 




*0oo 

^5 



>o 
Ijc> 



o 
zo 
<o 

Q-CM 
<co 




2§ 

44 






A YEAR'S PRODUCTION OF SILVER 

(in pounds sterling) 



80 



SCIENTTPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Lead. 

The production of lead in 1911 was 406.148 
■hort tons, valued at $36,553,320, as com- 
j;»red with 372,227 tons valued at $32,755,976 
m 1910. The imports of lead were valued at 
$631,654 in 1911 against $755,092 in 1910. 
The exports were valued at 680.419 in 1911 
acainst $614,158 in 1910. The imports of 
tjrpe metal were valued at $310,65S as against 
$485,493 in 1910. The United States ranks 
first in the production of lead with a pro- 
duction of 406.148 short tons; Spain ranks 
second with 189,155 tons; Germany third 
with 177.801 tons; Mexico fourth with 132,276 
tons and Australia fifth with 109,789 tons. 

Quicksilver. 

The production of quicksilver in 1912 
amounted to 25.064 flasks of 75 pounds each, 
valued at $1,053,941. California reported 
20,524 flasks for the year; Nevada and Texas 
combined reported 4,540 flasks. The imports 
were valued at $39,920 in 1912 and the ex- 
ports at $13,360. 

Ibon, Pig Iron and Steel. 

The quantity of iron ore mined in the 
United States in 1912 amounted to 55,150.147 
long tons, as compared with 43,876,552 long 
tons in 1911. an increase of 11,273.595 long 
tons, or 25.69 per cent. The quantity of iron 
ore marketed in 1912 amounted to 57,017,614 
long tons, valued at $107,050,153, as com- 
pared with 41,092.447 long tons in 1911, 
valued at $86,716,575. This total production 
of 55,150,147 long tons consisted of the follow- 
ing ores: Hematite. 51,345.782 long tons; 
Brown ore. 1.614.486 long tons; Magnetite, 
2,179,533 long tons; carbonate, 10.346 long 
tons. The rank of the principiJ iron-ore 
producing states with regard to both quantity 
and percentage of total production follows: 



^Cnnesota, 34,431.768 long tons, or 62.43%; 
Michigan, 11,191,430 long tons, 20.29%: 
AUbama, 4,563,603 long tons, 8.28%; New 
York, 1.216.672 long tons, 2.21%; Wisconsin, 
860.600 long tons, 1.56%; all other states, 
2.887.074 long tons, or 5.23%. The principal 
iron-ore producing region is the Lake Superior 
region, which alone in 1912 produced 46,368,- 
878 long tons. There are six ranges included 
in the l4Jce Superior region, their production 
for the year 1912 being as follows: Marquette 
range (Mich.). 3,545.012 long tons; Menomi- 
nee (Mich, and Wis.). 4.465.46;$ long tons; 
Gogebic (Mich, and Wis,), 3,!t26.632 long 
tons; Vermillion (Minn.), 1,457,273 long tons; 
Mesabi (Minn.), 32,6(M,756 long tons; 
Cuyuna (Minn.), 369,739 long tons. 

The apparent consumption of iron-ore in 
the United States for intervals of ten years 
is as foUows: 1890, 16.302.025 long tons; 1900, 
26.722,583 long tons; 1910. 56,161.091 long 
tons; 1912. 58.031.118 long tons. 

The imports of iron-ore in 1912 were valued 
at $6,499,690. as compared with $5,412,636 in 

1911 and $7,832,225 in 1910. The exports in 

1912 were valued at $3,537,289, as compared 
with $2,653,448 in 1911 and $2,474,165 in 1910. 

The production of {Hg iron in the United 
States m 1912 amounted to 29,726.937 long 
tons. The marketed production amounted 
to 30.180.969 long tons, valued at the fur- 
naces at $420,563,388, as compared with 
23.257.288 long tons in 1911, valued at 
$327,334,624. The whole number of furnaces 
in blast on December 31. 1912 was 313. 
against 231 in 1911; on that date 153 furnaces 
were idle or being rebuilt. 

The production of all kinds of steel ingots 
and castings in 1912 amounted to 31,251.303 
long tons and was made by the following 

Srocesses: Bessemer, 10,327,901 long tons; 
»pen hearth, 20,780.723; crucible and all 
other, 142,679 long tons. 



WORLD'S PRODUCTTION OF IRON ORE BY (X)UNTRIES. 



Coontiy. 



North Amerks: 

-Canada ■ 

Cuba* 

Mexico 

Newfoundland 

United States 

lEurope: 

Austria^Hongary 

Belgium 

France 

Gennan Empire and Luxemburg. 

Greece 

lUly 

-Nonraj 

TattagBl 

Kossia e 

Spain 

Sweden 

United Kingdom ^ 



China 

India 

Japan / 

Chosen (Korea) 

Philippine Islands t. 
Africa: 

Algeria 

Madagascar 

'Natal 

Tunis 

Australia 



1909 



1, 
51, 

n, 

35, 



239,324 
986,132 
2 

004,050 
294,271 

503.768 
196.563 
702, To6 
102, S19 
468.128 
497. 141 
39,733 



8, 

3, 

14, 



647. 63S 
824,862 
»)4,3i>2 



4306,000 
83,456 

(») 

90,S68 
230 

876,969 
(») 



214,815 
115,835 



1910 



231,633 
1,462,498 



1,106,762 
57,014.906 

4,592,572 

121.024 

14,375,964 

28,237,579 

527,040 

542, 57S 

100,834 

3,307 

(ft) 

(ft) 

5,465,234 

15,226,015 

< 130, 472 
54,626 

(ft) 

104,627 
148 

1,048,228 

(») 

50 
327,756 
157,821 



1911 



187,807 
1,183,714 

(ft) 

(ft) 

43,876,552 

(ft) 
148,130 

(ft) 
29,408,812 

(ft) 

367,900 
(ft) 

n 

(ft) 
(ft) 

15,519,424 

(ft) 
<ft) 
(ft) 
(ft) 



216 



(ft) 
(ft) 
(ft) 
(ft) 
(ft) 



1912 



156. 250 
1,397,797 
(ft) 
(ft) 
55.150.147 



4lft 



• Shipments. « Russia produced 2.581,121 long tons of pig iron in 1909, and 2,936,024 tons in 1910. 

» Statistics not yet available. rf Output of Tayeh mines. e Exports^ 

/ Japan produced 53,338 long tons of pig iron in 1909, and 66.131 tons in 1910. 

9 Estimated by Bureau of Science of Philippine Islands for 1900 to 1911 from castings produced, and bf 
V. 8. Qeological Survey for 1912 on same basis. 
A Nearly 8 tons of iron (metal) produced in 1910. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




_iji_ 11 Jl 



r in 1911 oae 
ae vslu«d at 

1910 Ibe" n 



1845 2 4 0IX I 



COPPER 

copper prodUG oh countriee of tl 
the year 1911 ^niWd StaWa, 
pouadB MencD 125,000,820 po 
i-'S 17 U) pounds; Spain at 

Ch e""66 358.46^ " " 



i 16,759,838 6n8 , 



was cast n 1911 t 



or 10%; cathoJes, 135,499 770 pounds or 
9%: otber faTms, 25.774,328 pounds or 2% 
It will be naC«t that the totid I 445 HOb 254 



capwr /or 19 ] 

445,939 as 
»3S, 762,951, i 



uedatt105 679 




n by gas in tiie United 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBtf'ERENCE BOOK. 







The Permanent ConsT or Abbitra- 

Thia court, more popuUrljr known at The 
Hattue TribunaJ, vaa oomtitated by virtue 
of the coHT^tioQ for the pacific rHiustion of 
intcrnatioaal questions, concluded &t The 
Huue. July 29, 1899. (Office. PrinwiriLGht 
71, The Hague.) 

" ■ ■ ■ iTHlive Counei].^ — PreaideDt: The 
or Foreign Affaira (or Holland. 
The diplomi ■ ■ 



airUie' 

"IE, 



Cour 



that .these 



bton.— Siller the iodividuala thefuadva 
itaotly cbangiDg by ill beaith or death 
" -• -- ourselveB by C^iS thi 



of 



COAL MINE ACCIDENTS IN 

The, lota of life in the production of anthra- 
dU and bitumiaaus coal durini 1912 involved 
the losa of 2.360 lives in and about tbe coal 
■nines of the United States, as compared with 
2.719 fatalities during Iflll. a decrease of 

1912 was 3.15 per 1.000 peraons empl^d, u 
aeainst 3.T3 for 1912. a decrease of- 0.58 per 



of the United States i 



, 1, Greece. Holland, Itafe-, 

•BiJtui, Luxemburg Uexico. Portugsl, Bon- 
3iBDia, Russia, Sarvia. Spain. Sweden, and 
Norway, Swiuerlsnd. and the United States. 

Carnegie Peace Fund. 

On December 14, 1910. Andrew Camene 
transferred to 27 tmstses a fund of tlO.OOO,- 
HH) in 5 per cent, first mortgage bonds, the 
revenue of which will be useiTlo "hast«i the 



lishmenl of univereal peace is attained the 
dunor provides (hat the revuue shall be 

I moat degrading evil or evils." 

NORTH AMERICAN MINES. 

e cars and locomotives, which at-counted 
23.93 per cent, of the total serious in- 
es. Of these slightly injured. 37.64 per 



<9.79 f 



! surface. 187. o 



9 killed "underground', l.Ul 

were killed by falls of roof and coal; 362 by 

and coal dust explosions; 133 by eiplosives^ 
76 by electricity; and 96 by other causes not 



>rI911, 9.106 m 



ts.' As in the 
of the serious 



"-Thes 






ofil 




graphi 


ally the 
























1912. 1 


le lowes 




f 




1.000 i 












the exce 


tion of 


mr 


'h< 


• it dr 




















. and 








there has 


been a 




ad unifoim 


ncre«« 




TEAtS 
INCREASE IN FATAUTY RATE 
1S86-19I2. 
F. L. Hoffman in Ceai Ag: 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



83 



COAL. 



During the year 1910 there were 342,969,- 
220 short tons of bituminous coal and 
73,623,227 short tons of Pennsylvania anthra- 
cite, or a total of 416,592,447 short tons of 
coal loaded at the mines for shipment; 
12,286,851 short tons of bituminous and 
2,020,572 short tons of anthracite, or 14,307,- 
423 tons in all sold to local trade or used by 
employees; 9,667,621 tons of bituminous and 
8,841,437 tons of anthracite, or a total of 
18,509,058 tons in all used at the mines for 
steam and heat; there were 52,187,450 short 
tons of bituminous coal made into coke during 
the year. Thus a total quantity of 417,1 11,- 
142 short tons of bituminous coal and 
84,485,236 tons of anthracite coal were pro- 
duced during the year. The total value of 
the coal produced was $629,557,021, of which 
$469,281,719 was for the bituminous coal and 
$160,275,302 for the Pennsylvania anthracite. 
The average price per ton of bituminous coal 
was $1.12 per ton and for Pennsylvania an- 
thracite $1.90 per ton- The average num- 
ber of men employed in the mines was 725,030. 

In 1911 there were 418,920,169 tons of coal 
loaded at the mines for shipment; 15,530,992 
tons sold to local trade and used by em- 
ployees; 19,552,840 tons used at the mines for 
steam and heat; and 42,217,167 made into 
coke; thus the total production of coal for the 
year was 496,221,168 short tons, of which 
amount 405,757,101 tons were bituminous 
coal and 90,464,067 tons were Pennsylvania 
anthracite. The total value, at an average 
price of $1.26 per ton, was $626,366,876. 
The average number of days the mines were 
active was 220 and the average number of 
employeea 722,335. 



During the year 1911 there were 172,585 
men employed in the anthracite coal mines of 
Pennsylvania. They worked on an average 
of 246 days out of the year. The average 
production per man in 1911 was 524 short tons 
and the average dailv tonnage per man was 
2.13 tons. In the bituminous fields there 
were 549,750 men employed during the year 
1911 and they worked on an average of 211 
days. ^ The average production per man in 
the bituminous mines was 738 tons and the 
average daily tonnage per man was 3.5 tons. 

During the year 1911 there were 3,553,999 
long tons of anthracite coal with a value of 
$18,093,285, and 13,878,754 long tons of 
bituminous, valued at $34,499,989, exported 
from the United States. The anthracite im- 
ports amounted to 2,463 long tons, valued at 
$12,550 and the bituminous and shale im- 
ports to 1,234,998 long tons, valued at $3,- 
604,797. 

Since 1899, the United States has ranked 
first in the coal producing nations of the world 
and Great Britain has ranked second. In 
1911 the United States produced 496,221,168 
short tons of coal; Great Britain, 304,518,927 
tons; Germany, 258,223,763 tons; Austria- 
Hungary, 53,626,639 tons; France, 43,376,550 
tons; Russia and Finland, 25,570,053; and 
Belgium, 25,490,842. The grand total pro- 
duction of coal in the world for 1911 amounted 
to 1,303,763,496 tons. 

A summary of strikes in the coal mines of 
the United States shows that there were dur- 
ing the year 1911, 35,513 men idle, in the 
bituminous mines, for an average of 27 days. 
In the anthracite region operations were con- 
tinued without serious trouble. 



PER CENT. OF FATAL ACCIDENTS IN COAL MINES OF NORTH 
AMERICA DUE TO EACH CAUSE DURING A TEN-YEAR PERIOD. 



Cause. 



*- — 

Fall of coal W. 

Fall of roof, slate, etc 

Falling into shafts 

Fallmg Into slopes, man ways, etc 

Mine cars 

Outside cars 

Motors ^ 

Explosions: . 

Dust or gas 

Powder or dynamite 

Blast.... 

Other, not specified 

Mining machinery 

Mules 

Asphyxiation 

Electrocution^ 

Miscellaneous 

Total 



Fatal accidents. 


Numl^r. 


Vtt cent 
of total. 


2,722 


14.8 


5, 823 


31.8 


369 


2.0 


125 


.7 


2,204 


12.0 


^0 


2.6 


. 30 


.2 


2,571 


14.0 


%8 


6.3 


703 


4.3 


202 


1.0 


332 


1.8 


73 


.4 


271 


1 5 


193 


1.0 


1,105 


6.0 


"" 





18, 340 



100.0 



F. L. Hoffman in BvUeiin of Bureau of Labor. 



84 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN KEFERENCE BOOK. 



ACCIDENTS IN TRANSPORTATION OF EXPLOSIVES. 





HIGH EXPLOSIVES. 


BLACK POWDER. 


OTHER EXPLOSIVES. 




Killed. 


Injured. 


KiUed. 


Injured. 


Killed. 


Injured. 


1908 


5 


7 


24 
6 
2 


20 
3 



7 


61 


1909 


4 


1910 








1 


1911 




3 


1 


2 












Totals 


5 


10 


32 


23 


8 


68 







RECAPITULATION. 





Total KiUed. 


Total Injured. 


1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 


36 
6 
2 
1 

45 


88 
7 
1 
5 




101 



ACCIDENTS IN MANUFACTURE, STORAGE OR USE OF EXPLOSIVES. 





HIGH EXPLOSIVES. 


BLACK 


POWDER. 


OTHER EXPLOSIVES. 




Killed. 


Injiired. 


Killed. 


Injured. 


Killed. 


Injured^ 


1908 


82 

122 

80 

53 


65 

84 

110 

25 


23 
17 
13 
40 


23 

25 

7 

31 


20 

10 

3 

3 


91 


1909 


41 


1910 


24 


1911 


7 






Totals 


337 


284 


93 


86 


36 


163 



RECAPITULATION. 



1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 



Total Killed. 



125 

149 

96 

96 

466 



Total Injured. 



179 

150 

141 

63 

533 



Central Bureau of International 

Geodesy Established Upon the 

Telegraphberg, Near Potsdam. 

This central bureau has existed since 1866. 
Aftej the creation of the Prussian Geodetic 
Institute it was united with the latter in 1869. 
The object of the Geodetic Institute is to 
cultivate geodesy by scientific researches, 
to execute the astronomical and physical 
determinations which, joined with the 
geodetic determinations, may serve in the 
exploration of the surface of the earth, more 
particularly within Prussian territory. 

The labors of the institute for the present 
bear more particularly upon the astronomical 
determinations of the vertical in longitude 
and latitude, as well as upon astronomical 
data upon as many points of the geodetic 
system as possible; moreover, upon the de- 
termination of senithal distances for con- 
venient points, also upon the detenniaation of 



the density and force of gravitation; it de- 
votes its attention, furthermore, to researches 
upon the mean level and variations in Uie sea- 
level; to the examinuig into the refraction of 
luminous rays by the atmosi)here; finally, it 
is occupied with all theoretical and experi- 
mental researches which contribute to the 
examination of the surface and the geodesy 
of the country. 

The GcDdetic Institute is placed under the 
immediate supervision of the Minister of 
Ecclesiastical Affairs, Public Instruction, and 
Medical Affairs of Prussia. 

The Academy of Sciences is the consulting 
oraan of the Minister in all the important 
affairs of the Institute. Conformably to the 
conventions agreed upon between the con- 
tracting parties, the Institute performs the 
functions of a Central Bureau for interna- 
tional geodesy. The director of the bureau is 
at the same time director of the Institute. — 
Almanach de Gotha. 



SCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





Fstll Kdd*Dtl. 


Cwso. 


Numbw. 


R»Uwr 


7>IIofc«l 


a. 722 

'aw 

2,3H 

tin 

w 

711 
I.IOS 


4n 


7Bllofn»I,sl*tc,«tc ,. 


"*■« 


















*^»P^": 


4 11 




































18,3« 








FATAL-ACCIDENT RATE PER 1000 EM^^^^ 





Ymr 


TQDSoroal 
IinxluceiL 








BtaWorPiovlne.. 


Nnmlw. 


pii>r». 


^aS? 


ii.>— . 


IS 


H6 >n -W 

'III 


21T,S3S 

.K 

264*00 

II 

2«3ZS 
24,424 


1 

1,S4S 

'aw 


4.SS 

l.*6 

1 

7.29 

g.34 

n:67 
vfa 


T2T 


































































































0.23S,308.<31 


ll,0M.8W 


3S,«01^ 


3.08 














ass 


^:S^ 


So 
















Totml 


1 IW,«1».1»| 3M.W 


1,«T 


3.W 


10.81 


C^dtoU, 

























Sullrtirt o/ Burrau 0/ Loftor. 



SCIENTUnc AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Mar. ».. 

'Feb! it.'. 
Nov. 2J., 

Jan. ».. 



D»;a::: 


iiu e'" 






•^h- 



Kettle Cne^.Pa;: 

Wat Lebtcn ring, F... 
Foeataontasmlne.W.V 




mi} 



mlnc.orkealKr, Llvei 



njs'w'sv" 

RiuhftDU, wlVa.'.M: 

7*isi*F,ni 

Caadaie, W. Va. 

Detroit and Kanawbi, 

PairaUmlne.W. V>.:. 



Monon^ " 



HalleyvilH Okla...;: 
Uuiana mlae. Pa — 

Llelcr tniiK.ni 

SI. Paul nlDe, Ctaen 



n Bulletin of Bureau of Labor. 



LATEST COAL MINE DISASTERS. 



Year' Dale 


Name of Mine, or 
locality aod State 


K- 


Year. 


Date 


&t;'-s'j°iia?; 


lost 


in 


Oct. 3 . . . 

it 

Dec.' 14 ■ 
Dec. 31 

Feb. 9 . , 
Apr. 7 . . 

Apr.8.- 


Roslyn mine. Waah... 
Starkville, Colo 

^f^rArrfia^^'oio 

Providence, Ky 

Leyden. Colo 

UA Pork mine, W. 


i 

10 
73, 


1911 
91 


Dec. g... 
May 19. 


Elk Garden. W.Va... 

SvkeaviUe. Pa 

Bottom Creek mine, 


IS 


m 


Cross Mountain mine, 




Iso 


San Boise mine. Okla. 


82 


I9I1 


Cokedalo mine, Colo. 
Prince- Paucoast mine. 


Haatings. Colo 

Supcrbamine, Pa.,.. 

Abemant, AU 

Belle Valley. Obio. .. 


ii 


ISll 


Banner mine, Xla.... 


i^ 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



87 



PRICE OF COAL. 

[Sources : Anthracite, for 3hlpment beyond the Delaware Capes, American Iron and Steel Associa- 
tion ; bituminous, Sa ward's Coal Tnule Journal.] 



Calendar 
year. 



1856 

1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1970 
1871 
1872 
1873 



Anthra- 


Bitumi- 
nous. 


cite. 


Dottart. 


DoUart. 


4.49 


8.89i 


4.11 


8.75 


8.87 


4.28 


8.43 


8.70 


8.25 


3.68 


8.40 


8.49 


8.89 


3.44 


4.14 


4.23 


6.06 


5.57 


8.89 


6.84 


7.86 


7.57 


5.80 


5.94 


4.37 


4.97 


8.86 


4.71 


5.81 


4.97 


4.89 


4.72 


4.46 


4.72 


8.74 


4.66 


4.27 


4.84 



Calendar 
year. 



1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 



Anthra- 


Bitumi- 


cite. 


nous. 


DoUart. 


DoUartt, 


4.55 


4.50 


4.39 


4.35 


8.87 


8.87 


2.59 


8.15 


3.22 


2.86 


2.70 


2.79 


4.53 


8.75 


4.53 


8.75 


4.61 


8.60 


4.54 


2.90 


4.42 


2.50 


4.10 


2.25 


4.00 


2.10 


4.05 


8.45 


4.21 


12.60 


4.04 


12.60 


3.92^ 


12.60 


3.85 


12.60 


3.974 


12.50 



Calendar 
year. 



1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902* 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 



Anthra- 
cite. 



J)oUars. 

8.90 

8.90 

8.50 

8.50 

8.50 

8.50 

3.75 

8.47 

3.80 

4.50 

4.50 

4.50 

4.50 

4.50 

M.60 

«4.60 

«4.50 

«4.60 

«4.60 



Bitumi- 
nous. 



VoUars, 

12.40 

12.25 

12.00 

S2.28 

si.jM> 

SI. 60 

S2.00 

2.50 

2.50 

2.60 

8.35 

2.25 

2.60 

2.75 

2.80 

•8.70 

•2.60 

•2.60 

•2.60 



1 The price on board fixed at Baltimore by the Seaboard Coal Association. 

• Price of soft-coal pool. 

• Owing to unusual conditions In the coal market the association price for 1902 Is not a correct guide 
as to the actual selling price, Clearfield coal selling as high as 87 at the mines and as high as 19 in 
New York Harbor, unsettled conditions lasted until Mar. 1, 1903, or nearly so; then, on Apr. 1, prices 
were made t3.80 at Baltimore; later on in the year this price was discounted from 10 to 16 per cent. 

4 Shipments nominal. No sales made in 1909, 1910, oi 1911. 

• Cumberland coal now includes "thin seam'' as well as "big vein" coal, the former selling about 
25 cents perton lower than the latter. 

•Fr^ht on "big vein" coal to Baltimore having been reduced 15 cents, 82.60 in 1909 and sul^ 
sequent yean if equivalent to 12.75 in 1908 and previous years. 



MONTANA 
.<43:200«^mi 



nxAs 

.^r.aoo »q.mi. 



ILLINOIS 
ss.aoo»q.mi. 



N.OAKOTA , 
»ft.«0Oftq.mi 



MISSOURI 
es.ooo ft^.mi 



IOWA 
20.000 »^.mi 



KANSAS 

20.000 •^.mi. 










VVYOHING . 
i9.900.sq-nii 



W. VIRGINIA. 
I7.00Q sq.mt. 



KENTUCKY . 
i«.a70 »q.mi . 



IND.TEKR. 
u.afto »q.mi. 



PCNNSYLVANIA 
M.aao sq.mi. 



Ntw Mexico. 

I) 500 »q.mi. 

OHIO . , 

ix.0%0 »q.mt ) 

C0L0RllA>O . 
Ii.e00ftq.m». 



MICHIGAN. 
ll,S00 5q.m*« 

ALABAMA . 
S.«3o ftq.mi. 












ALASKA 
a.^00 sq-mi. 

fHOlANA 
7.X90»q.mI. 

tJTAH 
a:soo »q.mi . 

rcNNc&see 

4.40O «q-m«. 

S.DAKOTA 
2.40O»q.ml. 

VIRGINIA 
0z.i20«q.mi. 

ARKANSAS 
1. 710 .»q. mi. 

WASHINGTON 
«.i00sq.fni. 

N.CAROUNA 
•00 «q.mi . 

MARYLAND 
«io tq.mt: 

CALIFORNIA 
260sq.mi. 

ORLGON 
230sq.mi. 

GLORGIA 
I70 ftq.m* 

IDAHO 
i«0 ftq.m* • 





COAL RESERVES BY STATES. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



,11S.I64 

696. aad the averagE price paid per Ion lor 
the name poriod was t2.m. The averaae oul- 

liiv-e ovens ^S' short tona, Thp impotta o( 
coke were valued at 1488,398 in 1912 and the 
cipora ,912.576 short tons) at W.002.742. 
The value and quantity of products ob- 

thousand ruble feet, valued at »4.650,ni7, 
tar, 94,30e,.'>S3 Eallona. valued at S2, 310.900; 
ammonia, sulphate or redueed to equivalent 
sulphate, 95,276,545 poundM, valued at t3,- 
e4e,144; ammonia liauor, 6,502,403 gallons, 
v^ued at 1736,120; anhydrous ammonia, 
1.144,014 gallons, valued at 14.114.419; other 
■producM v^ued at M10,552. thus making 
.,..1 _.i... „t .V. by-produelB ol roke 



d with «70,756,- 



r 



ranked e 



feel 



with 112,123,029 t 



vnlued at (22.792.270; Kansas 
came neit with 77.8fll,143 thousand cubie 
feet, valued at (9,493,701, ud West Virunia 
fourth with 80,S68,645 thouaand cubic left, 
valued at (6,240,152. During the year 1911 
there were 608,353,241 thousand cuWc feet 
of natural gas consumed havinK a total valuo 
ol (74.127.534, The value of all the natural 
mil nrndii'vd in the United f^tates for the 
127,634 and of the < 

,.4.752, (■ 

laCural gss and 



r 1911 



Production and Value of Petro- 
leum. Well Records, and 
Acreage. 



petroleum in the Um 


ted States 


amounted to 


220,449,391 barrels. 


th 




value being 


(134,044.752, or an 




age pr 


CB per barre 


of (0.608. On Jnnu 


ary 






149.402 producUve welle 


nthel 


nited States 


ind on Dec, 31, th 




were I 




average duly produr 




(inba 




amouSted to 3.8. T 






■^age in well. 




in 


°191l'" 


amounted to 


8!322r8a2,'" Imporw 


or 






to (2.410.S84 and « 


po 






The total production 








186 barrels, of wh 


rh 


the U 


nited States 






ralmo. 


t two-thirds 



Petroleum RBFiNma. 



The produota of the petPoleum-refiDiiiB in- 
lustiy. stalisticB for which are presented be- 

ow, aggregated (236,997.659 i '- -- ■"™ 

IS compared, with (123,929,3^ 



barrels of 12gallons in 1899 to 12( 

refined Kiil pr^ucts aggregated 41 
barrels of 50 gsUons in 1899 and 81 
barreb in 1909, an increase of 136,2 
for the decade. The totAl amount 

120775™ 9 'bartKlB''ot « gS^ns'^icI 
at (152.307,040, The products of th. 
1 foil ■'■ ■ ■ 



n looe 

with the in- 

ide petroleum 
m 52,011.005 






33,495,798 barrels (50 Kallons), value, 
194,547,010: fuel oils lincruding gas oils), 

eating' oils. 10.745,886 barrels, 'valued at 
(38.^,236; naphtha and gasoline (including 
gas naphtha). I0.808.,'..'i0 (tar™!.. v»1ii- 
(39,771,969: paraffin r 

value (9.388,812; oil 

,rt tons, value (2,724,752; rcsiduu 




(in thousands of golloDB.) 

Aluminum. 

The consumption of aluminum in 1^.. ... 
40,125,000 pounds, valued at (8,084,000, ) 

against 7,160.000 ] " ' --- 

pounds in 1890 and 

vaiutd 'at"lS6.Mli!"= 



> 1900. I 



>t (1,158,603. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





™. 


,„ 






1910 


MI 


c™„. 


1909 


naok. 


Barrels. 


Metrio 
Ions. 


Per- 
tton. 


Russia 

Mexico 


166, N3, 339 

l.OOO.OCO 
», 982,397 

111 
.11 


178,537,345 
62,135,447 

3,4S].410 
10,283,36- 

8 262 157 
12,012,266 

6 047 038 

!,070,14i 

^ 


6,671 

i;3u 

'1 


1 


ajB,Sir,!4§ 

70,336,574 
3, 333, Fo- 
il 030 6S0 
9,723,806 
12 673 6WI 
6,137,990 

11 


i; 


m'im*!?! 
14! 061 [64: 
12, 172,941 

io;48si7a 

6,451,201 
l|3»9!03l 

»i;oo. 


29.S93,252 
9,066.259 
1873 6S2 
1,670,668 
1,544,072 
1,458,271 

lO^ooi 

M,667 


C 


i 






India 








gSX' 


M 














"^•"^ 


261,249,116 


MS,0M,6li 


MB, sac, 073 


.27,474,304 




"■"■■'" 


«,52«,3S4 


100,00 



QnAKTITT OF PbTROLBUM PBODtrCBD 
IN, AND QuAJfTnTES AMD VaLUE 

OP IWroleum Products Export- 
ed FROM, THE United States 

The total siporU of petroleum from the 

to l,7a8,731.e9e"galLn»* vafued st JlOa 922,- 
848. The Eiporta nl miQeral crude (mclud 
IDE aU Dstural oil- without regard to eraiity) 
oils was 201S43 356 gallons ^Blued at 
ae, 165,403: the eiportB of mineral refined or 
manufactured oaphtha. beaime gaaolme etc 

Sll,4SS,761:'the oiporte of miacral refined 

1.113,295.006 esIIohb valued at (61 Oo5 095 
the eiports of mineral refined or manu 
f sctunsd lubrioaCiac oile (heavy paraffin etc ) 
amounting to 183,310.646 ealtons was valued 
at (23,337,126: and the eiporu of residuum 
(tar, pitch. and all other, from which the light 
bodies have been diBtilled) amounting to 133.- 
070,087 gallons was valued at 13.882,463. 



Cement. 

lantity of Portland, naturt 
cement produiwl in the i 
ring 1912 was 83,351.191 b 



valued at >bj.40i.;iid. as comparea 

barreliu valued at t66.76l>,136, the yes 

S.Ts'per ™nt'i™™anUtyl and an inm 
»756,377 or 1.13 ^r cent in value. Ii 



wan 82,438.096 barrels, v^ued at 167,016.628; 

to'sll.Za'i. valued at »367,222: and the pro- 
duction of pusrolano cement amouoled to 
ei 864 barrels valued at (77 363 

From 1818 when the first natural cement 

when the maumum amount 9 868 ITS bar^ 

cemenl'conetanll/ pe^" ance 1899, bow- 
ever the consumption has gradually de- 
amounted to S2I 231 barrels The future of 
natural cement depends entirely upon means 

cemeM whereby it may be brought nearer 
'* "--^ — *--.L_ ^^^ grade Portland 



The d 



: m the 



cement has been due pnncipall^ to the 
tenule strength of Portland cement 

ounted 



illi to the f 

Soisasl 527 barrel sV'which figur. 

u follows: To the ehipmente. aa,ui^,awi 

MrrelB, add the imports, 68.503 barrele. 

md subtract the exports. 4.215.532. leav- 

inc as the apparent cousumpUon, 80,865,527 

tiarrelt. 

The total production of pig-iron for the 
year 1912 was 29.726,937 tons against 
^3,649.547 tons in 1011. On June 30, 1912. 
there were 266 furnaces in blast and on 
December 31 there were 313, The total 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIBNTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. - 91 




OopTTlEht bj Mann « Co., tn«, MMO.Tt 

CEMENT MARKET AND ITS GROWTH IN THE PAST 30 YEARS. 



92 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Clay Products. 

The value of all clay products in 1911 was 
$162,236,181; the brick and tile products be- 
ing valued at $127,717,621 and the pottery at 
$34,518,560. The various kinds oi clay to- 
gether with their amount and value were as 
follows: Kaolin, 27,400 short tons, valued at 
$221,045; paper clay, 99,265 short tons, 
valued at $454,435; slip clay, 8,393 short tons, 
valued at $16,770; ball clay, 65,072 short tons, 
valued at $220,710; fire clay, 1,526,921 short 
tons, valued at $2,112,827; stoneware clay, 
151,384 short tons, valued at $165,751; brick 
clay, 142,020 short tons, valued at $123,900; 
miscellaneous, 162,243 short tons, valued at 
$165,325. 

The imports of pottery in 1911 amounted 
to $10,638,616; the imports of brick, fire 
brick, tile, etc., were valued at $10,804,749. 
The exports of brick in 1911 were valued at 
$2,264,354, and the exports of pottery at 
$1,401,366. The imports of kaolin or china 
clay in 1911 were valued at $1,461,068, and 
the imports of other clays amounted to 
$235,254. 

Sand and Gravel. 

During the year 1912 there were 1,465,386 
short tons of glass sand, valued at $1,430,471, 
produced in the United States, 4,484,593 
short tons of molding sand, valued at $2,718-, 
398; 23,632,157 tons of building sand, valued 
at $7,904,321; 1,397,667 tons of grinding and 
polishing sand, valued at $667,750; 455,454 
tons of fire sand, valued at $318,742; 1,288.486 
tons of ' engine sand, valued at $428,928; 
51,446 tons of furnace sand, valued at $27,258; 
1,778,530 tons of paving sand, valued at 
$670,680; other sands amounting to 3,986,288 
tons, valued at $1,177,065; and 29,768,510 
tons of gravel, valued at $7,737,942. Thus 
the total quantity of sand and gravel pro- 
duced in tne United States during the year 
1912 amounted to 68,318,988 short tons, 
valued at $23,081,555. The imports of sand 
for the same period amounted to $141,690. 

Salt and Bromine. 

The production of salt in the United States 
(including Hawaii and Porto Rico) in 1912 
was 33,324,808 barrels, of 280 pounds each, 
or 4,665,473 short tons, valued at $9,402,772. 
The production of brine salt in the United 
States, for the same period, by grades was as 
follows: Table and Dairy, 3,961,450 barrels; 
common fine, 6,021,052 barrels; common 
coarse, 2,753,375 barrels; packers', 751,551 
barrels; coarse solar, 1,105,935 barrels; other 
grades. 231,063 barrels and brine, 11,408,623 
barrels, making the total production of brine 
salt 26,233.059 barrels, valued at $7,704,943. 
The quantity of rock salt mined in the United 
States during 1912 was 992,846 short tons, 
valued at $1,697,829. 

The imports of salt during the year 
amounted to 998,664 barrels, valued at 
$370,648 and the exports to 445,785 barrels, 
valued at $418,525, leaving an excess of im- 
ports over exports of 552,879 barrels. This 
added to the domestic production makes the 
apparent consumption of salt for the year 
33,877,687. 

The production of bromine in 1912 
amounted to 647,200 pounds, valued at 
$136,201. 



Slate. 

The production of slate in 1912 was valued 
at $6,043,318. The imports of slate for the 
same period were valued at $14,768; the ex- 
ports were not reported separately from that 
of other varieties of stone. 

T.TMF.. 

The production of lime in 1912 was 
3,529,462 short tons, valued at $13,970,114. 
The average price per ton was $3.96. The 
imports in 1912 amounted to 4,268 short tons, 
valued at $48,153 and the exports amounted 
to 260,669 barrels, valued at $199,515. 

Stone. 

The value of all kinds of stone produced in 
the United States in 1911 amounted to 
$76,966,698. The iiAports of marble and 
stone were valued at $1,556,398 and the ex- 
ports at $1,810,182. The value of the 
granite produced in the United States during 
1911 was $21,391,878; trap rock, j|6,399,622; 
sandstone, $7,730,868; bluestone, $1,876,473; 
limestone, $33,897,362; marble, $7,546,718. 

Sulphur and Pyrite. 

The domestic production of sulphur in 1912 
was 303,472 long tons, valued at $5,256,422. 
The production of pyrite in 1912 was 350,928 
long tons, valued at $1,334,259. The im- 
ports of sulphur amounted to 29,927 long 
tons, valued at $583,974, and the exports to 
57,736, valued at $1,076,414. The imports of 
pyrite for 1912 were valued at $3,841,683. 

Pigments. 

Barytes. — The production of crude barytes 
in 1911 was 38,445 short tons, valued a 
$122,792. The imports of barytes were 
valued at $58,726 and the imports of barium 
comi)ounds at $398,213. 

Mineral Paints. — The commercial pro- 
duction of mineral paints in 1911 amounted to 
143,350 short tons, valued at $7,842,583. 
This includes the natural mineral pigments, 
pigments made directly from ores, and chemic- 
ally manufactiired pigments. 

Asphalt. 

r* During the year 1912 the total production 
of asphalt and bituminous rock amounted to 
449,510 short tons, valued at $4,620,731 and 
was divided into the following varieties; 
Bituminous rock, 53,041 short tons, valued 
at $152,675; refined bitumin, 22,852 short 
tons, valued at $241,772; maltha, 474 short 
tons, valued $3,518; wurtzilite (elaterite), 
8.452 short tons, valued at $115,620; gilsonite, 
31,478 short tons, valued at $573,069; oil 
asphalt, 333,213 short tons, valued at $3,534,- 
077. The mportsof asphalt in 1912 amounted 
to 218,328 short tons, valued at $921,145, and 
the exports co 1,170,882 ahort tons. 

Nickel. 

No production of nickel ore, as such, was 
reported in the United States during 1911 
but 445 tons of metallic nickel, valued at 
about $127,000, were saved as by-products. 
The imports during 1911 were valued at 
$4,050,030, and the exports at $8,283,777. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 93 



^-^ ;:.J^Bk 


Wr^ 


w ^.^ 


^ 


z' ' 


- -1 


ittl^^ 


4^ 


Am 


^~4j|3 


h 






mmm Ml 


m^ 



■odium are annually poured i 



MAGNITUDE OF THE SALT INDUSTRY. 

larly production jo the Unitjvi Slates. 157.2(17,5' 



■f this imuunt, 77] pt 



94 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



GEMS AXD PRECIOUS STONES. 
ProduOion ofpredous stones iri the UnUed States in 1907, 1908, 1909, and 1910, 



Asales, Qhalcedony, etc., 

moonstones, etc., onyx. 

Amethyst 

Axozmalachite, malachite, etc. 

Benitoite 

Beryl, aquamarine, blue, 

pmK, etc 

Califomite 

Catlinitc 

Chiastolite 

Chlorastrolite 

Qirysooolla. 

Chrysoprase 

Cyanite 

Diamond 

Diopside 

Emerald 

Epidote 

Feldspar, smistone, amazon 

stone, etc 
Garnet, hyadnth, pyrope, 

afanandine, rhodolite 

Gold quarts 

Jasper 

Opal 

Peridot , 

Petrified wood 

Fhenacite 

Prase 

Pyrite 

Quartz, rock crystal, smoky 

quartz, rutilated, etc 
Rose quartz j 



Vafaie. 



1907 



1650 

850 

250 

1,500 

6,435 

a 25, 000 
25 
20 



150 

46,500 

100 

2,800 



al,320 

60 

1,110 

6,460 

1,000 
675 
180 

1,300 

325 

25 



Rhodocrosite. 
Rhodonite... 



Ruby 

RutUe... 
Sapphire. 



Smithsonite 

Spodumene, kunzite, hid- 

denlte. 
Thompsonite 



Topaz. 



Tourmaline 

Turquoise and matrix. 



Varisclte, amatrice, utahlite. 
Miscellaneous gems 



Total. 



400 
2,580 

6,375 

150 



1906 



$1,125 

210 
5,450 
3,638 
7,485 



25 

600 

a 48, 225 



a 2, 100 
120 



2,850 

13,100 

1,010 



50 
1,300 



95 



3,595 
568 



2,000 
200 
0229,800 

800 
14,500 



2,300 

a 84, 120 
23,840 

7,600 



471,300 



1,250 



a 58, 397 

«1,200 
a 6, 000 

35 

4,435 

a 90, 000 
al47,950 

14,250 



1900 



1750 

190 

2,000 

500 

1,660 

a 18, 000 



2,400 
300 

a 84,800 



2,033 



a300 

15 

a 2, 700 

1,650 



100 
200 
300 



50 



2,689 
2,970 



125 



415,063 



25 
a44,996 

300 
15,150 

100 

512 

al33,192 
0179,273 

35,938 
1,060 



534,380 



1910 



12,268 



550 
**5,"545* 
a 8, 000 



a2,000 
*a9,"666* 



01,400 
"o'tOO" 



2,510 

3,100 

1,000 
475 
270 



50 
100 



l,3tS 
2,537 



6,200 



62,983 



33,000 

610 

884 

046,500 
085,900 

o 26, 125 
2,755 



295,797 



Remarks. 



About 1450 pounds; Calilbmla, Col- 
orado. Montana, and Wyoming. 
No production reported. 
475 pounds; Arizona and Nevada. 
No iHtKiuction reported. 
About 30 pounds rough and selected. 

1^ pounds; California; not sold. 

No woduction repwted. 
DO. 

Impounds; Michigan. 

Noproduction reported. 

1,700 pounds; Camomia. 

No production reported. 

206 stones; Arkansas and California. 

No production reported. 

North Carolina. 

No production reported. 

4,1^ pounds; Colorado and Califor- 
nia. 

151 pounds; California, Arizona, and 
Colorado. 

Colorado and California. 

500 pounds; Colorado and California. 

Nevada. 

No i^oduction reported. 
Do. 

Colorado. 

50 pounds; Oregon. 

No production reported. 

1,753 pounds; Colorado, Maine, Ver- 
mont, California, and Texas. 

25,025 pounds; South Dakota and 
CaUfomia. 

No production reported. 

3,200 pounds; Montana and Califor- 
nia. 

No productioiii reported. 
Pp. 

1,062,000 carats; Montana and Indi- 
ana. 

No production reported. 

120 pounds; California. 

About 50 pounds; Michigan, Minne- 
sota, and New Jersey. 

75 pounds; California, Colorado, and 
Texas. 

1,548 pounds; California and Maine. 

16.886 pounds; Nevada, New Mex- 
Ico, Aiizona, and Colorado. 

5.377 pounds; Utah and Nevada. 

BatoBte, obsidian, fossil coral, and 
ornamental stones with trade 
names. 



a Estimated or partly so. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



95 



Miscellaneous. 

Asbestos. — The asbestos commercially pro- 
duced in the United States in 1912 was ob- 
tained from deposits in Georgia, and Ver- 
mont, with small quantities from Idaho and 
Wyoming. The total commercial produc- 
tion in 1912 was 4,403 short tons, valued at 
$87,959. The imports for consumption were 
valued at $1,819,771 in 1912. 

Graphite. — ^The commercial production of 
crystalline graphite in 1912 amounted to 
3,543,771 pounds, valued at $187,689. The 
production of amorphous graphite in 1912 
was 673 short tons, valued at $19,344. The 
production of artificial graphite was 12,896,* 
347 pounds, valued at $830,193, the average 
price per pound being $6.44. The imports 
of graphite in 1912 were valued at $1,709,337. 

Mica. — The total production of mica in 
1912 was 845,483 pounds of sheet mica, 
valued at $282,823, and 3,226 short tons of 
scrai> mica, valued at $49,073. The imports 
of mica in 1912 were valued at $748,973. 

Mineral waters. — The total production of 
mineral waters in 1911 was 63,923,119 gal- 
lons, valued at $6,837,888. The imports of 
mineral waters in 1911 amounted to $1,037,- 
485. 

During the year 1911 there were 732 
springs in the United States reporting sales 
of mineral waters. They sold 63,923.119 
gallons of mineral waters, valued at $6,837,- 
888. Each year has shown a growth in the 

firoduction of what is known as "soft drinks. " 
n all 6,595,757 gallons of water were used in 
the manufacture of soft drinks. Wisconsin 



leads all the states in the amount of water 
used, using 2,037,258 gallons, or about one- 
third of all the mineral waters used in the 
manufacture of soft drinks in the United 
States. 

The total imports of iron ore into the 
United States in 1910 amounted to 2,591,031 
long tons and the quantity of iron ore ex- 
ported from the United States in the same 
year amounted to 644,875 long tons. 






lAPl OF QOOO HOPE TRANSVAAL ORAN^C T. STATE 
£^,137,16^ X 1.733.119 f 1. 148,258 




o 



o 



^eruah swAriricA bkazil sahooe^m orit.^uiana 

i 1.058,437 l\00.000 ilO,SSO £6.108 

DIAMOND PRODUCTION, 
(in Pounds Sterling.) 



THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF MINES. 



The National Bureau of Mines for the 
United States was created bjr act of Congress 
approved May 16, and effective July 1, 1910. 
The chief purpose of the bureau is to carry on 
inquiries and investigations with the view of 
lessenmg loss of life and waste of resources in 
mining and metallurgical operations. It is 
to make Investigations of the metiiods of 
mining, especially in relation to tlie safety 
of miners, the appliances best adapted to the 
prevention of mme accidents, the improve- 
ment of mining conditions, the treatment of 
ores and other mineral substances, as to the 
use of explosives and electricity in mining, 
and other inquiries and tecnnologic in- 
vestigations pertaining to mining, metal- 
lurgical and quarry industries. The act 
establishing the bureau provides that no 
officer or employee of the Bureau of Mines 
shall exercise any right or authority in con- 
nection with the inspection or supervision 
of mines and metallurgical plants in any 
state; under the^ Constitution such in- 
spection and supervision is within the province 
of the State and is not germane to the duties 
of the Federal Government. 

The scope of the fuel investigations of this 
bureau conforms to the provisions of the Act 
of Congress which provioes for the analyzing 
and testing of coals, lignites, and other 
mineral fuel substances belonging to or for 
the use of the United States. Several lines 
of inquiry are embodied in this plan, which 
bowever, are too numerous to be men- 
tioned here. 



The act also transferred to the new Bureau 
of Mines the personnel and equipment of the 
technologic branch of the United States 
Geological Survey. This personnel and 
equipment were developed durine the preced- 
ing five years in connection with the investiga- 
tion of fuels and mine accidents, and the 
new bureau is to continue similar investiga- 
tions. 

Its chief Experimental Station is located at 
Pittsburgh, Pa. where the work in the labora- 
tories is supplemented by experiments con- 
ducted in a small coal mine imder the con- 
ditions of actual mining. At this station it 
also is conducting a number of investigations 
in connection with the use of explosives and 
electricity, and other mining problems. ^ 

As a means of carrying on an educational 
campaign in behalf oi mine rescue and first 
aid to the injured work, the Bureau of Mines 
has purchased and equipped with rescue 
apparatus, first aid and fire fighting devices, 
seven cars of standard Pullman size, each 
completely fitted with modem appliances. 
These cars, one stationed in each of the im- 
portant coal fields or coal mining regions of the 
country, will visit all the important groups of 
coal mmes where demonstrations andf illustra- 
tions of this work will be given. 

The law establishing the Bureau of Mines 
became eflfective on July 1, 1910. On 
September 1st, Dr. J. A. Holmes, formerly 
Chief of the Technologic Branch of the 
Geological Survey* was appointed Director of 
the new Bureau. 



96 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




CHAPTER IV. 



MANUFACTURES. 






■hil JSa bl 






A 8DMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL ESTABLISHMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

FOR SPECIFIED YEARS: 1909. 1904, 1889; AND THE PER CENT. 

OF INCREASE. 









I 



II 



ii 



I 



I 



I 

if 



rrrrrir 



rrrrrir 



rrrrr 



!D! 



m 



frrfffp 



rrrrrr 



WfffVffP 






i I 
i i 



ill 

jidhi 'i 



m 

fft« 

III. 

Sill 



is 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



99 



LEADING MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

1909. 



▲n ivduttitM 

Slau^tering and meat parlring 

Foondry and machiniMUiop produets 

liomber and timber prodtictB 

Iron and steel, steel works and rolling mills.,.. 
Floar-mi)l and gristmill prodooti..... 

Printing and publishing 

Cotton goods, mcludinc cotton small wares 

Clothing, men's, inchiomg shirts 

Boots and shoes, including cat stock and find- 

ina - 

Woolen, wonted, and felt goods, and wool hats . 

Tobacco manufEUJtures 

Gars and general shop construction and repairs 

by steam-railroad companies 

Br<nd and other bakery products 

Iron and steel, blast furnaces 

Clothing, women's ...•>... 

Smelting and refining, copper 

IJquor8,malt 

leather, tanned, currliMl, and finished 

Sugar and molasses, not itacludtng beet sugar. . 
Batter, cheese, and condensed mOk 

Puwr tod wood pulp 

Automobi les, including bodies and parts 

Fumitare and refrigerators* 

Petroleam, refining 

Slectrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies. 

Xiqqors, distilled 

Hodcry and knit goods ^.. .. 

Cmyper, tin, and sheet-iron products 

Sue and silk goods, inclading throwsters 

ttmelthig and refining, lead 

Oaa, illuminating and heating 

Oarnages and wagons and materials 

dinning and piesei vl ng 

Brass and bronse products 

Oil, cottonseed, and cake 

Agrtepitnmi imfdements.' --.^ 

Patent medicines and oompoands and drug- 

gists' preparations 

Confectumery . ^ 

Paint and vamiah 

CarB, steam^ailrbad, not indnding operations 

of railroad companies 

Cheooiicals 

Marble and stone work 

lioathcr goods 

All other industries 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



sn,«9i 

1,641 

13,253 

40,671 

446 

"11,691 

31,445 
1,324 
6,364 

1,918 
986 

15,822 

1,146 

23,926 

206 

4,558 

38 

1,414 

919 

233 

8,479 

777 
743 

3,155 
147 

1,000 

613 
1,374 
4,228 

852 
28 

1,206 
5,402 
3,767 
1,021 
817 

640 

3,642 

1,944 

791 

110 

349 

4)964 

2,375 

61,887 



WAOK BABinEBS. 



Average 
numb«r. 



•,eii,OM 

89,728 
531,011 
606,019 
240,076 

39,453 

258,434 
378,880 
239,696 

198,297 
168,722 

166,810 

282,174 

100,216 

38,429 

153,743 

15,628 
64,579 
62,202 
13,526 
18,431 

75,978 
75,721 
128,452 
13,929 
87,256 

6,430 

129^275 

73,615 

99,037 

7,424 

37,215 
69,928 
69,968 
40,618 

i7,on 

50,551 

22,895 
44,638 
14,240 

43,086 

23,714 

65,603 

34,007 

1,648.441 



l>er 
cent 
dis- 
tribu- 
tion. 



16 
2 
1 

6 
30 

5 
3 
7 

8 
9 

10 

4 

14 
31 
11 

38 

41 
36 

17 
19 
13 
40 
18 

43 
12 
20 
15 
42 

32 
21 
24 
29 
37 

26 

35 
27 
39 

28 

34 
22 
33 



1004) 

1.4 
8.0 
10.5 
3.6 
0.6 

3.9 
5.7 
3.6 

3.0 
2.6 

2.5 

4.3 
1.6 
0.6 
2.3 

0.2 
0.8 
0.9 
0.2 
0.3 

1.2 
1.1 
1.9 
0.2 
1.3 

0.1 
2.0 
1.1 
1.5 
0.1 

0.6 
1.1 
0.9 
0.6 
0.3 

a8 

0.3 
0.7 

a2 

0.7 

0.4 

1.0 

0.5 

24.9 



▼ALUS or PBODUCIB. 



Amount 
(expressed 
in thou- 
sands). 



flO,g7!8,OU 

1,370,568 

1,228,475 

1.156,129 

985,723 

^,584 

737,876 
628,392 
568,077 

612,796 
435,979 

416,695 

405,601 
396,865 
391,429 
384,752 

378,806 
374,730 
327,874 
279,249 
274,658 

267,657 
249,202 
239,887 
236,996 
221,300 

204,609 
200,144 
199,824 
196,912 
167,406 

166,814 
159,893 
167,101 
149,989 
147,868 

146,329 



141,942 
134,796 
124,889 



123,730 

117,689 

113,093 

104,719 

4,561,002 






1 
2 
3 
4 
& 

6 
7 
8 

9 
10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

i 

36 

37 
38 
29 

40 

41 
42 
43 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tribu- 
tion. 



100^ 

6.6 
6.9 
6.6 
4.8 
4.3 

3.6 

5:? 

2.5 
2.1 

2.0 

2.0 
1.9 
1.9 
1.9 

1.8 
1.8 
1.6 
1.4 
1.3 

1.3 
1.2 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 

1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
0.8 

0.8 
•0.8 
0.8 
0.7 
0.7 

0.7 

0.7 
0.7 
0.6 

0.6 

0.6 

0.6 

0.5 

22.0 



i 



100 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF INDUSTRIES, BY STATES AND WAGE EARNERS: 1909. 



8T1XS. 



Population. 



TTnited Statei 

New Ywk.". 

PennsylvanlA « 

Illixiojs 

Massachusetts 

Ohio 

New Jersey 

Hiohigan ^ 

W isoonsin 

Tiuliana 

Missouri 

California 

Connecticut 

Minnesota 

Kansas 

Maryland. 

Rhode Island 

Texas 

Iowa 

Louisiana 

Kentucky 

Washington 

Virginia 

North Carolina. 

Georgia. 

Nebraska. 

Tennessee 

Maine 

New Hampshire. 

West Virginia. 

Alabama 

Colorado 

South Carolina 

Oregon 

Mississippi 

Arkansas 

Montana. 

Florida ^ ^ 

Vermont 

Utah 

Oklahoma. 

Delaware 

Arizona 

District of Columbia ^ 

Idaho 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Wyoming. , 



91.979,866 

9,113,614 
7,665,111 
6,638,591 
3,366,416 
4,767,121 

2,537,167 
2,810,173 
2,333,860 
2,700,876 
3,203,335 

2,377,549 
1,114,756 
2,075,706 
1,600,949 
1,295,346 

542,610 
3,896,542 
2,224,771 
1,656,388 
2,289,905 

1,141,990 
2,061,612 
2,206,287 
2,609,121 
1,192,214 

2,184,789 

742,371 

430,572 

1,221,119 

2,138,093 

799,024 
1,515,400 

672.765 
1,797,114 
1,574,449 

376,053 
752,619 
355,956 
373,351 
1,657,155 

202,322 
204,354 
331,060 
325,594 
577,056 

533,888 

81,875 

327,301 

145,965 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
pnAnts. 



MS,481 

44,935 
27,563 
18,026 
11,684 
15,138 

8,817 
9,159 
9,721 
7,969 
8,375 

7,669 
4,251 
5,561 
3,435 

4,837 

1,951 
4,588 
6,528 
2,516 
4,776 

3,674 
5,685 
4,931 
4,792 
2„500 

4,609 
3,546 
1,961 
2,586 
3,396 

2,034 
1,854 
2,246 
2,598 
2,925 

677 
2,159 
1,958 

749 
2,310 

726 
311 
518 
725 
752 

1,020 
177 
313 
268 



WAOI EABHEBS. 



Average 
number. 



•,«W,046 

1,003,961 
877,543 
466,764 
684,559 
446,934 

326,223 
231,499 
183,583 
186,964 
152,993 

115,296 

210,793 

84,767 

44,215. 

107,921 

113,538 
70,230 
61,635 
76,165 
65,400 

60,130 
106,676 
121,473 
104,588 

24,336 

73,840 
79,955 
78,658 
63,893 
72,148 

28,067 
73,046 
28,750 
50,384 
44,982 

11,655 
67,473 
33,788 
11,785 
13,143 

21,238 
6,441 
7,707 
8,220 
2,789 

3,602 
2,257 
4,143 
2,867 



I 



1 
2 
4 
3 

5 

6 
7 

10 
9 

11 

18 
8 
18 
33 
16 

14 
25 
29 
21 
27 

26 
16 
12 
17 
37 

22 

19 
20 
28 
24 

36 
23 
35 
31 
32 

41 
30 
34 
40 
39 

38 
44 
43 
42 

48 

46 
49 
45 

47 



Per 
cent 
dls- 

tion. 



100.0 

15.2 

13.3 

7.0 

8.8 

6.8 

4.9 
3.5 
2.8 
2.8 
2.3 

1.7 
3.2 
1.3 
0.7 
1.6 

1.7 
1.1 
0.9 
1.2 

^^^^ 

1.0 
1.6 
1.8 
1.6 
0.4 

1.1 
1.2 
1.2 
1.0 
1.1 

0.4 
1.1 
0.4 
0.8 
0.7 

0.2 
0.9 
0.6 
0.2 
0.2 

0.3 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
(«) 

0.1 

(«) 
0.1 

(«) 



VALUE or PEODUCTS. 



Amount 
(expressed 
in thou- 
sands). 



9aO,67S,OSB 

3,369,490 
2,626,743 
1,919,277 
1,490,529 
1,437,836 

1,145,629 
685,109 
590,306 
579,075 
574,111 

629,761 
490,272 
400,420 
825,104 
315,669 

280,344 
272,896 
259,238 
223,949 
223,754 

230,746 
219,794 
216,656 
202,863 
199,019 

180,217 
176,029 
164,581 
161.950 
145,962 

130,044 

113,236 

93,005 

80,555 

74,916 

73,272 
72,890 
68,310 
61,989 
53,682 

62,840 
50,257 
25,289 
22,400 
19,138 

17,870 

11,887 

7,898 

6,249 






1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

6 
7, 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
16 

16 
17 
18 
19 
30 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 



Per 
cent 

dis- 
tribo^ 
tlom. 



100.0 

16.3 

12.7 

9.3 

7.2 

7.0 

6.5 
8.3 
2.9 
2.8 
2.8 

2.6 
2.4 
2.0 
1.6 
1.5 

1.4 
1.3 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 

1.1 
1.1 

i.a 

1.0 
1.0 

0.9 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8 
0.7 

0.6 
0.5 
0.4 

a4 

0.4 

0.4 
0.4 
0.3 
0.3 
0.3 

0.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0. 1 
0.1 

0.1 
0. 1 

^} 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK.' 



• 101 



SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES, BY PRINCIPAL CITIES BY RANK: 

1909. 



cut. 



New York, N.Y. 

Chicago, Hi 

Pbiladeiphia, Pa. 

8t.Loais. Mo 

Clevdand, Ohio.. 

Detroit, Mich.... 
Pltt8buKh,Fa... 

Boston, HasB 

BuflUo,N.Y.... 
Milwaukee, Wis.. 



Newark, N.J 

Cincinnati, Ohio.,. 

Baltimore. Md 

Mimieapolia, Minn. 
Kansas City, Kans. 

San Francisoo, Cal. 
JerseyClty. N. J... 
Indfatf iapoils^Jnd . . 
- Providence, n. I... 
Rochester, N.Y... . 



Loalsville, Ey 

South Omaha, Nebr. 
Youngstown, Ohio. . 

Lawrence, Mass 

New Orleans, La 



Worcester, Mass. .. . 

Bayonne,N. J 

Akron, Ohio 

PerthAmboy, N. J. 
Lynn, Mass ^... 



Paterson, N. J 

Los Angeles, Cal . . 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Fall River, Mass. 
Peoria, ni 



Toledo, Ohio... 
Omaha, Nebr.. 
Dayton, Ohio.. 
Lowell, Mass... 
Yonkers,N.Y. 



St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Denver, Colo 

Beading, Pa 



Population. 



New Haven, Conn. 

Seattle, Wash 

Waterburv, Conn. 
Syracuse, N.Y...., 
OuAden, N. J 



4,766,883 

2,185,283 

1,549,008 

687,029 

560,663 

465,766 
533,905 
670,585 
423,715 
373,857 

347,460 
363,591 
558,485 
301,408 
82,331 

416,912 
267,779 
233,650 
224,326 
218, 149 

223,028 
26,259 
79,066 
85.892 

339,075 

145.986 
55.545 
69.067 
32, 121 
89,336 

125,600 
319, 198 
102.054 
119.295 
66,950 

168,497 
124.096 
116.577 
106.294 
79,803 

214,744 
248,381 

96,652 
213,381 

96,071 

133,605 
237,194 

73,141 
137,249 

94,538 



Number 

of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



25,938 
9,666 
8,379 
2,667 
2.148 

2,036 
1,659 
3,155 
1,753 
1^764 

1,858 
2,184 
2,502 
1,102 
165 

1,796 

745 

855 

1,060 

1,203 

903 

71 
115 
162 

680 
97 

346 
80 

431 

702 
1,325 
367 
288 
283 

760 
432 
513 
320 
158 

719 
902 
207 
766 
482 

590 
751 
169 
7.38 
365 



WAOB 
EABHXBS. 



Average 
number. 



554,002 

293,977 

251,884 

87,371 

84,728 

81,011 
67,474 
60,637 
51,412 
59,502 

59,955 
60,192 
71,444 
26,962 
12,294 

28,244 
25,454 
31,815 
46,381 
39,108 

27,023 
6,306 
10.498 
30,542 
17,186 

28,221 

7/519 
15,831 

5,866 
27,368 

32,004 
17,327 
25.775 
37, 139 
5,981 

18.878 
8,023 
21.549 
32,575 
12,711 

19,339 
14.G43 
26.566 
12.058 
24,145 

23.547 
11,331 
20.170 
18, 148 
16,527 



1 
2 
3 
4 
6 

6 

9 

8 

18 

12 

11 

10 

7 

25 
42 

21 
28 
19 
14 
15 

24 

48 
45 
20 
37 

22 
47 
39 
60 
23 

18 
36 
37 
16 
40 

34 
46 
31 
17 
41 

33 
40 
26 
43 
29 

30 
44 
32 
35 
38 



TALUS or 

PBODVCT8. 



Amount 
(expressed 
in thou- 
sands). 



82,029,603 

1,281,171 

746,076 

328,495 

371,961 

352,992 
243,454 
337,457 
^18,804 
306,324 

302,511 
194,516 
186,978 
165,405 
164,061 

133,041 
128,775 
126,522 
120,241 
112,676 

101,284 
92,436 
81,271 
79,993 
78,794 

77,148 
73,641 
73,158 
73,093 
71,503 

60,584 
68,586 
66,609 
64,146 
63,061 

61,230 
60,854 
'60,378 
60.271 
59, 334 

do, y93 
54,704 
53,238 
51,538 
51,135 

51,071 
50,569 
50,350 
49.435 
49, 138 



1 
2 
3 
4 
6 

6 
7 
8 

10 

11 
13 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
30 

31 
22 
33 
34 
36 

35 
37 
38 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46' 

47 

48 

49 

50 



SCIENTIPIC AMERICAN I 



ilM 



III! 



M 



III! 



M 



3 ^A^li Mi S d SSS^i ^liii 



2 Sril^S^ %:^Z S S i"S3° i^^^S^ 



s :2S3^ ^i§ 2 :: s;"^:; "^^i^:^ 



I Mil 111 i I l||ll |B|| 



I Issll III I !- '||!-!- !|'|l 



3 1'rfl !-:-!- 1- ^ *!!- S !-l«|-!- 



r 



: pi I a «P8| |!||J 



I Hm IH - - i|||| fiSSH 



3 !l-5«-g- III -■ I !-|Sv? !---«-!! 



|iiiiisiisa»i 




Kf? 



u 



I 
i 



Il|ii 



111! 



M 



nil 



M 



^3*SS 5tn35 S^S^S 55SdS ^^^^ 



"SSJ33 tjrf^tS" SSS5S d{^^!^3 S3*" 



2^^^^ IS^SSS 3S3S2 ^SS*^ %%j^Z 



te'a'a'as- ri^'ilM" """hI* tfa'a'a"'* ^«"tftf 



|«4|!- «-!-!-»- Il«-ll Pi ?-5!-| 



5S I "^B|-- I 5'- ?-B--" «-l| 



' *"55 "■"*^H^ |l'" -8S^ 



6-. -| ^mm csSi |5| I S|8| 



S™"^2»" S'-'V'rfrf SbVb SwiJ erf* 



lllp l-l|l Bill IliB ill 







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i -i 
mil 
iiii 
iiii 



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i 






104 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENSES IN PERCENTAGES FOR 
THE LEADING INDUSTRIES 1909. 



INDT78TBT. 



All Induitrlei 

Agricultural implements 

Automobiles, including bodies and parts 

Boots and shoes, inclualng cut stock and findings . 

Brass and bronze products 

Bree4 and other bakery products 

Butter, cheese, and condensed milk 

Canning and preserving 

Carriages and waeons and materials 

Cars and general shop construction and rq[>airs by 

steam-railroad companies 

Cars, steam-railroad, not indudinip operations of 

railroad companies 4 

Chemicals 

Clothing, men's, including shirts 

Clothing, women's ^ 

Confectionery. 

Copper, tin, and sheet-iron products 

Cotton goods, including cotton small vrares 

Electriou machinery, apparatus, and supplies. . . 

Flour-mill and gristmill products 

Foundry and machine-shop i^roducts 

Furniture and refrigerators 

Oas, illuminating and heating 

Hosiery and knit goods 

Iron and steel, blast furnaces 

Iron and steel, steel wofks and rolling mills 

Leather goodsi , 

Leather, tanned, curried, and finished 

Liquors, distilled 

Liquors, malt 

Lumber and timber products 

Marble and stonti work 

Oil, cottonseed, and cake 

Paint and varnish 

Paper and wood pulp 

Patent medicines and compounds and druggists' 

preparations 

Petroleum, refining 

Printing and publishing 

Silk ana silk goods, including throwsters 

Slaughteriug and meat packing 

Smelting and refining, copper 

Smelting and refining, lead 

Sugar and molasses, not including beet sugar 

Tobacco manufactures 

Woolen, worsted, and felt goods, and wool hats. . 
All other industries 



^ER CENT OP TOTAL EXPENSES 
BEPOBTED. 



Sala- 
ries. 



6.1 

8.6 
4.5 
3.9 
4.1 
4.0 

1.4 

6.6 
6.7 

4.3 

4.3 

6.6 
6.2 
6.0 
7.6 
6.8 

2.6 
10.0 
1.5 
8.7 
7.3 

10. & 
4.4 
1.8 
2.9 
7.2 

2.2 
LO 
7.6 
4.8 
6.7 

3.1 
9.3 
4.0 

14.9 

1.8 



16. 
4. 
1. 
0. 
0. 

0. 
4. 



2.6 
6.4 



Wages. 



18.6 

24.3 
23.1 
20.6 
17.3 
17.4 

4.3 

13.6 

.27.0 

44.7 

23.0 

15.0 
20.7 
23.0 
13.1 
22.4 

24.0 
24.6 
2.6 
29.8 
30.8 

18.4 
25.6 
6.8 
18.3 
19.3 

10.6 
1.6 
13.7 
32.0 
44.8 

4.3 

7.4 

17.2 

8.7 
4.4 

26.6 

21.8 

3.9 

3.8 

3.4 

2.8 
19.0 
18.7 
2fl.l 



Matfs 
rials. 



66.8 

61.1 
62.6 
60.6 
72.6 
60.9 

91.0 
72.0 
68.9 

49.2 

66.7 

68.2 
67.9 
61.1 
67.9 
63.7 

66.9 
63.8 
92.8 
60.1 
61.0 

46.2 
62.7 
88.4 
73.9 
64.6 

81.2 
18.4 
32.2 
61.0 
39.4 

87.7 
71.1 
69.7 

44.1 
89.6 

32.6 
60.8 
91.3 
94.4 
94.8 

92.6 
48.4 
72.9 
62.1 



Mis- 
cellane- 
ous ex- 
penses. 



10.i 

16.0 
9.9 
5.9 
6.0 
&6 

3.3 
0.0 
8.4 

1.8 

6.0 

10.8 
16.2 

0.9 
11.4 

8.1 

6.6 
11.7 

3.1 
11.4 

ia9 

24.6 
7.4 
3.0 
4.8 
8.9 

6.1 
79.0 
46.6 
12.2 

9.1 

4.9 

12.2 

9.1 

32.4 
4.2 

24.1 

13.2 

3.3 

1.1 

0.9 

3.7 
28.0 

6.8 
10.5 



SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFKRENCE BOOK. 

I. ENGINES AND POWER. 

total . hone-power 1.740.031: 



. total horee-power 6f 18,876,376. used pn- 
aiay power in the United Htatea. Of this 
lumber 209,103 were owned aod 109.309 were 



153.625 wiCli total 
wheels.' 20.'07a, to 



r,u follows: Sleun. 
iwer761.188.j 
M3, total borai 

if ao.les™ Th" 



ie,33e, 

T,8b7,i3fl, 



f 1:^:1.630. At Che end of the year 1909 
uiric were 388,864 electric motors in the 
United Statfs, haviDK a total hoTW-power of 
" ■ " " «e 189.546. havinK a horae- 

L™nt; and 199,309, having 



8 follows 



Electric 



196.309. 



oould be obtainul. 



II. MANUFACTURED FOOD PRODUCTS. 

ralue. »a.327,095; amount received tor 
^lutom or eontrarl work. I1.3M.739; and all 
ither products, value, S93.170.064. 

Canning and PRESBitviMo. 



Sl.AUOHTERINa AND MiDAT FaCKINO. 

The total coat of all th" mntprin.! iisorl in ilie 

(iurioB theyear 1909, nmounteii to JIJH-'.- 
S27.784. The c™t of all the anim^JH KliiuK^- 
B I9B0,725,581 " 



of b. 



killed w 



.114,8t 



calves Blatighlered was 2,504,728 an 
*ere valued at »Z5,O30,014; the nur 
theep slaughtered was 12.255,501, ao 
value wad $59,924,931; the number i 
ilauebtered amounted to 33.870.611) ni 
value naa t4S3.383.M4S; the aniii.<< ^^lilll 



tered was 1138,548. T 
chased durins the yesi 
S93.409.28e. and all lh< 



other materials pur- 



The products oflho 

.1™ iifsi ,371,508,1™ and 



veaL 252,097.078 po 
Sie& mutton, 49fi,45 
potk 4,377.127,187, 



ilile. »4S6.846.teL, ol 
pnunda, valued at 
<iTfirti.ii: 962,130,557 pounds, 
895,959,0-13. were ealteii; 
pounds, rsJu^d at (101,080,390, 



were hams; 340.294.. __ 

•33.225.458, were ahouldei.. 

poiud^ valued at t97,SSe.403, we 



17,604 pounds, 
S13,499,B69; 



sage, fresh or cured, 
otlerfnwh meat. 257, F 
■,768: canned 



18,726.1 
401,515 

111.404 

value, 120, 



,S79: wool, 21,868,926 pounds. 



end of t 



™ niteS S 



States, h 

17,000. The 






of fll9 

teriola usea m me esiaousnmenis was viui.- 
833.000; the amount spent in these factories 
for wages waS (19,082,000; tlie amount spent 

expenses were' (12.7 IS'.OOO. The total value 
of the pruducta was (157,101,000, and the 

coNlnf materlafH)wM'»55, 278,0^(1™ The total 

pIl'vivI ill (hv .-rabliahments numbeted 7.760: 
and ilii' :ivi r!ip> numbet of waee earneis em- 

m:,V\' hnr5i'-iini>-er of tiie estsfilishmenta wm 



13(18,747,941: the 



ed during the year 1( 
was (12,938,474, Tl 

' orih^° pplea."( ijla 



of the [jerries. (1,754,927; of the cherries, 
11,019,013. During the Bsme year there were 
400,328,707 pounds of fruit;, with a total 
value of (19340,305 dried in the United 
Stales. Of this toUl (4337.933 represented 
the value ol the raisins dried; (6.130,412 that 
of the prunes: (3,098,095 that of the apples: 
(3,423,083 that ol the peaches; (2,277.177 

During Uiey'^ 1900 there were 235.4 18,713 

Ssunds of li^ and oysters, with a value of 
17,573,311. canned in the United states. 
There were 99.831.528 pounds of salmon, with 
a value of (8,72:1.505, canned during the year; 
90.094,284 paun<ls of sardines, with a value of 
(4,931.b:iI: 28,192,392 pounds of oyaleis, with 
a value of (2,443,101. There oere 30.814,989 
pounds of Ksh, having a value of (2,900,417. 
smoked during the year 1909; and 128.539,299 
pounds of fish. haviOB a value of (7,174,901. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Baited durins the year. 49. 464,338 p< 
cod, with A value of $3,077,612, wer 
dunog (his period: and 9.04S.469 po 



nJsof I (22,371,457. Tht 

the United Stat«a.*'477^^TOl'"of"'vrt>ieh! 
valued at |1T.3SS,736, were whole and 
I48.5aO,48S pounds of which, valued at 
(3.287, 24fl, were broken. There was 39,821,- 
813 pounds of polish, valued at $363,062. 
produced from rice during Ihts year; 91.208,- 
529 pounds of bran, vulued at $736,215; 
!1G6,147 worth of hulls and waste; and 
$421,061 worth o( all other rice products. 




THE MEATS WE EAT. 



SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FLOUR AND GRIST MILL PRODUCTS. 



nfoEroundoc 



V»lne 

Core m«al aod corn floui: 

v»iM.!y//.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Hdiiitny and grlla: 



Value. 



Tons (2,000 pounds)... 

Offalr 

Tmu (2/Ma pounds). .. 

Value 

AH other csreal products—' 
foods," oatmcsl, rolled 






1:1,347, Ml 




'.i.sta.Ti'} 

fl, 241,598 
7,075,011 



«4, 095,063 
ll|4S0|37D 

tt,3BI,D0g 

flu.oes 



10B,760,B« 

taa, iie,2u 



te, 383.638 
ITS. 081. SSI 



tt,T20,10e 
t7,t06.Oie 



l3,lSa,U3 



7U,BS1,3M 



183,011,111 

3,lM,40e 
t36,ST9,lM 



' In addltlwi, merohftnt-groond products, valued at *l,e37,228, were made by 
cetabllahmSDlS engaged prlmullj' In the manufectuie ol products oUier than those 
covered by the Industry designation. Tha [terns covertd by this amount were 
wheat flour, 106.477 barrels, valued at 1614,952; com meal, 32.804 hairels, valued at 
*SJ,S07j rye flour, 2,820 barrels, valued at »ia,330; feed, 33,765 ions, valued at J907,1BS: 
' -"^ 127 tons, valued at tI5,274i and In addition, "breakfast foods." to tbe 
,978,813, were made by establishments engaged primarily in the manu- 
.... ___ — , — r. .. .. ..>... ._ ijg^ jgj. ougtom gioond 



"iSi 



See note to table on page ri 



'tDlddtt[on,"breaktaat 



primarily In the manufacture of food prepaiatlons. 



108 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUGAR. 



The total acreage of sugar beets planted in 
the United States amounted to 415,964. Of 
these 29,459 were planted directly by the 
factory; 18,166 by tenants of the factory; 
368,339 on contract by others than tenants 
of me factory. There were 3,965,356 tons of 
beets used in the industry. Of these 266,768 
were grown directly by tiie factory; 163,843 
tons by tenants of the factory; and 3,534,745 
tons on contract by others than the tenants 
of the factory. The total value of the pro- 
ducts derived from the beets was $48,122,383. 
Of this 496,807 tons of granulated sugar were 
valued at $45,645,810; 4.875 to&s of raw 
sugar were valued at $291,819; 20,812,747 
gallons of molasses or syrup were valued at 



$1,129,905; beet pulp was valued at $795,900; 
and all other products were valued at 
$258,949. 

The total value of all the sugar produced in 
the United States during the year 1909 was 
$77,991,683, and of this $48,122,383 was 
derived from the sugar-beet industry, and 
$29,869,300 from the cane-sugar industry. 
There were 828,540 tons of sugar produced, 
the total value of which was $72,033,302. of 
which amount 501,862 pounds, valued at 
$45,937,629, were beet sugar, and 326,858 
pounds, valued at $26,095,673, were cane 
sugar. The total value of molasses, syrup, 
and all other products produced of either 
cane or beet was $5,958,381. 



III. TEXTILES. 



Rugs and Carpets. 

During the year 1909 there were 57,176,729 
square yards of carpets, with a value of 
$48,475,889, manufactured in the United 
States. During the same period there were 
24,042,152 square yards of rugs, valued at 
$18,490,449, woven in the United States. 

Cordage and Twine and Jute and 
Linen Goods. 

The total value of the cordage and twine 
and jute and linen goods produced in the 
United States during the year 1909 was 
$61,019,986. The total value of the rope 
and binder twine for the same year was 
$33,930,306; of the twine not includmg 
binder, $8,934,352; of the yams for sale, 
$5,434,037; of the 6,530,503 pounds of linen 
thread used, $3,407,008: of the 69,311,288 
square yards of gimny-bagging, $3,507,482; 
and of the 2,206,114 square yards of jute 
carpets and rugs, $549,221. 

Felt Goods. 

The aggregate cost of the material required 
in the production of the felt goods of the 
United States during the year 1909 was 
$6,967,206, and the total value of these 
products for the same period was $11,852,626. 
There were 3,764,468 square yards of felt 
cloths, valued at $1,381,854, produced in that 
year. 

Hats, Fur-Felt and Wool-Felt. 

The value of the 2,989,252 dozens of fur- 
felt hats produced during the year 1909 was 
$43,442,466, and the value of the 366,370 
dozen of fur-felt hat bodies and hats in the 
rough for the same period was $2,703,738. 

The total value of the 590,957 dozen wool- 
felt hats produced in the United States during 
the year 1909 was $3,646,787. 

Hosiery and Knit Goods. 

There were, during the year 1909, 62,825,- 
069 dozen pair of hosiery produced in the 
United States and they were valued at 
$68,721,825. During the same period there 
were 25,337.779 dozen shirts and drawers 
produced, with a total value of $69,592,817; 



2,473,103 dozen combinations, with a value 
of $14,853,536; sweaters, cardigan jackets, 
etc., to the value of $22,430,817; and gloves 
and mittens to the value of $7,296,887. In 
the production of the hosiery and knit goods 
of the United States there were 2,681 sets of 
cards used; 736,774 spindles; 112,206 knitting 
machines of all classes, and 43,885 sewing 
machines of all classes. 

Cotton Goods. 

The total cost of the 2,335,344,906 pounds 
of cotton material consumed in the proauction 
of cotton goods during the year 1909 was 
$274,724,210. The total value of the cotton 
goods produced from these materials was 
$628,391,813, divided as follows: 6,348,568,593 
square yards of woven goods, valued at 
$456,089,401; 23,700,957 pounds of thread, 
valued at $20,516,269; and 13,715,771 pounds 
of twine, valued at $2,417,391. There were 
27,425,608 producing spindles used during the 
year, and 665,049 looms of all classes. 






UNITED KINODOM 
54,000,000 



U.S. A GERMANY 

24,000.000 9.000.000 






RUSSIA 
8,000.000 



FRANCE 
6,000.000 



IMOIA 
5,QOO,000 



CHIEF MANUFACTUKING COUNTRIES. 
(Number of Spindles). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 109 




CoimiR^t. Munn 



110 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Oilcloth and Linoleum. 

The total value of the oilcloth and linoleum 
produced in the United States during the year 
1909 was S26.253,796. The oilcloth, valued 
at $11,681,012, was divided as follows: 
18,354,851 square yards of floor oilcloth, 
valued at $3,776,660; 17,338,440 square 
yards of enameled oilcloth, valued at $2,265.- 
146: 61,168,777 square yards of table oil- 
cloth, valued at $5,639,206. The total value 
ol the linoleum produced in tiie United States 
during the same period was $10,844,928. 
The value of the artificial leather produced 
in the United States during the same period 
was $3,448,617. 

Silk and Silk Goods. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 
production of the silk products of the United 
States was $107,766,916. There were 17,- 
472,204 pounds of raw silk, valued at $67,- 
787,037, required; 2,212,972 pounds of spun 
silk, valued at $4,848,789, used; 914.494 
pounds of artificial silk, valued at $1,926,894; 
3,377,972 pounds of organsine and tram, 
valued at $14,679,719, purchased; $1,637,187 
dollars, worth of fringe and floss, including 
waste, noils, etc.; 14,111,878 pounds of cotton 
and mercerized yam, valued at $5,811,582; 
610,588 pounds of woolen or worsted yams, 
valued at $765,989; 710.108 pounds of 
mohair yam valued at $640,529; and 353.780 
pounds of all other kinds of yam, valued at 
$456,597. Chemicals and dyestuffs, cost 
$1,062,313; and all other materials used in 
the production of silk and silk goods cost 
$8,150,280. 




CHINA 
%S.5H5,000 





ITALY 
12.753.000 



OAPAfi 
12.725.000 






ASIA MINOR INDIA 
3.051.000 2,650.000(?) 



T0IIIKIN6 
1,651.161 




TRANCE 
1.360.000 

SILK. 
A tear's production. 



REST OF 
WORLD 



The products of the silk and silk goods 
industry in the United States during the year 
1909 were valued at $1?6,91 1,667. Of this 
amount $107,881,146 were derived from the 
manufacture of 185,707,316 yards of broad 
silk, as follows: $53,282,704 from the manu- 
facture of 81,934,158 yards of all silk, plain 
and fancies; $14,207,861 from the 24,742,556 
yards of silk mixed, plain and fancies; $9,835,- 
345 from the 13,249,090 yards of all silk jac- 
quard; $3,473,799 from the 6,043,686 yards of 



silk mixed jacquard; $11,353,242 from the 
19,693,393 yards of all piece-dyed broad sUk. 
and $15,728,195 from the 40,044,433 yards of 
mixed piece-dyed broad silk; $4^67,9£K) 
from the 10.093.583 yards of velvet; $2,104,- 
768 from the 2,759,411 yards of plushes; 
$382,820 from the 226.717 yards of tapestries 
and upholstery; $32,744,873 from nbbbns; 
$1,350,850 laces, nets, veils, veiling, etc.; 
$485,322 from embroideries; $824,527 from 
fringes and gimps; $4,483,248 from braids 
and bindings; $3,850,448 from trimmings: 
$6,341,719 from the 1,088,780 pounds of 
machinist twine; $4,179,355 ^ from the 
747.246 poimds oi sewing, embroidery, wash, 
fringe and floss silks; $12,550,510 from tiie 
2,740.319 pounds oi oiganzine and tram* 
and $2,104,066 from the 779.462 pounds of 
spun silk. The value of all oliier products of 
tne silk and silk goods industries amounted to 
$4,495,675; and the value of ail the work 
done on materials for others amounted to 
$8,364,350. 

Woolen and Worsted Goods. 

The total cost of all the materials required 
in the manufacture of aU tiie woolen and 
worsted goods produced in the United States 
during the year 1909 amounted to $273,438,- 
570. This amount was divided as follows: 
474,755.366 pounds of wool in the condition 
purchased, value $136,666,917, of which 
310,602,279 pounds were domestic wool, with 
a value of $85,018,238, and 164,153,087 
pounds were foreign wool, with a value of 
$51,648,679; mohair, camel, alpaca and 
vicuna hair, 7,805,422 poimds, value 
$2,399,123; cow and otiier animal hair, 
17,356,100 pounds, value $932,911; cotton, 
20,024,061 pounds, value $2,515,409; tailors' 
clippings, rags, etc., 40,402,460 pounds, value 
$2,856,966; shoddy, mungo ana wool extract 
purchased, 21.454.187 pounds, value $3,058.- 
214; waste and noUs of wool, mohair, camel 
hair, etc., purchased, 26,473,311 pounds, 
value $7,523,283; tops purchased, 20,828,245 
pounds, value $14,614,527; woolen yams 
purchased, 931,222 pounds, value $558,270; 
worsted yams purchased, 59,148,771 i>ounds, 
value $56,033,701; merino yams purchased, 
1,971,709 pounds, value $318,456; cotton 
yams purchased, 39,169,388 pounds, value 
$10,492,185; silk and spun silk yams, 
282,536 pounds, value $1,142,663; all other 
yams, 1,046,735 pounds, value $40,739; 
chemicals and dyestuffs, value $8,820,928; 
and all other materials, value $25,464,278. 

The total value of all the products of the 
woolen and worsted goods manufactories was 
$419,743,521. This amount was derived from 
the following products: All-wool woven goods, 
322,944,365 square yards, value $219,853,767; 
wool cloths, doeskins, cassimeres, cheviots, 
etc., 40,843,979 square yards, value $29,- 
291,059; worsted coatings, serges and suitings, 
119,655,069 square yards, value $101,903,153; 
woolen overcoatings, 14,697,770 square yards, 
value $11,230,856; worsted overcoatings 
and cloakings, 654.404 square yards, value 
$821,688; wool dress goods, saddngs, tiioots, 
etc., and opera and similar flannels, 29,099,- 
956 square yards, value $16,385,498; worsted 
dress goods, cashmeres, serges, bunting, etc., 
105,801,349 square yards, value $54,030,376; 
carriage cloths, 1,782,855 square yards, value 
$947,862; flannels for underwear, 3,856,553 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Ill 



square yards, value $1,257,271; blankets, 
5,137,903 square yards, value $3,228,797; 
horse blankets, 247,395 square yards, value 
$185,430; woven shawls, 704,153 square 
yards, value $404,583; and all other all-wool 
woven goods, 463,179 square yards, value 
$167,194; union, or cotton mixed, woven 
goods, 37,453,351 square yards, value 
$14,327,973; unions, tweeds, cheviots, cassi- 
meres, etc.; 18,917,478 square vards, value 
$7,780,854; overcoatings and cloakings, 
4.281,739 square yards, value $2,363,381: 
sackings, tricots, dress goods and opera and 
similar flannels, 4,319,539 square yards. 



value $1,776,721; flannels for underwear, 
7,063,572 square yards, value $1,308,369; 
blankets, 1,717.758 square yards, value 
$650,714; all other union, or cotton mixed, 
woven goods, 1,153,265 square yards, value 
$447,934; all cotton-warp woven goods, 
210,346,081 square yards, value $62,265,854; 
all upholstering goods and simdries, value 
$1,986,330; all partially manufactured prod- 
ucts for sale, value $115,032,285; all other 
products, value $3,250,857. During the year 
there were 4,287,640 spindles, producing and 
doubling and twisting; also, 72,532 looms, 
all classes. 



IV. IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURES. 



MATERIALS. 



Total eost . 
Ironora: 

Tods 

Cost 

Domestic— 

Tons 

Cost. 



Fcsoten— 
Ixnu.. 



Cost. 
Mill cinder, scrap, etc.: 

Tons 

Cost 

Fluxes: 

Tons 

Cost 

rod, total cost' 

Cpko- 

Tons (2,000 pounds) 

Cost 

Charcoal— 

Bnshelt. 

Cost 

Anthracite cool *— 

Tons. 

Cost 

Bituminous ooal >— 

Tons. 

Cost 



All other materials, cost. 

nODUCTS. 

Total valne 

Fig iron: 

Tons 

Value 



1M$ 



All other products, value 

BitominooB, chiefly ook»— 

Tons 

Value 

Anthracite ooal and coke mixed 
and anthracite alomo— 

Tons , 

Value 

Charcoal- 
Tons 

Vatae 



P^vfrm, clau^Ui cceording to 4Uvo- 

Frodnoed lor oooamnption in 
works of company reporting— 

Tons 

Vahie 



|SM,687,8W 

48,363,677 
$187, 264, 001 

46,605,030 
8177,580,789 

1,747,747 
10,674,812 

1,082,530 
85,544,850 

13,570,845 

812,239,403 

8105,094,112 

31,436,536 
8102,134,423 

88,032,618 
82,787,006 

265,401 
8004,102 

102,833 
8168,561 

89,504,824 



8881,489,888 

26,661,798 
8387,880,443 

83,606,840 



•24,606,672 
8360,684,636 



670,091 
810,062,160 

372,236 
87,183,657 



15,868,203 
8830,387,017 



PXODUCT8— continued. 

Pig iron, eUuH/ied aeeording to ditpo- 
<if ion— Contlnoed . 
Produced for sale- 
Tons , 

Value 



Pig iron, chutified hy grade* (tons): 
Bessemer, (0.04 to 0.10 per cent 

in phoephorua) 

Low phosphorus (below 0.04 per 

cent in phoephorus) 

Basic 

Foundry 

Forge or mill , 

Malleable Bessemer 

White, mottled, and miscellane- 
ous , 

Direct castings. ^ , 

Ferro alloys 

SpiegdeiSen 

Ferromanganese 

Ferrosilicon, including Besse- 
mer ferrosilloon (7 per cent 
or over in silicon) and fer- 
rophosphoros 



1908 



Pig iron, eltunfied by method of delivery 
or easting (tons): 
Delivered in molten condition. . . 

Sand cast 

Machine cast^ 

Chill cast 

Direct castings. 



KQUIPMXKT. 

Furnaces in active estabUshmoitsr 
Coomleted stacks at end of year- 
Number 

Dally capacity, tons 

Active during the year- 
Number 

Daily capacity, tons 

In course of construction at end 
of year- 
Number 

Daily capacity, tons 

Pig-casting machines, number 

Granulated slag, pits: 

Number 

Annual capacity, tons 

Qas engines operated with blast-fur- 
nace gas: 

Number 

Horsepower 



9,793,695 
8148,443,426 



10,147,052 

248,720 

7,741,750 

5,539,410 

686,685 

934,211 

110,810 

16, 181 

326,970 

142,223 

82,206 



102,530 



12,197,666 

7,656,668 

6,096,707 

686,566 

16,181 



388 

101,447 

870 
98,073 



10 
4,100 

104 

85 
6,099,269 



85 
198,040 



112 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IRON AND STEEL. 



I. HATEBIALS. 



Total cost 

Iron and steel: * 

Forfurnaee* and hot roUs— 

Tons 

Cost 

Pig iron and ferroalloys— 

Tons 

Cost , 

Pig iron- 
Tons 

Cost 

Ferroalloys— splege 1 ei s e n , 
ferromanganese, etc.— 

Tons 

Cost 

6crap, including old rails not In- 
tended forrerolling— 

Tons 

Cost 

Ingots, blooms, billets, slabs, 
muck and scrap bar, rendllng 
rails, and sheet and tin-plate 
bars- 
Tons 

Cost 

BdUedfornuforfuriher manufaetwe— 
Skelp— 

Tons 

Cost 

Wire rods- 
Tons 

Cost 

Iron ore: 

Tons 

Cost 



All other materials, cost 

H PRODUCTS 



1909 



Total valae 

Rolled, forged, andotherdassified prod- 
ucts, stecil and iron: 

Tons 

Value 

Rails- 
Tons 

Value 

Bessemer steel- 
Tons 

Value , 

Open-hearth steel, basic— 

• Tons 

Value 

ReroUed or renewed rails- 
Tons : 

Value 

Rail fastenings (spUce bars, tie- 
plates, fishplates, etc.)— 

Tons 

Value 



Structural shapes, not including 
plates used for making girders- 
Tons 

Value 

Steel- 
Tons..., 

Value , 

Open-hearth— 

Tons 

Value 

Bessemer- 
Tons 

Value 



1667,600,866 



30,388,755 
$515,760,588 

19,078,880 
1297,471,122 

18,712,304 
6282,663,740 



364,685 
$14,807,382 



4,803,617 
$72,722,831 



6,608,249 
$145,575,635 



176,717 
$5,704,856 

146,425 
$4,252,695 

835,338 
$4,292,963 

$127,480,754 



$985,782,634 



26,723,274 
$863,342,711 

2,858,509 
$81,128,295 

1,643,627 
$44,727,515 

1,216,072 
$36,400,780 

106,352 
$2,683,017 



396,911 
$14,488,412 



2,123,630 
$65,664,503 

2,102,300 
$64,853,466 

» 1,934,230 
$59,789,948 

168.070 
$5,063,518 



19W 



n. FB0DUCT8— continued. 



Iron- 
Tons.. 
Value. 



Bars and rods, indading merchant, 
sbov«l,fln£er,Bnd horseshoe bars, 
spike, Cham, bolt, and nut rods, 
etc. (bat not including wire rods, 
sheet and ti^-plate bars, spUoe 
bars, and bars for reenforoed oonr*' 
Crete): 

Tons. -• 

Value 

Bars for reenforoed concrete: 

Tons 

Value 

Wire rods: 

Tons 

Value 



Plates and sheets, not including 
black plates or sheets for tiztntng, 
nail and tack plates, tie-plates, 
fishplaies, or armor plates: 

Tons 

Valuer .- 

Black plates, or sheets, for tinning: 

Tons , . . . 

Value 

Skelp, fiue and pipe: 

. Tons 

Value 

Hoops, bands, and cotton ties: 

Tons 

Value 

Nail and tack plates: 

Tons • 

Value 

Axles, car, locomotive, automobile, 
wagon, carriage, etc., rolled or 
forged: 

Tons 

Value 

Armor plates, gun forgings, and ord- 
nance: 

Tons 

Value 

Blooms, billets, and slabs, pro- 
duced for sale or for transfer to 
other works of same company: 

Tons....^ ^ 

Value 

Rolled forging blooms and billets 
produced for sale or for transfer to 
other works of same company: 

Tons : 

Value 

Sheet and tin-plate bars produced 
for sale or for transfer to other 
works ofsameoomiwny: 

Tons , 

Value 



Muck and scrap bar produced for 
sale or for transfer to other works 
of same company: 

Tons 

Value 

All other rolled steel or iron: 

Tons w.^ 

Value ,- 



21,330 
$711,127 



3, 7o4, «4o 
$121,488,423 

191,858 
$5/588,063 

2,295,279 
$61,947,058 



3,332,733 
$133,272,303 

631,435 
$30,955,067 

2,064,286 
$64,514,728 

341,043 
$10,429,681 

68,557 
$2,540,022 



102,348 
S3, 831, 344 



26^845 
$10,649,070 



4,887,706 
$108,614,747 



84,383 
$2,247,133 



1,662,761 
$37,745,269 



174,406 
$4,966,211 



$39, 



,M, 



627 
061 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



113 



IRON AND STEEL— Continued. 



n. rBODOcn— oontinoed. 

Soned, forged, and other daarifled 
produets, eteel and Iron— Oonttntwd. 
Iiuots produced tot sale or for trans- 
fer to otber works of seme com- 
pany: 

Tons 

Value 

Dfaeot steel casUncs: 

Tons 

Vahie 

All other forged steel and Iron, not 
inoluding remanufaotores of roU- 
InuniU products: 

Tons 

Value 



AH other nrodnota, value 

MIsceUaiiBOus steel end iron prod- 
ucts not rolled, inoluding value 
added to iron and tteel rolling- 
mill prodnota by fnrther manulMy 

ture,vahie 

Sorsp stert or iron produced for sale 
or tor transliBr to other works of 
same codipany: 

Tons 

Value 



All products other than steel and 
iron, value 



m. STBSk. 

Total production: 

Tons 

Vahie (Included above). 



Clarified m oan ing to pneu$: 
Open-hearth— 

Tons 

Vatae. 



Tons. 
Value. 
Acid- 
Tons.. 
Value. 



Tons 

VahiB 

Ckudble and mjacellaneoas— 

Tons , 

Vatae. 



dutified aeeordmg to form: 
InisotB— 

Tons...... 

Value 



Tons. 
Vatae. 



I HiplCT pfeeeit —open -hear th steel pertly 
purifledin BessBBner converters oefaie 
Hwirtihig in open-hoarth Itaznaces (in- 
ohided above;, tons 



AUoftdtUeU, nlcksl, tungsten, titanium, 
duome^ vanadium, etc (included 

above), tons... 

.CImmfieA aeeordimg to pnuu: 

OpeiHfaearth 

Basic 

Add 



Qrndble and miscellaneous. 
CluHfied aeeording to form: 
II«ots. 



19W 



142,745 
tS,M8,7M 

604,886 
138,862,448 



818,740,241 
8122,879,823 

880,534,360 



1,238,554 
818,168,024 



817.681,830 



•23,478,718 
•478,736,668 



14,170,064 
8202,360,120 

13,210,410 
8262,520,822 

066,686 

820,830,307 

9,190,201 
8178,232,848 

107,373 
88,144,011 



22,968,862 
8439,874,540 

504,866 
838.862,448 



622,682 



158,216 

100,335 
86,242 
14,093 
45,824 
12,557 

151,300 
6,916 



IT. MAMQTACTUBBS f»OM BOUDTO-imX. 
FBODOCTS. 

(Made ta mill p w d u du g. value pre- 
vioosqr tactaded.) 

Win sad wire products: 

Tyms (3,000 pounds) 

Vatas r....... 

Pipes and tubes: 
Wrought welded— 

Tons 

Value 

Hsiniless, hot«oilled or drawn— 

TOOB 

VahiB 

All other, inclndinfc cUadisd, rivet- 
edietc, but not inetadtng oast: 

Tons 

Value 

Bolts, nuts, rivets, IoivmI spObbs, 
ijOtc: 
(200 pounds) 



1900 




Cnt nails snd spikes: 
Ken(lQO pounds). 



Boras and male shoes: 

Ksgs (200 pounds) , 

Value 

Springs, car, furniture, and all other, not 
including wire springs: 

Tons 

Vahie 

Switches, ItagSy orossingB, etc.: 

Tons 

Vatae 

Oalvanised plates or sheets: 

Tons , 

Value 

Stamped ware: 

Tons 

Value 

Shovels, spades, scoops, etc., value 



V. FBOnyCTS SOLO FOE EXPORT. 

(By establishments producing.) 



Total tons 

Rails 

Rail Itotenings 

Pipes and tuoes 

Sheet and tin-plate bars . 
Plates and sheets. 

Ipla 

isnai 
Bars and rods. 

Wire rods. 

Blooms, billets, and slabs. 

Skelp 

Misoellaneous 



Oalvanised plates or sheets. 
Structural snapes 



VI. EQUIPMENT. 

Steel plant*: Daily capacity of steel fur- 
' naces and converters, tons of steel, 

double torn .' 

Open-hearth furnaces- 
Number 

Daily capacity, tons of steel, 

double turn 

Basic- 
Number 

Daily capacity, tons of steel, 

double turn. 

Add— 

Number 

Daily capacity, tons of steel, 
double turn 



1,684,866 
871,034,084 



1,314,771 
888,471,673 

■ 64,378 
86,050,780 



17,561 
8986^099 



4,471,986 



1,000,310 
0,218,207 



096,383 
r,202,897 



6,191 
8374,924 

28,606 
0,471,006 

431,658 
825,012,05(]| 

24,612 

0.206,707 

8540,321 



867,646 
317,465 
20,118 
89,377 
85,123 
80,706 
79,246 
60,764 
48,938 
18,738 
18.021 
10,703 
29,457 



108,710 

687 

61,601 

549 

55,273 

138 

6,328 



114 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IRON AND STEEL— CJontinued. 




VI. EQUIPMENT. -Continued. 

Converters, Bessemer or modified 
Bessemer- 
Number 

Daily capacity, tons of steel, 

double turn. 

Crucible furnaces— 

Number 

Number of pots that can be used 

at a heat 

Daily capacity, tons of steel, 

double turn 

All other steel furnaces- 
Number 

Daily capacity, tons of steel, 

double turn 

Metal mixos— 

Number 

Capacity, tons 

\Ro1Unff nUU»: Daily capacity of r<dled 
steel and iron, double turn, tons 



99 

45,963 

257 

3,840 

840 

16 

292 

59 
14,343 

150,403 



Production op Coke. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 
production of coke, was $65,388,124. The 
cost of the coal charsed into ovens, was 
$59,354,937. The total value of the coke 
produced, was $98,078,383; 39,315.065 tons 
were valued at $89,965,483. Among by- 
products obtained in the manufacture of coke 
was gas, which measured in thousands of 
cubic feet, amounted to 76.590,763 of which 
60,799,543 cubic feet (thousands) were used 
in process or wasted and 15,791,22K) cubic 
feet (thousands) were sold at a value of 
$2,609,211. 60.126,006 gallons of tar were 
obtained having a value of $1,408,611; of 
sulphate ammonia, or its equivalent in 
sulphate. 123.111,197, valued at $3,227,316. 
At the end of the year 1909, the number of 
ovens in use in the United States was 103,982. 
201 had been abandoned during the year, and 
2,950 were building. 



Coal seems to have been used for fuel by 
the ancient Britons, but the first proper 
notice we have is that it was mined in New- 
castle 1233. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



PRODUCT. 




Total Talne. . , 

Implements of cultivation 

Seeders and planters 

Harvesting iinplements 

Seed separators 

All other products 

Amount received for repair work 

Principal kind of implements, by number 

Implements of cultivation: 
Cultivators- 
Beet 

Small 

Wheeled 

Cotton scrapers 

HarrowiB— 

Disk 

Spring-tooth 

Spike-tooth 

Listers. 

Plows^ 

Disk 

Gang 

Shovel 

Steam 

Sulky or wheel 

Walking 

Seeders and planters: 
Seeders- 
Broadcast 

Combination 

Cornpktnters— 

Hand 

Horse 

Cotton planters 

Potato planters 



>|146,880,M8 

135,246,030 
$13,679,921 
$34,568,131 
$11,030,412 
$48,600,062 
$3,114,662 



3,172 

460,606 

435,429 

20,180 

193,000 

112,832 

394,988 

44,840 

22,132 

91,686 

254,737 

2,355 

134,836 

1,110,006 



38,007 
23,963 

96,465 

122,780 

79,271 

23,082 



PBODUCT. 


19M 


priUa— continued. 

Cora 


20,187 
21,292 
68,611 
82,507 
7,817 

22,635 

1,409 

19,603 

120,274 

543 

1,707 

46,064 

43,675 

84,706 

206,260 
17,212 
34,396 

359,264 
25,632 
58,294 

437 

372 

1,240 

74,223 

9,049 

33,806 

822 
23,586 


Disk 


Grain 


Another 


Seed sowers. 


Harvesting implements: 

OtiMiI CTfll'' i*« 


Harvesters- 
Bean „ .... 


Com 


Orain 


Harvesters and thrashers com- 
bined , 


Other. 


Hay carriers 


Haylbrks, horse 


Hay loaders 


Hayrakes, horse 


Haystackers 


' Hay tedders 


Mowers 




Reapers 


Seed sepvators: 

Qover huUers 


Pom huskep?. ... . . . . . . 


Com huskers and shredders — .»... 
Com sliellers- 

Hand 


• Power 


FfttiniTiff rnUl<f . . . - . , . 


Thrashers- 
Horsepower 


Steam po^er. - . , 





The total cost of the materials used in the 
manufacture of Glucose and Starch was $36,- 
898,771. The total value of the manufactured 
products was $48,799,311; 677,535,647 pounds 
of starch were valued at $17,514,823; 769,- 



660,210 pounds of glucose, including all 
sirups, valued at $17,922,514; 159,060,478 
pounds grape sugar, valued at $3,620,816; 
8,164,175 gallons com oil, valued at 
$2,802,763. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TIN AND TBRNE PLATE. 





in> 


--^■ 


'■aaa 

"Sffi 
£%£ 
SfiS 

M.WS,!« 

'Hi,Ma,*M 


'"^Sr^ 




"«-' :■:-:;: r 










"^^^™^- 








'■-SiL 




"■=^ 








JLUMIlBDUWbll CM 


„,^ 




Vtto 







IN* 


""fSISr 


■aw 

K.m,m 

T,M8,3M 
1.0a,«BS 














'"sjisi""""" 


"SS."".'"""" 


"SiJ'.'T'..." 


D*. jj.,. .»«. im 






~SS|2» 


-ssia;.MBi,'5"s.» 
-=& 


Amialcspoair ™ uiplB 


"'^'SS;^"^. 










of tJiB metaJ uH«d in 



3 produced 28.126 tt 
d poultry a 



WIRE. 

productian a 
W,OS3.fi2Z. 



ina, b ._ 

8 of 45J03, 1 

ed SteWa ii 



There were e bo preduoed H<) 881 

da to SBcb kes, the tota va un bo ng S27 875 774. 
e brada, tacka and at pli^ ha i b i a ue of 
actuted was 323 565 to J t^] 517; 



Kity. in tons, of 481,3' 



having an aanual 
wire^nce machi 



blocks, having an i 



232; 



coatine »5,S76.2e4; 24.321,71.^^ 

seed oil, coating (6.718.988; 207.296.4 
pounds of ronn, ooating •4.362,412; 94,050.^ 
pouods hoofs, CDOtiog (2,453.606; 62,172 b 



11.787. 



soda, costing (2.212.- 
00 pounds) soda ash. 

e soap products of the 



The total vi 
United Stale 
1.736,740.466 pounds of hard soap were m 
valued at (88,550.830; 44,052,615 pound 
soft soap, valued at (943,676; 39.689 
pounds of glycerin, valued at (5,713,558. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



V. TRANSPORTATION. 



Bailboad Cabs. 

The totei tsIuo of all rtulrosd cars ooi 
fltructed in all ntAblishmentB throughout tl 
United States, in 1909. iriis 1102^137.39 



i-railroad 

■t lis; 120,961; 

are. which 
milt 2,772 



»94,874,287: Of 
were built 1.819, ce 

V9.7^^2». OftireeMaUroBd"' 
were chiefly electric, there were 
can. valued at 17.263,109. 



Stbau-Rajijioad Cars. 

The total value of the produetH of thb 
duBtry in the Uml«d States, in 1909, i 
»123,729,a27. Of Hteam-railniiid cara for i 



the freight sorrin! 
atTuotdl, totaled 7! 
82S; or these (he 



valued 



, valued at (61,091. 
ere 2ft,728 box care. 
11.473 coal and coke. 






19.41 D,6.'i5^ ;1.232 flat i 

ot K.IJ3a.801; B 

»784,478; 90 fii 
I70,SI,i; Ifl.liO- ( 
ll8.12fl.lS(J::;,tllS 
'I2,747,957r 2,34ij siwk cara. . 
ll,5S6,nOS; 5:i7 lnl«..^^B, valued at 
2.1(4:) otliernir^.viiiu^ii At tZ.413.17 
q-crajtJdo J^uiJt dD^4tr^'t-rai1road ct 
at (3,023,922: Of these S5S were, 
cars, valued at (1,903.317; 45 o 
valued at SI20,60S. 



Cabs and General Shop Consthttc- 

TioN and Repairs by Steam 

Railkoad Coupanieb. 

The cars and geoecal shop construction and 
repairs made by the steam railroad companies 
in lOOe. reached a total of (406.600.727. The 
value of the car department was (199.768.939. 
The value of the ears built was (13.326,171: 
Of theae th?reweTv21Spa4senAeT cars, valued 
at tl.291.354; 13,972 frei^t caia, valued at 
(11,767.664: the number oC all other cars 
manufactured was 359 valued nt (2R7.15.3. 
Repairs to cars of all kinds amounted to 



(147.194.01 



Of these Uiere were 1,323 closed ci 
at (3.500.781: 369 combination ci 



Shipbuilding, Includino Boat 

Bdilding. 
The total value of work done on the dif- 



fl of wab 



craft, c 



if the 



merit establishmeiita, ._ 

wnric, and aU other prodm 
buildizia industi^. in 1909. was «rj.Jou,d. 
Work done durmc the year on veasels a 
boats, amounted to (42,310.925; vessels 
6 irosa tons and over. (37.71S.0I8: boats 
less than 6 gross tons. (4.592.907; repi 
work. (26,678,643. 

Bicycles, Motorcycles, and Pari 

Hie total value of bicycles and moti 

—,436.998; 18,628 motorcyclti were ma< 
al value being (3.015,988. 

AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY. 



valued at (111.S13. 




SCIENTino AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




CopyrlKbl, 1 

THE GREATER EFFICIENCY OF THE MOTOR TRUCK AS COM- 
PARED WITH THE EFFICIENY OF THE 
HORSE-DRAWN WAGON. 



118 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Carriages and Wagons and 
Materials. 

The total value of carriages and wagons and 
materials manufactured in the United States, 
in 1909, was $159,892,547. Of carriages 
(family and pleasure) there were made 
828,411, valued at $47,756,118; 587,686 
wagons, valued at $39,932,910, were manu- 
factured; of these 154,631 were business 
wagons, their value being $16,440,816; 
429,952 farm wagons, valued at $22,615,875; 
the remainder, government, municipal, etc., 
3,102," valued at $876,219. Of public con- 
veyances (cabs, hacks, hansoms, hotel coaches^ 
omnibuses, etc.), 2,243 were manufactured, 
valued at $939,267; 100,899 sleighs and sleds, 
valued at $2,065,850. 



Cars and General Shop Construc- 
tion AND Repairs by Street- 
Railroad Companies. 

The cars and general shop construclion and 
repairs by street-railroad companies in 1909, 
reached a total value of $31,962,561. The 
value of the motive power and machinery de- 
partment, was $4,510,332. The value of the 
repairs to motors, etc., was $4,004,336. The 
value of the car department was $25,^5,463. 
The value of all the cars built was $626,752: 
Of these there were 129 passenger cars, 
valued at $498,709; 63 freight cars, valued at 
$59,102; of all other cars Ihere were 51 built, 
valued at $68,941. 



VI. CLAY AND STONE PRODUCTS. 



The total value of these products for the 
year 1909, was $168,895,365. The value of 
the brick and tile, terra-cotta, and fire-clav 
products, was $136,387,846; of common brick 
there were 9,787,671 thousand, valued at 
$57,216,789; of fire brick, 838,167 thousand, 
valued at $16,620,695; of the vitrified. 

Saving, etc., 1,023,654 thousand, valued at 
11,269,586; front, including fancy colored 
and fancy or ornamental brick, 821,641 
thousand, valued at $9,886,292; the sand 
lime brick used had a value of $1,150,580; 
the enameled brick were valued at $993,902; 
the value of the drain tile was $9,798,978; the 
sewer pipe used was valued at $10,322,324; 
the value of the architectural terra-cotta was 
$6,251,625; the fireproofing, terra-cotta 
lumber and hollow building tile, or blocks, 
was valued at $4,466,708; the value of the 
tile, not drain, was $5,291,963; the value of 
the stove lining was $423,583 ; other material, 
<ralued at $2,694,821. The value of the 
pottery manufactured was $31,048,341. 

Building Operations. 

In 1912 the total cost of buildings, accord- 
ing to reports of mimicipal authorities to the 
Bureau of Statistics, was $683,506,372 against 
$702,143,956 in 1911, and $726,436,975 in 
1910. The total number of permits for 1911 
was 192,978. 

Cement. 

The total value of the cement product in 
1909, for the United States, was $63,205,455. 
There were manufactured 66,689,715 barrels 
of cement, valued at $53,610,563; oi ^is 
64,991,431 barrels was Portland, valued at 
$f^2,858,354; 1,537,638 was natural, valued at 
$652,756; 160,646 barrels puzzoxan, valued at 
$99,453. The value of all other products of 
this industry, was $9,594,892. 

Glass. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 
manufacture of glass, in 1909, amounted to 
$32,119,499, wh£fe the total value of these 
products was $92,095,203 Of this amount the 
value of building ^lass aggregated $26,308,438; 
included under this head are 6,921,611 50-foot 
boxes of window glass, valued at $11,742,959: 
also included in this division is plate glass, oi 



which there was cast a total of 60,105,694 
square feet: of this amount 47,370,254 square 
feet was polished glass, valued at $12,204,875; 
the rem^amder, rough glass, made for sale, — 
205,690 square feet, valued at $37,431. Of 
cathedral glass Hiere were 7,405,980 square 
feet, valued at $569,848; 15,409,966 square 
feet of skylight glass, valued at $788,726. The 
value of the pressed and blown glass was 
$27,398,445; Of this goods there was manu- 
factured tableware, 100 pieces, 1,286,056 sets; 
Jellies, tumblers, and goblets, 11,687,036 dozen; 
lamps, 322,482 dozen; chimneys, 6,652,967 
dozen; lantern globes, 952,620 dozen; globes 
and other electrical eoods, 11,738,798 dozen; 
shades, globes, and other gas goods, 1,541,449 
dozen; blown tumblers, stem ware, and bar 
goods, 9,182,060 dozen; opal ware, 3,095,666 
dozen; cut ware, 206,336 dozen. The value 
of the bottles and jars manufactured, was 
$36,018,333. Of prescriptions, vials, and drug- 
gists' wares. 3,624,022 gross were made; 2,345, 
204 gross OI beer, soda and mineral glassware; 
1,887,344 gross of liquors and flasks; 440,302 
gross milk jars; 1,124,485 gross fruit jiars; of 
battery jars and other electrical goods, 9,981 
gross; of patent and proprietarv glassware, 
1,637,798 gross; of packers and preservers, 
1,237,175 gross; of aemijohns ana carboys. 
122,570 dozen. 

Artificial Ice. 

The total cost of the materiab used in estab- 
lishments for the manufacture of ice, in 1909, 
was $1,021,913. By the compressor system 
there were used 3,097,191 poimds of anhy- 
drous ammonia, costing $826,222. By the 
absorption system there were used 369,093 
pounds of anhydrous ammonia, valued at 
$100,283. There were also used 1,670,698 
poimds of aqua ammonia, valued at $95,408. 

The total value of the ice products for tiie 
year 1909 was $42,953,055. Of the ice itself 
there was 12,647,949 tons (2,000 pounds each), 
valued at $39,889,263: Of the can ice, 11,- 
671,547 tons (2,000 pounds), valued at $37,- 
085,533; of the plate ice, 976,402 tons (2,000 
pounds), valued at $2,803,730. 



The first permanent electric railway was 
operated near Berlin in 1881, and the first 
permanent elevated electric railway was 
operated in Chicago 1895. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 119 



<^)iitU, Huaa ft Co., Inc. 



A MAMMOTH OFFICE HUILDING DISSECTED. 

THE WHITEHALL BUILDING. 



120 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



VII. LEATHER INDUSTRY. 



MATERIALS. 



Total eoft. 



Tanninff. 



Hides 1 (allkiDds): 

Number 

Cost 

Skins: > 

Number... 

Cost 

Calf and kip— 

Number... 

Cost 

Goat— 

Number... 

Cost 

I^heep— 

Number... 

Cost 

AUothe^ 

Number... 

Cost 



Curryinff, 

Purchased rough leather used, cost. 
Sides- 
Number 

. Cost 

Oralns — 

Sides. 

Cost 

Splits- 
Number 

\/OSw. ..................... 

All other- 
Cost 



All other materials, cost. 

PBOiyUCTS. 

Total value 



Leather, value 

Sold in rough, value. 

Sides- 
Number 

Value. 

Grains- 
Sides 

'Value. 

SpUts— 

Number. . . . . 

Value 

Sole^value 

Hemlock — 

Sides 

Value 

Oak- 
Sides 

Value 

Union- 
Sides 

Value 



1900 



|848,978,9SS 



•18,360,415 
1110,410,767 

97,680,571 
175,647,790 

19,732,638 
$31,790,572 

48,077,664 
$27,833,214 

26,062,060 
$12,231,618 

S3, 788, 209 
$3,792,386 



$9,556,257 

1,468,213 
$4,967,781 

525,786 
$1,201,842 

2,043,283 
$1,442,505 

$1,944,129 

$43,664,119 

4$3S7,$74,1$7 

$306,476,720 
$6,335,599 

828,887 
$3,530,617 

317,814 
$718,562 

2,912,964 

$2,077,420 

$88,331,713 

7,963,728 
$32,237,151 

3,805,861 
$26,083^793 

5,756,227 
$28,375,815 



PBODUCTs— oontinued . 

Leather— Continued. 
Sole— Continued. 
Chrome- 
Sides.- 

Value. 

Upper, other than calf or kip 

skins, value 

Grain, satin, pebble, etc. 
(side leather)— 

Sides 

Value 

Finished splits- 
Number 

Value 

Patent and enameled shoe- 
Sides 

Value 

Horsehides and ooltskins— 

Number 

Value 

Calf and kip skins, tanned and 
finished- 
Number 

Value 

Grain finished- 
Number 

Value 

Flesh finished- 
Number 

Value 

Goatskins, tanned and finished- 
Number 

Value. 

Black- 
Number 

Value. 

Colored- 
Number 

Value 

Sheepskins, tanned and finished- 
Number 

Value 

Belting- 
Sides 

Value 

Harness- 
Sides 

Value - 

Carriage, automobile, and furni- 
ture— 

Sides 

Value 

Trunk, bag, and pocKetbook, 

value 

Bookbinder's, value 

Glove, value 

All other, value 

All other products,- value 

Work on materials for others 



1900 



279.436 
$1,634,954 

$39,951,460 



7,946,769 
$24,196,993 

8,134,229 
$7,410,740 

2,705,291 
$8.^41,727 

1,342,938 
$4,953,145 



19,012,064 
$42,412,256 

17,516,910 
$39,962,447 

1,495,154 
$2,429,809 

47,907,211 
$40,882,640 

40,851,193 
$33,049,575 

7,866,019 
$6,933,065 

19,665,155 
1^2,236,667 

1,042,070 
$6,005,133 

3,046,235 
$24,802,734 



1,386,842 
$14,266,742 

$6,196,544 

$2,450,155 

$4,913,543 

$11,746,369 

$8,632,689 
$12,764,778 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 121 




CapTright. Hunn A Ce. 

THE GREAT GLASS INDUSTRY OF THE U. S. AMOUNTING TO 
$92,000,000. 



122 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN BBFBRENCE BOOK. 



Boots and Shoes. 

Id igOO (ken were produced in the United 
Stats 247,043,197 puis of boota and ahoM. 
The clBHiGeaUoD ol this product was as fol- 
lowB,— Men's. 93.888,882; bove' and youths' 
™^o-„. ._ "^^14- '—J 



ohildren'e. '43^20,36S. 6t alippera there were 
maaufaeturod 17JS07.S34 pura, distiibut - 
foOowB, — Men's, tKws' and youihs', 4.80 
.^l—- —onun'ii mum', and Children's, 



704.903. There were 18,000,721 psiiB o 
tanls' shoes and sliiipeis manufactured, ai 
all other goods ol this nature there ' 



Gloves and Mittens — Leather. 

The total value of the manufaetuite in the 
United States, in 1909, was ■23,630,S98. Of 
(lavas, mittens, aadgauutlets. there were mao' 
ufactured 3.368.655 doien pairs, valued at 



distributed as 



s' unlined, valued at illl 
1 and children there were 
fi.VJS doien pain, valued 



.el4.71 





\nT^ ^ 


































suba UDCeB 


s-i'y.S'-?-, 



CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. 

Salt. 

The total value of the salt products of the 

United States in 1909 was 111.327,834. There 
were 29,933.060 barrels ol salt, valued at 
tS,3Il.T20: TZ8.S75 pounds of bromine, valued 
at 192.735: Uie value ol all other products was 
12,923.370. 



. 3,042.824 
. 7,745,204 
. 2343,393 



The total value ot these products tor the 
year 1W9 was tIS,954,S74. The 12.267.399 

Suads of artificial dyeatuffa were valued at 
,4fl2,43S. 



7.991,766 pounds ol nitnc 
314: 22.501 toni of euli 
■106,204: 17,389 tons of si 
ostlns (367,866. The a 



661; I 
dyi 



ite used was 118.699,746; 28,913.253 
of aitroglyccrin, sold as such. 13,162,- 
,339,087 twenty-five pound kegs of 

Sibil csploaivli 9,607,448' pounds' vafied 
tt863.209; 12.862,700 pounds ol gunpowder, 
alued at 11,736.427; 7.464.82S pounds o( 
.th»r (nploMVea, valued ot 13.913,787. The 
all other products was t2.15&,793. 

Fertilizers. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 
makinaof fertiliiera inI90e was 169,521,9^0. 



bl; 



vail 



Total number of establiBbmeu 



fei 



» Chapter oi 



Varnish. 

Id the manufacture of these products the 
foUowiog materials were used.— 145,017 tons 
(2.000 poundalofpig lead, costing 112.014,859; 
1,683.382 gallons alcohol, coetmg 1020,086, 
1.327,157 aaUoQs of which was wood alcohol. 
cosUng 1693,382; 356,225 gallons grain alco- 
hol, cDstiog S226,724. 

The total value ol these products in 1909 
was 1124,889.422. The value ot the picmente 
was 116.985.588; 85.234.414 pounds of whits 
lead, dry, was valued at 13,921.803. The value 
of paints in oU was (56.763,296; 246,567,570 
Douuds while lead in nil. wnre valued at 115.- 

ere°alJk^nd9 
ee 1,159,569 



i, was U.I 26.271; i 
>f liquid Eltei^ were A 



Turpentine and Rosin. 

e total value of the turpentine and rosin 
try for 1900 was (25,295.017; the 28.- 
54 gallnns of turpentine were valued at 
54,228; the 3.263,857 barrels (280 pounds 
, oC rodn. were valued at (12,676,721. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



123 




OOALINO STATIONS OF EUROPE AND AFRICA. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IX. ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY. 




Frlmarr taiwries, lodadlBS tMiu 
«gjrt.»d™ppli=: _ 




^j™i* 




lE*»:i«~.i 










D^ffi;;rd±usiKnii^ 


SwES™ 


tj»LI ktods" 














boul, ukd 


ElKUIcckiclauidtlm* 










BcUlnj, oBKlng, Md wtiiiLe spi* 








■iKtrIc iwlicheg, ilfneii. ud Mlic'b- 


ClrculiaitlDcsoCtllkli 









^ 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



X. PAPER AND PULP, 



126 



Total oo«t. 



Pulp wood, cost 

Wood pulp, poichaaed: 

Tons , 

Cost 

Onmnd— 

Tons 

Cost 

Soda fiber— 

Tons .. 

Cost 

Snli^te fiber- 
Tons...- v., 

Cost 

Otter chiBmical fiber- 
Tons 

Cost 

Bap. indoding ootton, flax waste 
and sweepings: 

Tons. 

Cost. 

Old and waste paper: 

Tons. 

Cost 

Manila stock, including Jute bagging, 



rope, waste, threads, etc.: 
Toi 



9ns 

Cost. 

Straw: 

Tons, 

Cost. 



All ptb«r materials, cost. 
FRomrcTS. 



Total value 

News paper: 

In rolls to' printing- 
Tons. 

Value 

In sheets kx printing- 
Tons. 

Value. 

Book paper: 

Book- 
Tons 

Value. 

Coated- 

Tons 

Value 

Plate, lithograph, map, wood- 
cut, etc.— 

Tons 

Value. 

Cover- 
Tons 

Vatae 

Cardboard, bristol board, card mid 
dies, tickets, etc.— 

Tons 

Value 

Fine paper. 

WriUng— 

T<ms 

Value 

All other- 
Tons 

Vataie 

Wrapping paper: 

luniia (rope, jute, tag, etc.)— 
Tons... 

^ Value 

Bcayy (mill wrappers, etc.)— 

Tons. 

Vatae 

Straw- 
Tons 

Value X. 



|lM.Mt,Ml 

1,772,475 



l.Ml,914 
t4S,jMl,807 

458.840 
W; 487, 508 

154,836 
86,802,884 

626,089 
827,184,726 

8.410 
8320,259 



857,470 
810.721,550 

983,882 
813,601,120 



117,060 
83,560,038 

803.137 
81,460,888 

886,375,515 



i8N7.8i«,864 



1', 091, 017 
842,807,064 

84,537 
84,048,496 



575,616 
842,848,674 

90,318 
80,413,961 



6.496 
8555,833 

17,678 
81^982,858 



51,^ 
83,883,151 



169,125 
884,966,103 

39,06ft 
84,110,536 



78,731 
86,989,436 

108,561 
84,380,794 

33,968 
8870,419 



raoDVCTS— oontlaiiBd. 

Wrapping paper— CoatlniiBd. 

Bogus or wood manila, all grade 

Tons 

Value 

AD other- 
Tons 

Value 

Boards: 

Wood pulp- 
Tons 

Value 

Straw- 
Tons 

Value 

News- 
Tons..., 

Value 

AUc^er- 

Tons 

Value 

Other paper products: 



Tons 

Value 

Blotting- 

Tons 

Value 

Building roofing, asbestos, and 
sheathing— 

Tons. 

Value 

Banging- 

Tons 

Value 

Ifliodlaneous— 

Tons 

Value 

Wood pulp made for sale or for oon- 
aomDtion in mills other than where 
proanoed: 
Groond- 

Tons 

Value 

Soda fiber- 
Tons 

Value 1... 

Sulfite fiber— 

Tons 

Value 



All other products, value 

Wooirmtp, 

Quantity produced (includhig that 
used in mills where mannfac" 
tured), total tons 

Ground, tons 

fioda fiber, tons 

Sulphite liber, tons 



BQUiPKnra. 

Paper machines: 

Total number 

Capacity, yearly, tons 

Fourdnnier— 

Number 

Capacity per 24 hours, tons . 

Cylinder- 
Number 

Capacity per 24 hours, tons . 

Pulp: ^ . 

Grinders, number 

Digesters, total number 

Sulphite fiber, number 

Soda fiber, number 

Capacity, yearly, tons of pulp.. . 

Ground, tons 

Sulphite, tons..: 

Soda, tons 



367,983 
819,777,707 

179,855 
810,308,036 



71,036 
88,639,496 

171.780 
83,750,851 

74.606 
88,315,409 

514, 80& 
817,589,768 



n,745 
88,583,664 

9,577 
81,186,180 



285.834 
80.851,368 

. 98,158 
84,431,514 

96,577 
86,869,169 



310,747 
85,649,466 

155.844 
86,573,158 

444,855 

817,965,748 

84,788,549 



8,406,583 

1,179,266 

806,680 

1,017,631 



1,480 
5,893,397 

804 
.10,508 

676 
6,816 

1,435 

548 

848 

194 

8,406,621 

1,809,685 

1,850,983 

344,963 



12G SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 







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8CIENTIFI0 AMERICAN REFE^tENCE BOOK. 



INTERNATIONAL BOOK PRODUCTION. 



P LEADtNO COtrHTIUBS— 1 901-1910. 





.^. 


,„ 


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■9« 


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Germany 

France 

Great Srltain.... 

ISL;i..d::::; 


IS 

"iff, 
IS 


3.917 

":g 


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38.378 
".139 

8.3J4 

».739 
3.403 


18,886 
8.35" 

3.390 

2.6=4 


7l>39 


io!^5 
9,914 

alto 


30.317 
11,073 

9,8=1 
6,918 

3.358 
3,763 
9,»S4 


"Hi 
if 

10,901 


4,390 
13.470 


Belgium 

Unfted States.... 



Pufrluhen' Wttklv. 



RBCORD OF AMERICAN BOOK PRODOCTION FOR 1913 



philosophy ..*.., ..-.,,. 

Religion and Theology . . . 
Sociology and Economiqs , 

F.dnckiiony.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.','.'.'.. 
FbilolD^ 

A^lie^ Science, Technoloj 
^ogineerlng . . ...,. ...... 

Medicine, Hygiene , 

Domestic Bconomy 

Fiae Alts'.'.'.'.'.'.'. .'.'.'. .'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Music 

General Literature, Essays. 

Poetry and Drama 

Fiction.. 

Juvenile Publications 

Geography and Travel 

Biography, Genealogy 

General Cyclopeediaa. Gene; 
Wor^, Bibliographies, M 
cellaneons 

Total 



135 76S ,-c7J JO.; -V--- 



130 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STATISTICS RELATIVE' TO NEWSPAPERS IN THE UNITED STATES 




Ayer*8 ffewspaper Annual 



Book Production of Leading Coun- 
tries, 1910, BY Classes. 



•••••• 



Fiction 

Law 

Reliffion 

Education '..... 

Essays, Miscellany. 
Juvenile Publications. 
Sociology... 
Poetry and Drama 

Science 

History 

Biography 

If^edicine 

Description mmI Travel 

Pine Arts 

Applied Science.... 

Philosophy 

Household Science. 

Agriculture 

Sports, Games 

Wit and Humor.... 

Philology 

Military Science — 
General Works 



Germany 



25x0 

485a 
48x5 

31*5 

• • • • 

1750 

1354 

1981 
X480 
9089 
3083 
668 

1030 



1884 

667 

1094 



Great 
Britain 



a833 

34» 

X064 

659 
373 

• • « • 

8x6 
590 

860 

398 
604 

.X3S4J 



...{ 



X206 



France 



II $3 

3H« 

888 

xx6o 

X43 

ut^ 
1038 

4«7 
1718 

1330 
394 
338 

• • • • 

168 

383 
77 



464 



United 
Slates 



1797 
678 

943 

5*3 

2043 

xoto 
784 
75a 
711 

i 565 

I 64s 

544 
599 
365 
857 
365 

\ 33a 
X4S 

49 



143 



Prmting was originally practiced by the 
Chinese in very early times; the origin of the 
present system seems to be very doubtful. 
The first metal plate from which impressions 
on paper were taken seems to have been 
executed in 1452. It was a pax or metal plate 
used in the Roman Cathohc service. Early 
books containing engravings reproduced from 
metal plates are the "Kalendar" dated 1465, 
and the "Monte Santo de Dio," 1477. The 
first engraver proper who seems to have done 
nothing but engrave was Antonio Raimondi 
(1488-1530). 

The first steam turbine was built in 1894 
by the Hon. C. A. Parsons of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne; the first Atlantic passage turbine 
steamer was launched in 1904. 



Book Production of Leading 
Countries. 

Country. Year. Books. Year. Periodic'ls. 

Algeria 1908 282 

Argentine Republic. 1900 739 

Australia 1903 1,000 

Austria 190 1 2,050 1910 3,95^ 

Belgium 1910 2,588 1910 1,655 

Brazil ,,i 1902 300 

Bulgaria 1897 90 

Canada 1893 450 1910 i»429 

Cape of Good Hope. 1900 90 

Ceylon 1909 422 ■ 

Chili 189X 400 1896 312 

China .• 1907 123 

Costa-Rica 1903 »8 

Denmark ..., 1910 3*305 1910 i>4iTS 

Egypt 1898 160 1902 120 

Finland 1909 366 

France 1910 11,266 1908 8,658 

Germaxiy 1910 3i>28i 1910 10,017 

Great Britain 191-0 10,804 1907 4*3^9 

Greece 1895 130 

Haiti : 1903 37 

Hawaii 1908 45 

Holland 1910 3,777 »9o8 1,49* 

Hungary 1898 1,600 1904 i|644 

Iceland 1903 2»« 1903 40 

India 1895 8,000 1899 1,000 

Ireland 1902 180 1903' 30 

Italy 1910 6,788 1907 3t068 

Japan ^909 34.73© 1900 2,727 

Luxemburg 1910 97 '9o8 53 

Mexico 1892 300 

Norway 1904 682 I90| 497 

Paraguay 1908 21 

Persia J892 10 

Portugal 1894 22 

Roumania 1901 x.74o 1903 330 

Russia 1910 29,057 1910 2,391 

Servia J897 80 

Spain 1902 1,400 1900 »,35o 

Sweden 1904 1.474 »9o6 804 

Switzerland 1910 4.290 1909 ^»332 

Turkey 1890 900 1909 380 

United States 1910 13.470 iQio 22.806 

Uruguay 1906 no 1906 ■ 240 

Venezuela 1908 237. 



SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



XL MINOR INDUSTRIES. 



Gas, Illuuinatikg a 



*16,304,&32i 57»,U57,152 gaJlons o 
S17,34&,TS0: Sei.Dm tana coke, eo 
067,706: >U other materials cost tl 
The total value of these products iu 



5.186 cubio feet 



,ie produced, valueii at 15,723,315: 62,152,- 
8 pJloDH of tar. valued at 11,875,649; (be 
Jue ol all other producta waa 113.566,908. 





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132 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Laundries in 1909. 

Number of establishments 5. 186 

Capital invested ^. . S68.Q35.000 

Cost of materials used 17,696,000 

Salaries and wages, total 53,007,747 

Salaries 8,180,769 

Wages 44.826,978 

Miscellaneous expenses 14,483,497 

Value of products, or amount 

received for work done. . $104,680,086 

Pianos and Organs and Materials. 

In 1909, the total value of the pianos and 
organs, and materials, in establishments espe- 
eially designed for their manufacture through- 
out the United States, amounted to $89,789,- 
544. The whole number of pianos manufactured 
was 374,154, valued at $59,501,225: Of these 
there were 365,413 upright pianos, valued at 
$55,462,556; 330,918 pianos without player 
attachment, valued at $46,187,555; 34,495 



pianos for or with piayer attachment, valued 
at $9,275,001: 8,741 grand pianos, valued at 
$4,038,669. There were 10,898 player attach- 
ments made separate from pianos, valued at 
$1,474,630. The whole number of organs made 
was 65,335, valued at $5,309,016: Of these 
there were 1,224 pipe organs, valued at $2,- 
713,587; 64,111 reed organs, valued at $2.- 
595,429. The value of other parts and ma- 
teriab manufactured, was $20,417,762; the 
value of all other products was $3,086,911. 

Phonographs and Graphophones. 

The total value of the phonographs, grapho- 
phones, and records manufactured in 1909, 
throughout the United States, was $11,725,- 
996. There were 344,681 phonographs and 
graphophones made, valued at $5,406,684; 
27,183,959 records and blanks, valued at $5,- 
007,104; all other products were valued at 
$1,312,208. Since 1909 the products have 
vastly increased in quantity and value. 



TABLE OF HEIGHT AND WEIGHT AT VARYING AGES. 

Baaed upon aa Analytis of 74.162 accepted Male AppGcanU for Life Insurance, at reported to 
The Auodation of. Life lasurance Medical Directon. 1697. 



m 


AOW. 


IS— 24 


2S— 20 


30-34 


33—39 - 


40-44 


45—49 


30-^4 


33-^9 


60—94 


63—69 






96 


100 


I03 


105 


106 


107 


107 


107 


103 






S (cet O iachct 


I30 


"5 


138 


131 


133 


134 


•04 


134 


•31 








144 


150 


154 


>37 


160 


161 


161 


t6i 


•57 








9S 


toi 


103 


105 


««7 


109 


l<i9 


109 


107 






1 


laa 


136 


139 


131 


134 


X 


136 


136 


134 








146 


»5« 


155 


«57 


161 


163 


•63 


161 








99 


I03 


los 


106 


109 


no 


no 


no 


no 






2 


"4 


138 


131 


133 


13* 


138 


•3« 


•38 


137 








■49 


*H 


157 


160 


i6j 


166 


166 


166 


164 








i(» 


105 


107 


109 


III 


113 


••3 


««3 


na 


113 




3 


"7 


»3« 


134 


136 


139 


141 


•4« 


i4« 


140 


140 






15a 


>57 


161 


163 


167 


169 


169 


169 


168 


168 






los 


108 


no 


113 


114 


"S 


n6 


n6 


•«3 


114 




4. 


131 


135 


138 


I4tf 


143 


144 


•43 


«45 


144 


143 






«57 


163 


166 


168 


173 


173 


174 


•74 


•73 


•73 






107 


no 


"3 


'•4 


"7 


118 


««9 


»«9 


n8 


118 




5 


>34 


I3» 


141 


143 


146 


147 


•49 


•49 


148 


•47 






t6i 


166 


169 


173 


173 


176 


•79 


•79 


178 


I7« 






110 


"4 


116 


118 


I30 


131 


133 


133 


■ 33 


131 




6 


138 


143 


14s 


147 


150 


131 


^U 


^$3 


•53 


•51 






166 


170 


174 


176 


iSo 


181 


184 


184 


184 


181 






"4 


118 


1 30 


133 


"4 


133 


136 


136 


n6 


•35 




7 


143 


147 


150 


133 


15s 


156 


•S« 


ij8 


,138 


W« 






170 


176 


ilo 


183 


1S6 


187 


190 


190 


190 


187 






"7 


131 


133 


136 


• 138 


139 


130 


•30 


130 


«30 




a 


146 


•51 


»54 


157 


160 


161 


■63 


163 


163 


163 






>7S 


181 


i»S 


188 


193 


•93 


196 


196 


196 


•94 






120 


134' , 


137 


130 


133 


133 


134 


•34 


>34 


■ 34 







150 


1S5 


1S9 


163 


165 


166 


167 


168 


168 


168 


, • 




ilo 


186 


191 


194 


198 


•99 


3O0 


,303 


3oa 


303 






"3 


137 


131 


«34 


136 


•37 


138 


138 


•39 


•39 




10 


134 


159 


164 


■67 


170 


17^ 


•73 


173 


•74 


• 74 






185 


191 


197 


300 


304 


30S 


306 


308 


309 


109 






"7 . 


131 


13S 


I3» 


140 


143 


•43 


•43 


•44 


144 




n 


>59 


164 


169 


«73 


173 


•77 


•77 


178 


iSo 


iSo 






191 


197 


303 


308 


3 10 


313 


313 


314 


316 


316 






13J 


136 


140 


•43 


144 


146 


146 


146 


148 


•4» 




6 o 


165 


170 


«7S 


179 


180 


183 


183 


183 


i»5 


••5 






19S 


304 


3IO 


315 


316 


330 


318 


330 


333 


323 






136 


143 


145 


148 


149. 


•5« 


•50 


•5^ 


•5« 


15" 




1 


170 


»77 


181 


185 


186 


189 


188 


i«9 


189 


•«9 






.~4 


313 


317 


333 


333 


337 


'336 


337 


337 


837 






»4« 


147 


130 


>34 


«53 


•37 


•53 


•55 


•54 


•54 




2 


176 


184 


188 


193. 


»94 


196 


•94 


194 


193 


•9» 






311 


331 


336 


330 


»33 


333 


333 


333 


330 


330 






145 


153 


136 


160 


163 


163 


161 


158 








9 


181 


190 


195 


300 


«>3 


304 


30I 


198 










ai« 


••« 


*M . 


340 


>H 


'45 


»4I 


>3S 







SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 133 

SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES : BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, 1909. 



induflthes. [Primary hq 
plus electric and other p 
gcQented by piimary il 



anufacture the 






™.„,. 


Persons 
Engaged. 


?= 


Value of 
Ftoducts 




60.2ir0 

"'■S 

86,368 
6.747 

.683 

s 

7.304 

215,923 
18,S99 

3:668 
5,441 

ii 

5,76» 

301.273 
23.698 
47,094 

if 

43 

.404 

2 .43; 

"f 

179,02 
1 !44 


100,601 

'?! 

76,660 
2,022 

E 

67.20 

li 

3,97 

1,023 
86,30 

e!o4S 

!« 

,..1 
J 

293.361 

97,797 
15.181 
371 709 
208,604 

141957 

,.a 

42.726 

|:| 




Artificial flowera aad feailiera and plumes 




Artists' materials 

Awnings, tents and sails ,. . . . 


L'l'',2O2,OO0 

H.4mooo 




































io.ou(i,ooo 


lacliiiig and cleansing and polishing preparationa 


14.670,000 






a S3 ss- sEt,f '" ■""" "' ""''"'" 












































































Cara and general shop constjueiion and repairs by 






































35.197,000 




















85,697;0O0 


Conlectionery 





134 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES: BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES. 1909. — Continued 



IKDU8TRT. 



Cooperage and wooden i^oods, not elsewhere specified 

Copper, tin and sheet-iron products 

Cordage and twine, jute and linen goods 

Cordials and syrups 

Cork, cutting., 

Corsets 

Cottofn goods, including cotton small wares. . . . 

Crucibles 

Cutlery and tools, not elsewhere si)ecified. . . . 
Dair^nnen's, poulterers', and apiarists' supplies 

Dentists* materials 

Dru^ grindiiu; 

Dyeing and finishing textiles 

Dvestuffs and extracts 

Electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies. . 

Electroplating. 

Emery and other abrasive wheels. 



Enameling and japanning. 

Engravers' materials 

Engraving and dyesinking 

Engraving, wood 

Explosives 

Fan^ articles, not elsewhere specified . 

FertiUsers 

Files. 



Persons 
Engaged. 



Firearms and ammunition . . 
Fire extinguishers, chemical 

Fireworks 

Flags, banners, regalia, society badges and emblems 

Flavoring extracts 

Flax and hemp, dressed 

Four-mill and jsristmiU products 

Food preparations 

Foundiy and machine-shop products 

Foundry supplies 

Fuel, manufactured 

Fur ^ods 

Furnishing goods, men's! 

Furniture and refrigerators 

Furs, dressed 

Galviinising 

Gas and electric fixtures and lamps and reflectors . . 

Gas, illuminating and heating 

Glass 

Glass, cutting, staining, and ornamenting 

Gloves and mittens, leather 

Glucose and starch 

Glue. 



Gold and silver, leaf and foil 

Gold and silver, reducing and refining, not from 

the ore 

Graphite and graphite refining 

Grease and tallow 

Grindstones 

Haircloth 

Hairwork 

Hammocks 

Hand stamps and stencils and brands 

Hat and cap materials 

Hats and caps, other than felt, straw, and wool. . . 

Hats, fur felt 

Hats, straw 

Hones and whetstones 

Horseshoes, not made in steel works or rolling mills 

Hosiery and knit goods 

House-furnishing goods, not elsewhere specified. . . 

Ice, manufactured 

Ink, printing 

Ink. writing 

Instrument, professional and scientific 



29,717 

86.934 

27,214 

1,638 

3,376 

19,611 

387,771 

398 

37,161 

6,431 

1,982 

1,152 

47,303 

3,015 

105,600 

3,558 

2,446 

2,418 

189 

1,782 

480 

7.058 

14.194 

21,950 

4,521 

16,042 

300 

1,567 

4.522 

2,634 

216 

66,054 

20,965 

615.485 

710 

112 

16.152 

43.935 

144.140 

1.472 

1.689 

22,906 

51.007 

72,573 

11.090 

12,950 

5,827 

3.840 

1,553 

690 

262 
5,504 
1,485 

621 
4,383 

325 
2,539 
2,618 
7,609 
27,091 
9,704 

173 

360 

136,130 

5,916 

21,107 

1,854 

824 
6,175 



Primary 
Horse- 
Power. 



65,108 

62,366 

78,549 

1,164 

3,746 

4,681 

1,296,617 

816 

68,294 

6,898 

865 

3,322 

107.746 

22,213 

168,768 

4,461 

4,005 

1.696 

549 

768 

39 

28.601 

8.310 

64,711 

7,383 

17,840 

215 

517 

1,173 

1.060 

1.147 

853,684 

55,166 

869,305 

4,995 

1,290 

2,120 

12,116 

221,451 

2,103 

1,367 

16,862 

128,350 

128.532 

4,897 

2,889 

28,257 

15.696 

259 

1,735 

1,472 
14,613 

5,700 
995 
218 
167 
903 

2,922 

990 

19.245 

3,482 
677 

1,045 
103.709 

9,.328 
317,789 

5,857 
169 

4,866 



Value of 
Products. 



60,248, 000 

199,824.000 

61,020,000 

9,662,000 

6.940,000 

33.257.000 

628,392,000 

1,849,000 

63,266,000 

16,463.000 

10.836.000 

6,007,000 

83,666,000 

15,956,000 

221,309,000 

4,510.000 

6.711.000 

3.316,000 

921.000 

2.250.000 

711.000 

40.1*0.000 

22.632.000 

103.960,000 

5,691,000 

34,112,000 

754,000 

2,269,000 

8.1i4,000 

8,828,000 

467,000 

883,684,000 

125,331,000 

1.228,4'^5,000 

2,298,000 

311,000 

55,938,000 

87,710,000 

239,886.000 

2.391,000 

7,338,000 

45,067,000 

166,814,000 

92,096,000 

16,101,000 

23,631.000 

48,799.000 

13.718.000 

2,630.000 

23,612,000 

1,140,000 

23,419.000 

1,688.000 

2,230.000 

6.135.000 

578,000 

3.673,000 

8,236.000 

13.689.000 

47.866.000 

21,424,000 

268,000 

1,015.000 

200,143,000 

18,609,000 

42,953,000 

8,865.000 

2.506.000 

10,504,000 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



135 



SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES : BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, 1909. —Continued. 



INDUSTRY. 



Iron and steel, blast furnaces 

Iron and steel, steel works and rolling mills 

Iron and^ steel, bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets, not 
made in steel works or rolling mills 

Iron and steel, doors and shutters 

Iron and steel forgings 

Iron and steel, nails and spikes, cut and wrought, 
including wire nails, not made in steel works or 
rolling mills 

Iron and steel pipe, wrought 

Jewelry 

Jewelry and instrument cases 

Kaolin and groimd earths 

Labels and tags 

Lapidary work 

Lard, refined, not made in slaughtering and meat- 
packing establishments 

Lasts 

Lead, bar, pipe, and sheet 

Leather goods 

Leather, tanned, curried and finished 

Lime 

Liquors, distilled 

Liquors, malt 

Liquors, vinous 

Locomotives, not made by railroad companies . . . 

Looking-glass and picture frames 

Lumber and timber products 

Malt 

Marble and stone work 

Matches 

Mats and matting 

Mattresses and spring beds 

Millinery and lace goods 

Mineral and soda waters 

Mirrors 

Models and patterns, not Including paper patterns. 

Moving pictures 

Mucilaee and paste 

Musical instruments and materials not specified. . . 

Musical ^ instruments, pianos and organs, and 
materials 

Needles, pins and hooks and eyes 

Oakum 

Oil, castor 

Oil, cotton seed and cake 

Oil, essential 

Oil, linseed 

Oil, not elsewhere specified 

Oilcloth and linoleum 

Oleomargarine 

Optical goods 

Paint and varnish 

Paper and wood pulp 

Paper goods, not elsewhere specified 

Paper patterns 

Patent medicines and compounds and druggists' 
preparations 

Paving materials 

Peanuts, grading, roasting, cleaning and shelling . . 

Pencils, lead 

Pens, fountain, stylographic and gold 

Pens, steel » 

Petroleum, refining 

Phonographs and graphophones 

Photographic apparatus and materials 

Photo-engraving 

Pipes, tobacco 

Potteiy, terra-cotta and fire-clay products 

Printing and publishing 



Persons 


Primary 
Horse- 


Value of 


Engaged. 


Power. 


Products. 


43,061 


1,173.422 


391,429,000 


260,762 


2,100.978 


985,723,000 


12,395 


22,113 


24,485,000 


1,816 


1,997 


3,006,000 


9,193 


27,803 


• 20,293,000 


3,239 


7,723 


8,192,000 


7,309 


20,656 


30,886,000 


36,992 


11,204 


80,350.000 


2,441 


527 


3,116,000 


2,351 


20,920 


4,681.000 


2,880 


1,589 


4,670.000 


886 


679 


9,173,000 


515 


723 


10,326,000 


2,029 


3.386 


4,159,000 


1,044 


3,179 


9.145,000 


43,525 


28,148 


104,719,000 


67,100 


148,140 


327,874,000 


16,659 


27,671 


17,952,000 


8,328 


46,120 


204,699,000 


66,725 


347,726 


374,730.000 


2,726 


6,771 


13,121,000 


16,945 


35,102 


31,582,000 


7,470 


5,330 


13,475,000 


784,989 


2,840,082 


1,166,129,000 


2,237 


26,441 


38,252,000 


77,275 


187,686 


113,093,000 


4,220 


6,224 


11,353.000 


1,040 


1,433 


2,432,000 


14,109 


17,689 


35,783,000 


46,301 


7,918 


86,894.000 


22,060 


19,392 


43.608,000 


3,509 


3,862 


9,671,000 


5,450 


5,486 


8,868,000 


718 


486 


4,206,000 


901 


2,335 


4,918,000 


2,269 


1,423 


3,228,000 


41,882 


41.623 


89.790,000 


4,978 


4.542 


6,694,000 


129 


289 


338.000 


70 


385 


905,000 


21,273 


192,342 


147,868,000 


408 


1,218 


1,737,000 


1,753 


13,211 


36,739,000 


3,144 


5,772 


30,865,000 


5,557 


16,125 


23,339,000 


773 


2,408 


8,148,000 


7,809 


5,725 


11,735,000 


21,896 


56,162 


124,889,000 


81,473 


1,304.255 


267,667,000 


22,385 


27,067 


55,171.000 


1,755 


751 


2,611,000 


41,101 


25,659 


141.942,000 


1,731 


5.757 


6,229,000 


2,177 


2.827 


9,737,000 


4,513 


3,448 


7.379,000 


1,820 


569 


4.739.000 


755 


244 


577,000 


16,640 


90,268 


236.998,000 


5,928 


6,371 


11.726,000 


6,596 


8,637 


22.561,000 


7,277 


2,638 


11,624.000 


3,090 


1,506 


5.312,000 


61,022 


110,017 


76,119,000 


388.466 


297.763 


737.876.000 



136 



SCIENTIFIC. AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES: BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES. 1909. — Continued. 



INDU8TBY. 



Pulp KOodB 

Pumps, not includiog steam pumps. . . 

Rice, cleaning and polishing 

Roofing materials 

Rubber gooc^, not elsewhere specified. 

Rules, ivory and wood 

Safes and vaults 

Salt 



Sand and onexy paper and cloth 

Saws 

Scales and balances 

Screws, machine 

Screws, wood 

3ewing machines, cases and attachments. 

Shipbuilding, including boatbuildinc 

Shoddy 

Show cases 

Sifms and advertising novelties 

SiUc and silk goods, mcluding throwsters. 

Silverware and plated ware 

Slaughtering and meat packing 

Smiting and refining, copper 

Smelting and refining, lead 

Smelting and refining, zinc 

Smelting and refining, not from the ore. . 
Soap. 



Soda-water apparatus 

Sporting and athletic goods 

Springs, steel, car and carriage 

Stationery goods, not elsewhere specified 

Statuary and art goods 

Steam packing 

Stereotyping and electrotyping 



Stoves and furnaces, including sas and oil stoves . 
Sugar and molasses, not including beet sugar. . . 

Sulphuric, nitric and mixed acids 

Surgical appliances and artificial limbs 

Tin plate and temeplate 

TinfoU 

Tobacco manufactures 

Toys and games. . ., 

Turpentine and resm 

Type-founding and printing materials 

Typewriters and supplies , 

Umbrellas and canes , 

Upholstering materials 

Vault lights and ventilators , 

Vinegar and cider 

WaU paper , 

Wall plaster 

Washmg machines and clothes wringers 

Waste 

Wheelbarrows 

Whips 

Windmills 

Window shades and fixtures 

Wire 



Wirework, including wire rope and cable 

Wood distillation, not including turpentine and resin 

Wood carpet 

Wood preserving 

Wood, turned and carved 

Wood pulling 

Wool scouring 

Woolen, worsted, and felt goods, and wool hats. . . 
All other industries* 



Total 7,678,578 



Peraons 
Engaged. 



882 
2,623 

1,777 
3,530 

31,284 
127 
4.060 
5.580 
779 
6,757 
4,275 
1,863 
3,768 

20,656 

44,949 

2.320 

3,943 

7.277 

105,238 

18.774 
108,716 

16.832 
8.059 
7,156 
2,596 

18,393 
2,399 
5.993 
3.573 
7,938 
2,172 
4,968 
3,661 

42,921 

15,658 
2,582 
5,805 
5,846 
762 
197,637 
6,072 

44,524 
2,597 

12,101 
6,505 
4,777 
453 
3,073 
4.746 
5,624 
2,294 
2.129 
775 
1,946 
2,742 
4,770 

19.945 

14.994 

3,095 

221 

2,875 

16,243 

759 

1,262 

175,176 

132 



Primary 
Horse- 
power. 



3,126 

4.214 

19,519 

9,431 

79,062 

167 

5,546 

27,263 

3351 

11,852 

6.183 

3,319 

5.618 

19.426 

88.063 

13,820 

4,746 

3,790 

97.947 

15.183 

208.707 

158.126 

26.954 

21.457 

10.705 

28.360 

2.894 

3.243 

7,349 

6,842 

462 

11.129 

4,076 

45,524 

160,603 

6,494 

5,752 

8,164 

1,699 

28,514 

5,323 

4,129 

1,948 

6.846 

2.413 

17,456 

234 

16,681 

5,680 

25.892 

3,351 

4.286 

1.486 

1.321 

3,301 

5,737 

71,959 

20,131 

9,854 

269 

10,647 

48,447 

1,366 

6,786 

362,209 

136 



18,680.776 



Value of 
Products. 



1,770,000 

5,583.000 

22,371.000 

19,204,000 

128.436.000 

144.000 

8.491.000 
11,328000 

4.358,000 
11,636,000 

8.786.000 

3.014,000 

6,199.000 
28.262.000 
73360.000 

7,446.000 

7,167,000 

13.646.000 

196,912,000 

42,229.000 

1.370,668,000 

378.806.000 

167,406,000 

34,206,000 

28,072,000 

111,368,000 

6,666,000 
11.062.000 

9.006.000 
16,647.000 

3,442.000 
12,160,000 

6,384,000 

78,853.000 

279,249,000 

9,884.000 
12.399.000 
47,970,000 

3,419,000 
416,695.000 

8,264,000 
26.295,000 

4,703,000 

19,719,000 

15.864,000 

13.054,000 

967.000 

8,448,000 
14,449,000 
12.804,000 

5.825,000 
11,398,000 

1,625,000 

3,949,000 

6,677.000 
18,571,000 
84,486,000 
41.938,000 

9,737,000 

490,000 

14,099,000 

22,199,000 

5.181,000 

3,289,000 

435,979,000 

390,000 



$20,672,052,000 



* Includes the following industries: Millstones; ordnance and accessories; pulp, from 
fibre other than wood; straw goods, not elsewhere specified: and whalebone cutting. 



CHAPTER V. 



COMMERCE. 




PRINCIP\L TRADE ROLTE& ON THI' \TL\.NTIC OCEAN 



AREA OF THE LARGEST LAKES. 



C*R>uin Sea (SS (eet bctow tb« level of 

lETBlMk 8e«) li 

lake SupBEJor (N. .' ' 



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• • • * • •• 



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SCIENTIFIC AMKRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOREIGN CARRYING TRADE OF THE UNITED 


STATES, 1821-1912. 




Tot*! import. BOd eiportd. 


Year 


In can and 


Bywa. 


Peroent. 




YBBek?" 


InloreiKn 

vewelB. 


Total. 


veSSI" 






■ gas 

B8, 424. BOO 

1111 

o^.wi.dsa 


90.764.954 
2AS.040,703 

■ass 

2,721,962,475 


■ffiSS 

239.227.465 

11! 








8! 

1 






























(20,981.393 

164l89fii650 































Compariton of tha araa □( >ll itBtea of the world In Engliah ■qutra mile*. 




PT 'cT "fif 1?° 'H^ ^^'y ^ 3^ '^'y sy^aa. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



149 



Trade With the Non-Contiguous 

Territories of the 

United States. 

The trade of the United States with its 
non-contiguous territories continued to ex- 
pand, the figures of 1912 showing a larger 
amount than ever before. The value of the 
merchandise forwarded to the non-contiguous 
territories was: To Alaska, 19 H million dol- 
lars, against 16 million in 1911: to Porto Bico, 
38H million in 1912, against 34H million in 
1911; to Hawaii, 24 >^ miUion, against 22 
million in 1911; to the Philippine Islands, 
20 H million, against 19 H million in the pre- 
ceding year. This makes the total value of 
the merchandise shipped to the non-contigu- 
ous territories of the United States 103 milUon 
dollars in 1912, against 92^ million in 1911. 
and 83 million in 1910. The merchandise 
entering the United States from its non-con- 
tiguous territories shows in most cases larger 
totals in 1912 than in the preceding years. 
From Alaska the value of such shipments was 
21^ million dollars in 1912, against 14 million 
in the preceding year; from Porto Rico, 42^ 
million, against 34^ miUion in 1911; from 
Hawaii, 55 million, against 41 million in 1911 ; 
and from the Philippine Islands, 21)^ milUon, 
against 16^ million in the preceding year. 
This makes the total value of the merchandise 
shipped to the United States from its non- 
contiguous territories 141 million dollars in 
1912, against 107M million in 1911, 108 
million in 1910, and 89 H million in 1909. 





IMDIA 
248,0Z0|398 




CM I MA 
2M, 683,333^ 
(CXF0RT9 orfLX; 





CEYLOh 
179^34,^62. 



JAPAM 
60,455,913 



JAVA 
26,(27.110 



TEA. 

A year's production. 

(In lbs.) 



S 



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QQ 

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150 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 151 




1907 — Quadruple-aorew propcllels. 



I 



-w 



II! 



2J5553HM2K2555SHaKa:S 5H'''''!=-?^^"i '5 



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l^plsiii^i^sfflj 



J]ii. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



[Bsntoa: Ofllclal npsrti at Dm napacUn couurtH.) 



Saarri 



United Btitu:> 

NawYotk 

ObItuIod 



Armntina; DuensiAl 






>liicLiidlagQD«iibaciHi(b. 

• Tyno porls comprise Namaalta, 

< JncludlDtf ChBrlBaLoura. 

< Yeu> endKl Hat. 31. 



IH ipefiiflail b)" nolo. 

SU«Jdi, ud Soulh Shltldi. 



154 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

PRINCIPAL PORTS OP THE WORLD: Vbsski. Tonnaob Movbmbnt m 
THE FoKEiOH Trade, ddbing tbz La.tb8T Yoab fob wmcH 

DA.TA A£Z AvADi&BIjE. 

i[Sotirces: OfDcfol reports ot the resperlLvc countries.) 



Enlcnd. OcoTHl. 



UallD'Vaieitai 



ChcrbMU-gl... 

Douloiao 

UoracEte 



Fortueal- Lisbon. 



B3rr«1onft.„ 
BiLhan (Vim 
Tiirbej': Curat 



1,3J4,»Z 

'taa',7ia 



rhilodelphla.. 

GalvHton!!!:! 
New Ortfians. . 



Ulllt«] StaWs- 
Pu^tsSlind... 

Monticol 

iSe^i".:i 

Tampiio. ::?::! 

Atsentins; Due- 
BraiH: 

DTttL<hIndk:i 
Bombay 

Calpuila 

Bittlali Colonlos; 
Uc^kong-Vlc- 

Slngnpore'! 

CfJom tH <.-... - 

Adeni.' 

China: Slumghol" 

'^t'ohama 

KoSi". "!!'.!: 
IKJi 

EctpI: Aleiaa- 
Uninn »t Boutii 
CaroTnWn 

■ Molbouim 

Bydnoy 

Frtroanlle 

Adelaide 



^'otheruijse spe^Ulod by n( 
ihippinsr.eKcliniinsiiilini; 



• Excludlii)! CUnese 1 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 155 




THE WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD AND SILVER. 

NOTES TO PRECEDING PAGE— Continued. 

'BidiidtiiKmidil|B.liBiupoiis, yuliu, naEivscntriand ilsam iDd ufltng vesnia uDdnJOlDDS b 
loliMlU»*«ial)<a(*g»illnlDleiHtllenisiit trade. 

*EBdDd|pf Ibatoanni^ vessatslhat caUod Tor tho purposa ol coAline and fur orders anir. 

> Indadlni lUiTC enii 

w TWpagi o» vmli «ntatBJ and cleared al the marl tine customs. 

"n0ma<f4lnM*Blnnenuidclumuesltamuitltai)acuotUsldsthe CommDnw«Blth. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FBotcxPU. Ports ot th> Woblh: Pomiwn CoiaaiECK dueinq the Latest 
YsAR TOB WHICH Data asb Atailabia— Continued. 


C„«M.,„,.p„t. 


V«.. 


Imports. 


EiporU. 


Tot^com™. 




1911 


i><>n»i. 

07,S-1,SS8 
{48,SM,«I 

I0?.«B,1M 
104,883,(01 


1M,4u;M0 

S:KS 

9M, (09.066 

m.4n,779 

lM.MO.Iia 

87, lU,iH 


MI,W«,OM 






iafl,8M,lM 


Brltlih Coloii'iu: 












A«^«.:. """'"*■ 


KSIS! 










BRAZIL ECUADOR ST.THOIU TRINIUD 
34,270 31. M2 '^:*'i*i^ Z3.260 
90,094 



17,160 15,037 

COCOA, 



ONE YEAR'S PRODUCTION. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



GOLD 


Values 


OF Imforti 
Imports o 


AND Exports and Annual 
R ExpOKTB. 1S62 TO 1912.' 


Excess or 


Year 


E,„«. 




Excess of— 


30^ 


D.™u... 


Foreign. 


Tot.ll. 


Export" over 


'""e^.^' "" 




3I,04M51. 
I3,403,e32 

Si 


DoUari. 
4,385,252 
,055,363 

Hi 


z>oa<H-i. 


^".n 


DoUari 
21 B79 012 


OoUar. 


IS:::: 

890.... 

9io:::: 


■11 

57 326 


326 

75B 

215 




II 


51<W3eO 




liPPiii 


i • 1 1^2J LLI L!J 

TMnCTwa noiMr mum rvmuu. 
Mownn.i Ite.ju li.lrs «/«» 

'»""•- sss -isiir ",K«i" 


i,[i|illl 


H S ■ i^ a 
sss' .:aa jra a-sj Ear 

«» j«Si" SSSr ftST ffi!S 



HOME AND COLONIAL POPULATIONS AND AREAS OF THE 
WORLD'S EMPIRES. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





^'^ 


E^pona. 






eiports over 




Domsstic' 


Foreign. 


Total 






Ooaa... 


^^"r„ 


DoUari. 


Doii^r,. 


Doli,™. 




i; 

1 


DW 


1S3 

146 
587 


i 


21 .511 

III 


lis 

ssiasoisfli 


1 


194 


J 


157.475 




840.945 






h-ii 




1912 





LubsequeatJy tli 
r tvhich head the f 




THE PROGRESS OF ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



159 



FAILURES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



MANUFACTURERS. 



Iron, Foundries and Nails 

Machinery and Tools 

Woolens, Carpets and Knit Goods 

Cottons, Lace and Hosiery 

Lumber, Carpenters and Coopers. . 

Cloliiing and Millinery 

Hats, Gloves and Furs 

Chemicals and Drugs 

Paints and Oils 

Printing and Engraving 

Milling and Bakers 

Leather, Shoes and Harness 

Laqtiors and Tobacco 

Glass, Earthenware and Bricks. . . 
All Other 

Total Manufacturing 

TRADERS. 

General Stores 

Groceries, Meat and FLsh 

Hotels and Restaurants 

Liquors and Tobacco 

Clothing and Furnishings 

Dry Goods and Carpets 

Shoes, Rubt>er8 and Trunks 

Furniture and Crockery 

Hardware, Stoves and Tools 

Chemicals and Drugs 

Paints and Oils 

Jewelry and Clocks 

Books and Paper? 

Hats, Furs and Gloves 

All Other 

Total Trading 

Brokers and Transporters 

Total Commercial 

Banking 



Number 



1911. 



61 

173 

53 

36 

416 

497 

68 

15 

26 

172 

218 

79 

105 

127 

1,455 



3,502 



1.380 

2,134 
486 
747 

1,036 

671 

349 

287 

302 

361 

57 

296 

90 

62 

1,222 



9.480 
459 



13,441 
107 



1912. 



80 

233 

35 

33 

421 

647 

98 

37 

13 

173 

292 

113 

115 

121 

1,428 



3,839 



1,777 

2,597 
501 
819 

1,121 

786 

411 

316 

287 

430 

62 

385 

99 

75 

1,345 



11,011 
602 



Liabilities 



191L 



$5,056,635 
6.689,566 
4,329,758 
3,590,816 

16,000,205 
4,509.586 
978,002 
105,623 
1,051,212 
2,448.366 
1,264,511 
1,577,919 
2,451.589 
3.972,382 

33,345,453 



$87,371,623 



$10,977,030 

9,543,008 

3,762,792 

4.268,965 

10,015,849 

11,320,606 

2,461,699 

2,877,533 

3,401.792 

1,943,546 

438,667 

3,270,182 

951,147 

886.204 

18,117,659 



$84,239,679 
19.450.363 



15,452 
79 



$191,061,665 
25,511,606 



1912. 



$6,995,098 
9.960,268 
1,690,099 
1.057,689 

12,971,002 
8,375,053 
2,025,258 
625,684 
286,158 
1,788,198 
1.578,773 
2,779,922 
3.224,162 
6,531.565 

26.830.903 



$86,719,832 



$12,760,623 

13,162,922 

5,399.706 

5,234,609 

9.790.491 

9.443.253 

3,330,470 

2,535,861 

3,459.410 

2,664,716 

386,435 

4,080,816 

865,880 

693,260 

17,971,513 



$91,779,965 
24,617,594 



$203,117,391 
24,219.522 



Year. 


No. 


1870 


3,546 


1871 


2,915 


1872 


4,069 


1873 


6,183 


1874 


5,830 


1875 


7,740 


1876 


9,092 


1877 


8.872 


1878 


10.478 


1879 


6,658 


1880 


4,736 


1881 


6,682 


1882 


6,738 


1883 


9.184 


1884 


10.968 



Liabilities. 

$88,242,000 

86,262,000 

121,056.000 

228.499.900 

155,239.000 

201.000.000 

191,117.000 

190,669,936 

234,383.132 

98.149.053 

65.752,000 

81,155,932 

101,647,564 

172,874,172 

226.343,427 



Year. 


No. 


1885 


10.637 


1886 


9.834 


1887 


9,634 


1888 


10,679 


1889 


10,882 


1890 


10,907 


1891 


12,273 


1892 


10.344 


1893 


15.242 


1894 


13.885 


1896 


13.197 


1896 


16,088 


1897 


13.351 


1898 


12.186 


1899 


9.337 



Liabilities. 

124,220,321 
114,644,119 
167,560.944 
123,829,973 
148,784,337 
189.856,964 
189,868,638 
114,044,167 
346,779,889 
172,992,856 
173,196,060 
226,096,834 
154,332,071 
130,662,899 
90,879,889 



Year. 


No. 


1900 


10,774 


1901 


11,002 


1902 


11,615 


1903 


12,069 


1904 


12,199 


1905 


11,520 


1906 


10,682 


1907 


11,726 


1908 


15,690 


1909 


15,924 


1910 


12,652 


1911 


13,441 


1912 


15,452 



Liabilities. 

$138,495,673 
113,092,376 
117,476,769 
165,444,185 
144,202,311 
102,676,172 
119,201,516 
197,385,226 
222,315,684 
154,603,466 
201,757,097 
191,061,665 
203,117,391 



Courtesy of Dun's Review. 



CX)INAGE OF THE UNITED STATES MINTS. 



The total coinage of gold in the United 
States mints for the year ending December 
31, 1912 was $17,498,522.50; the total coin- 
age of silver for the same period amounted to 



$7,340,995.00 and the total coinage of minor 
metals to $2,577,386.30. Thus the total 
coinage of the United States Mints amounted 
to $27,416,903.80. 



160 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PRICES OF THE LEADING ARTICLES OF GRAIN, GROCERIES AND 

PROVISIONS IN NEW YORK MARKET. 
[Sources: Ck>ff6e» Mr. Louis Sellgsbersr, New York ; Sugar. Messrs. Willett & Gray; other figures. Mr. 

Henry Heinzer, statistician, New York ~ - - - 



: Produce Exchange] 



Calendar 
year. 



1891.... 
1892.... 
18».... 
1884.... 
1895.... 
1896.... 
1897..,. 
Io9o.... 
1899.... 
1900.... 
1901.... 
1902.... 
1908.... 
1904.... 
1905.... 
1906.... 
1907.... 
1908.... 
1909.... 
1910.... 
1911.,.. 
1912.... 









Dott8. 

1.094 
.908 
.789 
.611 



.781 
.954 
.952 
.794 
.804 



.836 

.858 

1.107 

1.028 

.865 

.963 

1.04f 

1.268 

1.118 

.963 

1.091 



SBl4 

I 



Oenta. 
70.4 
54.0 
49.9 
50.9 
47.7, 
84.0 
81.9 
87.6 
41.8 
45.8 
66.7 
68.4 
67.2 
69.4 
69.8 
56.0 
64.0 
78.6 
76.7 
66.8 
71.1 

(») 



I'd 

I 



Cents, 
46; 
86.8 
85.9 
87.2 
28.9 
28.8 
28.2 
29.7 
80.7 
27.8 
86.6 
44.9 
41.1 
42.0 
85.0 
88.0 
49.6 
T>4.5 
61.4 



«45.7 
56.4 



OenU. 
6.59 
7.69 

10.84 
7:76 
6.50 
4.67 
4,42 
6.58 
6.57 
7.05 
8.87 

10.59 
8.81 
7.82 
7.44 
8.88 
9.20 
9.08 

11.68 

12.52 
9.11 

10.51 



i 

II 



DoS$. 

8.85 

6.86 

8,17 

«.16 

8.09 

7.51 

7,71 

9.16 

9.26 

9.73 

9.82 

1L75 

9.03 

8.82 

10.02 

8.85 

9.83 

18.20 

11.09 

14.64 

12.92 

15.80 



Dott$. 
11.88 
11.68 
18.35 
14.18 
11.91 
8.95 
8.86 
9.82 
9; 86 
12.48 
15.62 
17.94 
16.50 
14.01 
14.48 
17.55 
17.61 
15.98 
21.84 
28.72 
19.12 
19.88 



OenU. 
4.81 
4.62 
6.44 
4.81 
4.88 
8.44 
8.81 
8.66 
4.54 
4.84 
6.25 
B81 
6.06 
4.60 
4.50 
5.81 
6.25 
6.50 
6.00 
7.26 
6.50 
6.18 



€k>ffee. 




Cents, 

17.80 

15.88 

18.82 

17.81 

17.80 

15.06 

U.96 

8.00 

7.45 

9.50 

8.60 

6.75 

6.75 

8.80 

9.15 

9.25 

8.85 

7.85 

8.75 

10.15 

14.85 

16.60 



§1 



Cents. 

16.40 

14.48 

17.42 

16.41 

15.80 

1^15 

9.80 

6.80 

6.^ 

8.80 

7.88 

6.65 

5.60 

7.70 

8.25 

&10 

6.60 

6.25 

7.85 

9.60 

13.25 

14.45 



Cents. 
24.50 
26.87 
24.23 
28.25 
26.60 
23.44 
24.00 
24.00 
24.00 
22.00 

n.oo 

16.00 
15.75 
15.00 
15.00 
14.60 
16.60 
18.50 
18.00 
18.00 
18.75 
18.75 



Sugar. 



P 
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Cents. 
8.92 
3.82 
8.69 
8.24 
8.28 
3.62 
3.56 
4.24 
4.42 
4.67 
4.05 
8.54 
3.72 
8.97 
4.28 
3.69 
3.76 
4.07 
4.00 
4.19 
4.453 
4.16a 



Cents. 
4.47 
4.21 
4.72 
4.00 
4.00 
4.41 
4.88 
4.84 
4.80 
5.12 
4.85 
4.27 
4.48 
4.62 
5.11 
4.37 
4.45 
4.76 
4.56 
4.T7 
6.145 
4.801 




Cents. 

4.65 

4.85 

4.84 

4.12 

4.12 

4.68 

4.60 

4.97 

4.92 

5.82 

5.06 

4.46 

4.64 

4.77 

6.26 

4.62 

4.65 

4.96 

4.76 

4.97 

6.345 

5.oa 



1 No. 3, Exchange standard. 



* No. 2 white oats. 



SNomlnaL 



ESTIMATED STOCK OF GOLD AND SILVER IN THE UNITED STATES. 



At the end of the fiscal year June 30, 1912, 
the population of the United States was 
95,656,000, against 76,891,000 in 1900, 
62,622,250 in 1890, 50.155,783 in 1880, and 
41,677,000 in 1873. The total stock of gold 
coin and bullion in 1912 was $1,812,856,241 
against $1,034,439,264 in 1900, $695,563,029 
in 1890, $351,841,206 in 1880, and $135,000,- 
000 in 1873. The total stock of silver coin 
and bullion in 1912 amounted to $741,184,095 



against $647,371,030 in 1900, $463,211,919 
in 1890, $148,522,678 in 1880, and $6,149,305 
in 1873. The amount of gold per capita in 
the United States at the end of the fiscal year 
June 30, 1912, was $18.95. against $13.45 in 
1900, $11.10 in 1890, $7.01 in 1880, and 
$3.23 in 1873. At the end of this same period 
the supply of silver per capita was $7.75, 
against $8.42 in 1900, $7.39 in 1890, $2.96 in 
1880, and $0.15 in 1873. 



RESOURCES AND LIABILITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS IN 1912. 



The resources of the 7,397 National Banks 
in the United States on September 4, 1912, 
which amounted to a grand total of 10,963.4 
million dollars , were derived from the follow- 
ing sources: Loans and discounts, including 
overdrafts, 6,061.0 million dollars; bonds for 
circulation 724.0 millions; other United 
States bonds and other bonds for deposits 
78.7 millions; bonds, securities, etc., 1,039.9. 
millions; due from banks and reserve agents 
1,453.0 millions; real estate, banking house, 
etc., 268.5 millions; specie, 713.4 millions; 
legal-tender notes 182.6 miUions; biUs of other 



banks, 48.5 millions; clearing-house ex- 
changes 296.0 millions; due from United 
States Treasurer 41.9 millions; other resources 
56.0 millions. 

Their liabilities for the same period, 
totaling 10,963.4 million dollars, were as 
follows: Capital stock 1,046.0 millions; sur- 
plus fund 701.0 millions; undivided profits 

242.7 millions; national bank circidation 

713.8 millions; individual deposits 5,891.6 
millions; due to banks and reserve agents 
2,177.4 millions; other liabiUties 190.0 millions. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



161 



Relative Prices of Commodities, 1890 to 1911, by Groups 

Relative Price in. 1890 to 1899—100 



Year or 
Month 


Farm 
Products 


Food, 
etc. 


Cloths 

and 
Clothing 


Fuel 

and 

Lighting 


Metals 
and Im- 
plements 


Lumber 

and 
Building 
Material 


House 
Furnish- 
ing Goods 


Misoel- 
laneous 


1890 


110.0 

121.5' 

111.7 

107.9 

95.9 

93.3 

78.3 

85.2 

96.1 

100.0 

109.5 

116.9 

130.5 

118.8 

126.2 

124.2 

123.6 

137.1 

133.1 

•153.1 

164.6 

162.0 


112.4 

115.7 

103.6 

110.2 

99.8 

04.6 

83.8 

87.7 

94.4 

98.3 

104.2 

105.9 

111.3 

107.1 

107.2 

108.7 

112.6 

117.8 

120.6 

124.7 

128.7 

131.3 


113.5 

111.3 

109.0 

107.2 

96.1 

92.7 

91.3 

91.1 

93.4 

96.7 

106.8 

101.0 

102.0 

106.6 

109.8 

112.0 

120.0 

126.7 

116.9 

119.6 

123.7 

119.6 


104.7 
102.7 
101.1 
100.0 
92.4 
98.1 
104.3 
96.4 
95.4 
105.0 
120.9 
119.6 
134.3 
149.3 
132.6 
128.8 
131.9 
135.0 
130.8 
129.3 
125.4 
L 122.4 


119.2 
111.7 
106.0 
100.7 
90.7 
92.0 
93.7 
86.6 
86.4 
114.7 
120.5 
111.9 
117.2 
117.6 
109.6 
1^.6 
135.2 
143.4 
125.4 
124.8 
128.5 
119.4 


111.0 

108.4 

.102.8 

101.9 

96.8 

94.1 

93.4 

90.4 

96.8 

105.8 

115.7 

116.7 

118.8 

121.4 

122.7 

127.7 

140.1 

146.9 

133.1 

138.4 

153.2 

161.9 


111.1 
110.2 
106.6 
104.9 
100.1 
96.5 
94.0 
89.8 
92.0 
95.1 
106.1 
110.9 
112.2 
113.0 
111.7 
169.1 
111.0 
• 118.5 
114.0 
111.7 
111.6 
111.1 


110.3 


1891 


109.4 


1892 


106.2 


1893 

1894 

1895 


106.9 
99.8 
94.5 


1896 


91.4 


1897 


92.1 


1898 


92.4 


1899 

1900 


97.7 
109.8 


1901 


107.4 


1902 


114.1 


1903 


113.6 


1904 


111.7 


1905 


112.8 


1906 


121.1 


1907 


127.1 


1908 


119.9 


1909 


125.9 


1910 


133.1 


wn 


131.2 



CASUALTY AND SURETY INSURANCE 
BUSINESS IN 1911. 

The Dusiness of Companies doinc a miscel- 
laneous insurance business in the United 
States during the yea.T 1911 was divided as 
follows: Automobile business, $2,676,767 
received from premiums, $1,129,193 paid for 
losses; buislary, $2,850,344 received from 
premiums, $1,110,978 paid for losses; credit, 
$1,752,582 received from premiums, $1,056,- 
133 paid for losses: fidelity ana surety, 
$16,958,051 received from premiums, $4,980,- 
430 paid for losses; health, $7,101,666 re- 
ceived from premiums, $3,314,301 paid for 
losses; liabihty, $35,201,753 received from 
premiums, $20,341,029 paid for losses; 
personal accident, $27,351,626 received from 
premiums, $11,837,347 paid for losses; plate 
glass, $3,960,546 received from premiums, 
$1,714,236 paid for losses; steam boiler, 
$2,246,225 received from premiums, $282,338 
paid for losses; sprinkler business, $178,016 
received from premiums, $73,438 paid for 
losses; flywheel, $184,514 received from 
premiums, $75,704 paid for losses; live stock, 
$572,564 received from premiums, $267,315 
paid for losses; workmen's collective, $711,726 
received from premiums, $306,433 paid for 
losses. Courtesy Spectator Ins. Year Book. 

The first fire insurance coixmany in the 
United States was established in Boston, Mass. 
by the Sun Insurance Company ^English) in 
1728. The first fire insurance ix)licy was issued 
in Hartford, Conn., 1794. First accident in- 
surance company established at Hartford, 
Oonn.. 1863. 



GrOLD AND SiLVBR CURRENCY AND 

Total Money in the Treasury 
AND IN Circulation. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1912 the gold 
in the United States was aivided as follows: 
Coin and bullion in the Treasury $264,028,- 
646, and in circulation $610,724,154; certifi- 
cates in circulation $943,435,618. Thus the 
total amount of gold coin, bullion and certifi- 
cates in the United States was $1,818,188,418. 

The silver of the United States, for the same 
year, was divided as follows: Standard dollars 
in the Treasuiy $25,785,046. and in circula- 
tion $70,339,574; certificates in circulation 
$469,224,400; subsidiary coin in the Treasury 
$25,554,007 and in circulation $145,034,198. 
Thus the total standard dollars and certifi- 
cates in the Treasury and in circulation 
amounted to $565,349,020, and the amount 
of subsidiary coin to $170,588,205. 

Aooreoate Savings Deposits of 
Savings Banks, Number of De- 
positors, AND Average Amount 
Due to Each Depositor: Year 
Ended June 30, 1912. 

At the end of the fiscal year 1912 there were 
1,922 Savings Banks in the United States. 
(This includes only mutual and stock savings 
banks transacting chiefly a savings bank 
business) and they had depositors to the 
number of 10,010,304. The total amount of 
the deposits for the year was $4,451,818,522.- 
88 or an average deposit to each depositor of 
$444.72. 



ISa SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK, 




PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP ROUTES FROM NORTH AMERICA- 



HIGHEST AND LOWEST CONTINENTAL ALTITUDES. 

In ordor to compsrB tiB-BlsTBtion* in tho United Stain wilh thoM in f ordgn conntriM the toUoirin j' 
is giTm, bntmsny of the fignres must be ■ " ' — ■ '-■ 





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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



163 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



165 




PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP ROUTES FROM SOUTH AMERICA. 



Ocean Marine Insurance. 

Twenty-nine marine insurance companies 
reporting to the New York State Insurance 
Department had on January 1, 1913 assets 
of $37,742,590, sxirplus of $17,634,538, and 
premiums earned in preceding year $15,849,- 
322, losses incurred $8,496,570, risks written 
to policy holders $12,226,276,614. 



The first savings banks in the United States 
were established at Boston and Philadelphia 
in 1816 and in New York in 1819. The postal 
savings bank system was established by an 
Act of Congress June 25, 1910, and on Jan. 3, 
1911 one city in each state was selected for 
the opening of the first postal savings banks* 



166 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NOTABLE CONFLAGRATIONS IN THE WORLD'S HISTORY. 

From *' The Insurance Year Book." reprinted by permission of " The Spectator Company," 

New York and Chicago. 

Evdti before man began to congregate and build cities, there existed the danger of prairie 
and forest fires; but these, except in a minor way, were not especially destructive of other 
property. When cities had been built and many thousands of people came to be housed within 
a small area, the danger of fire and its capacity for doing harm to men and their property were 
greatly aug^uented; and as cities increased in sixe, the fire hasard and the accumulated values 
subject to destruction were both correspondingly multiptied. During the last four thousand 
years many cities have been swept by tire, some of them several times; and some have been 
practically obliterated. Below will be found a list, compiled from various sources, of some 
of the more important fires of history, comprising those most notable because of the values or 
lives destroyed, or for some peculiar reason: 



Year. 


Location. 


Year. 


Location. 


Year. 


Location. 


B.C. 




A. D. 




A. D. 




1897 


Sodom and Gomorrah 


1123 


Lincoln 


1737 


Moscow 


1400 


Jerusalem 


1130 


Rochester 


1737 


Jaroslaw 


1141 


EphesuB 


1135 


London 


1738 


Martinique 


586 


Jerusalem 


1137 


York 


1742 


Smyrna 


480 


PlaUea 


1137 


Bath 


1744 


Brest 


497 


Athens 


1140 


Nottingham 


1746 


Constantinople 


390 


Rome 


1171 


Canterbury 


1748 


Moscow 


241 


Rome 


1171 


Cairo 


1749 


Constantinople 


215 


Rome 


1189 


Carlisle 


1750 


Constantinople 


212 


Rome 


1190 


Dublin 


1750 


Moscow 


146 


Corinth 


1203 


Constantinople 


1751 


Constantinople 


50 


Rome 


1204 


Doncaster 


1752 


Moscow 


48 


Alexandria 


1215 


Bruges 


1753 


Smyrna 


13-14 


Rome 


1283 


Dublin 


1763 


Archangel 


12 


Rome 


1292 


Carlisle 


1756 


Berghen 


A. D. 


1299 


Westminster 


1766 


Constantinople 


59 


Lyons 


1321 


Geneva 


1758 


Savannah 


64 


Rome 


1327 


Munich 


1759 


Salon ica 


70 


Jerusalem 


1333 


Geneva 


1760 


Boston 


80 


Rome 


1349 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne 


1764 


Kdnigsberg 


154 


Rome 


1385 


Edinburgh 


1765 


Belgrade 


154 


Antioch 


1388 


Dunkirk 


1769 


Konfgsberg 


188 


Rome 


1401 


Edinburgh 


1769 


Constantinople 


197 


Lyons 


1405 


Berne 


1769 


St. John's 


260 


Bordeaux 


1405 


Brussels 


1771 


Constantinople 


273 


Alexandria 


1430 


Geneva 


1771 


St. Petersburg 


393 


Constantinople 


1471 


Chester 


1772 


Smyrna 


466 


Constantinople 


1491 


Dresden 


1773 


Moscow 


532 


Constantinople 


1507 


Norwich 


1776 


Limehouse 


558 


Paris 


1512 


Brest 


1776 


St. George 


640 


Alexandria 


1542 


Edinburgh 


1776 


St. Kitts 


667 


Rochester 


1544 


Edinburgh 


1776 


New York 


741 


York Minster 


1570 


Moscow 


1777 


New Orleans 


781 


Constantinople 


1576 


Antwerp 


1778 


Charleston 


798 


London 


1612 


Cork 


1778 


New York 


802-7 


Constantinople 


1631 


Magdeburg 


1778 


Constantinople 


807 


Peterborough 


1633 


Constantinople 


1780 


St. Petersburg 


893 


London 


1656 


Jeddo 


1780 


St. Petersburg 


917 


Cordova 


1666 


London 


1782 


Constantinople 


978 


Cork 


1667 


Archangel 


1782 


Constantinople 


982 


London 


1675 


Northampton 


1784 


Port-au-Prince 


1004 


Norwich 


1676 


South wark 


1784 


Brest 


1010 


Northampton 


1682 


Wapping, London 


1784 


Constantinople 


1013 


Cork 


1689 


Prague 


1784 


Rokitzan, Bohemia 


1069 


York 


1692 


Salem 


1790 


Carlscrona 


1086 


London 


1694 


Warwick 


1791 


Constantinople 


1087 


London 


1694 


Dieppe 


1792 


Constantinople 


1092 


London 


1700 


Charleston 


1793 


Archangel 


1102 


Winchester 


1702 


Bergen 


1794 


Copenhagen 


1106 


Venice 


1728 


Copenhagen 


1794 


Wapping, London 


1113 


Mons 


1729 


Constantinople 


1796 


Copenhagen 


1113 


Worcester 


1731 


Baireuth 


1796 


Constantinople 


1116 


Bath 


1736 


Peasmore 


1796 


Smyrna 


1118 


Nantes 


1737 


Panama 


1796 


Barbados 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



167 





Year. 


Location. 


Year. 


Location. 


Year. 


Location. 


A. D. 




A. D. 




A. D. 




1796 


Baltimore 


1862 


St. Petersburg 


1897 


London 


1797 


Scutari 


1862 


Marseilles 


1897 


Paris 


1798 


Wilmington 


1862 


Constantinople 


1898 


Nijni-Novgorod 


1799 


Peru 


1863 


Monastir 


1899 


Philadelphia 


1799 


Constantinople 


1864 


Georgetown 


1900 


Hoboken 


1799 


Manila 


1864 


Hankow 


1900 


Bayonne 


1802 


Liverpool 


1865 


Port-au-Prince 


1900 


Ottawa-Hull, Canada 


1803 


Bombay 


1865 


New York 


1901 


Jacksonville 


1805 


St. Thomas 


1866 


Constantinople 


1901 


Antwerp 


1808 


Spanish T'n, Trinidad 


1866 


Manila 


1901 


Montreal 


1811 


Smyrna 


1866 


London 


1902 


Paterson 


1812 


Moscow 


1866 


Portland, Me. 


1902 


Waterbury 


1814 


Rangoon 


1866 


Quebec 


1904 


Baltimore 


1816 


Constantinople 


1866 


Yokahama 


1904 


Aesland, Norway 


1817 


Pt. Louis, Mauritius 


1868 


Charleston, S. C. 


1904 


Toronto 


1818 


Constantinople 


1868 


Albany, N. Y. 


1904 


Halifax 


1820 


Canton 


1869 


Philadelphia 


1904 


Rochester 


1820 


Savannah, Oa. 


1870 


Constantinople 


1906 


New Orleans 


1820 


Paris 


1870 


Pera, Turkey 


1906 


San Francisco 


1820 


Port-au-Prince 


1870 


Sam-Sun. Turkey 


1906 


Valparaiso, Chile 


1821 


Paramaribo 


1870 


Chicago 


1906 


Wellington, N. Z. 


1822 


Canton 


1871 


Chicago 


1907 


Iquique, Chile 


1824 


Cairo 


1872 


Constantinople 


1907 


Hakodate, Japan 


1825 


New Brunswick 


1872 


Boston 


1907 


Kingston, Jamaica 


1826 


St. John's, N. F. 


1873 


Alexandra Palace, Lon- 


1908 


Chelsea, Mass. 


1826 


Constantinople 




don 


1908 


Noda Soy. Japan 


1827 


Abo, Finland 


1873 


Havana 


1908 


Nligata, Japan 


1831 


Constantinople 


1874 


Constantinople 


1908 


Chisholm, Minn. 


1831 


Bristol 


1874 


Pimllco, London 


1908 


Port-au-Prince, Hayti 


1831 


St. Thomas, W. I. 


1874 


Chicago 


1908 


Paris, France 


183S 


Manila 


1875 


Oshkosh 


1908 


El Oro, Mexico 


1833 


Constantinople 


1875 


Virginia City 


1908 


Rostov-OB-Don, Russia 


1834 


Houses of Parliament. 


1875 


Iquique 


1909 


Acapulco, Mexico 




London 


1876 


St. John's 


1909 


Osaka. Japan 


1836 


New York 


1876 


Soderhamn, Sweden 


1909 


Valdlvla, Chile 


1836 


Constantinople 


1876 


Quebec 


1909 


London. England 


1837 


Surat 


1876 


St. Hyacinth 


1910 


Campbellton. N. B. 


1837 


St. Petersburg 


1877 


St. John. N. B. 


1910 


Wajtma, Japan 


1837 


Naples 


1877 


Pittsburgh 


1910 


Brussels, Belgium 


1838 


Charlestown 


1879 


Irkutsk, Siberia 


1910 


U. S. and Canada for- 


1839 


New York 


1879 


New York 




est fires 


1841 


Smyrna 


1879 


Boston 


1911 


Santiago, Chile 


1842 


Hamburg 


1882 


Kingston, Jamaica 


1911 


Aux Cayes, Haytl 


1842 


Liverpool 


1882 


Leadville. Colorado 


1911 


Tokio, Japan 


1846 


Quebec 


1882 


Wood Street, London 


1911 


Yamagata, Japan 


1845 


Smyrna 


1883 


Vienna 


1911 


Bangor, Me. 


1845 


New York 


1884 


Bayswater, London 


1911 


N. Y., "Triangle" 


1846 
1846 
1848 
1848 


St. John's, N. F. 
Albany 
Orel, Russia 
Constantinople 


1885 
1887 
1887 
1888 


Aspinwall 

Paris 

Exeter, England 

SundsvaU 


1911 
1911 
1911 


Albany, N. Y. 
Kirin, Manchuria 
Constantinople 


1848 


Albany, N. Y. 


1889 


Seattle 


1911 


Hankow, China 


1849 


St. Louis 


1889 


New York 


1911 


Nanking, China 


1851 


San Francisco 


1889 


Spokane 


1912 


Peking, China 


1853 


Montreal 


1889 


Boston 


1912 


Osaka. Japan 


1852 


Sacramento City 


1889 


Lynn 


1912 


N. Y., "EquiUble" 


1853- 


Constantinople 


1890 


Fort de France, 


1912 


Valdlvla, Clille 


1854 


Gateshead 




Martinique 


1912 


Tlen-Tsin, China 


1858 


Astrakan 


1890 


Sydney 


1912 


Pao Ting Fu, China 


1858 


Valparaiso 


1892 


New Orleans 


1912 


Tokio, Japan 


1858 
1859 
1859 
1859 
1860 


Auckland 
Key West 
St. Louis 
Constantinople 
Barbadoes 


1892 
1892 
1892 
1892 


New Orleans 

Tokio 

Milwaukee 

St. John's, N. F. 


1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 


Damascus, Syria 
Constantinople 
Castellon, Spain 
Chorlu, Turkey 


1861 


Mendoza, S. A. 


1893 


Boston 


1912 


Adrlanople, Turkey 


1861 


Limoges 


1894 


Shanghai 


1912 


Houston. Texas 


1861 


London 


1894 


Canton, China 


1913 


Tokio. Japan 


1861 


Charleston 


1896 


Guayaquil 


1913 


Numadza. Japan 


1862 


Enschede, Holland 


1897 


Melbourne 


1913 


Scutari., Turkey 


1862 


Troy 


1897 


London 


191.3 


Adrlanople, Turkey 



168 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP ROUTES FROM EUROPE. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



169 



FIBES, URBAN AND RURAL, IN THE UNITED STATES: NUMBER, 

LOSS ON BUILDINGS AND CONTENTS, BY KINDS OF 

BUILDINGS, AND LOSS PER CAPITA, 

CALENDAR YEAR 1907. 

[Source: Report of the Geologteal Survey, Department of the Interior.] 





Urban. 


Rural. 


Total. 


Fire loss: 

Brick, etc., buildings— 

Bufldinga , 


DoOart. 

19,816,474 

29,092,270 


DoOar*. 
11,276,213 
8,240,310 


DoUart. 
31.092.687 


Cojitenti 


37.332.5^ 






Total 


48,908,744 


19,516,623 


68,425,267 






Frame buildlnga— 

Buildingif 


30,387,151 
27,827,388 


47,707,056 
40,767,847 


78.064.207 


Gontenti • -. 


68.595.235 






Total 


58,184,539 


88,474,903 


146.659.442 






Totals: 

Bnfldinipi 


50,173,625 
56,919,658 


58,963,269 
49,008,157 


109.166.894 


Contents, .^.t. 


105,927,815 




Grand total ' 


107,093,283 


107,991,426 


215.084.709 






Number of fires: 

In brick, etc.. bulldinn 


25,297 
80,109 


10,843 
49,008 


36,140 


lv^ frA^"»f? buildinss. 


129,117 




Total 


105,406 


59,851 


165,257 




Loss Dcr <^plta ^ 


2.54 


2.49 


2.51 







FIRES IN THE UNITED STATES : POPULATION, LOSS AND PER CAPITA 
LOSS, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS, CALENDAR YEAR 1907. 

[Source: Repoft of the Geological Survey," Department of the Interior.) 



Geographic division. 


Total popu- 
lation. 


Total fire 
loss. 


Fire loss 

per 
capita. 


North Atlantic: 

ICaine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Is- 
land, Conneeticnt, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. . . 
South Atlantic: 

Delawase, Maryland. District of Columbia, Virginia, West Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida 

North Cenntd: 

Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, 
Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas. . 
South Central: 

Kentucky, Tenne88ee,Alabama,Mi88i88ippi,Louislana, Texas, 
ovii^fiQina. Arkansas.. . j 


23,770,013 
11,574,968 
29,026,646 
16,368,558 
4,783,557 


DoOart. 
59,447,532 

25,349,223 

68,793,148 

59,908,922 

12,676,426 


DoUart. 
2.60 

2.19 

2.37 

3.66 


Western: - 

Montana, Wvonung, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, 
Nevada, Idaho, wiashington, Oregon; and California 


2.65 



TOTAL WATER SURFACE. 



The Pacific Ocean. . 
" Atlantic Ocean. 
" Indian Ocean . . 

" Arctic Sea 

** Antarctic Sea . 



48 p. 


c. 


24 p. 


c. 


21 p. 


c. 


3 p. 


c. 


4 p. 


c. 



Sq. Miles. 

67,570,000 

34,700,000 

28,900,000 

4,470,000 

5,610,000 



Fathoms Depth. 



Average. 
2,100 
1,800 
2,000 
1,500 
1,600 




170 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ANNUAL FIRE LOSSES IN THE UNITED STATES FOR THIRTY-EIGHT TEARS 

1875-1912 



From ••: 


The Insurance Year Book, " remrinted by permianon 

New York and Chicago. 


of *' The Spectator Company," 




Aggregate 


Aggregate 




Aggregate 


Aggregate 


Year. 


Property 


Insurance 


Year. 


Property 


Insurance 




Loss. 


Loss. 




Loss. 


Loss. 


1876 


$78,102,285 


$39,327,400 


1894 


$140,006,484 


$89,571,699 


1876 


64.630.600 


34,374.500 


1895 


142,110.233 


84.689.030 


1877 


68.265.800 


37.398.900 


1896 


118,737,420 


73.903.800 


1878 


64.315.900 


36.575.900 


1897 


116.354,5i75 


66.722,145 


1879 


77.703.700 


44,464,700 


1898 


130.593,905 


73.796.080 


1880 


74.643.400 


42,525,000 


1899 


153.597,830 


92,683.715 


1881 


81,280,900 


44,641,900 


1900 


160.929,805 


95.403.650 


1882 


84.505.024 


48,875,131 


1901 


165.817,810 


100.798,645 


1883 


100.149.228 


54,808.664 


1902 


161,488,355 


94.775,045 


1884 


110,008.611 


60.679.818 


1903 


145,302,155 


*1 04,000,000 


1885 


102.818.796 


57.430.709 


1904 


• 


229,198,050 


*144,000.000 


1886 


104.924.750 


60.506.564 


1905 


■ 


165,221,650 


*1 16,000,009 


1887 


120.283.055 


69.659.508 


1906 


■ 


518,611,800 


*292,000.000 


1888 


110.885.665 


63.965.724 


1907 


215,084.709 


♦127.000,000 


1889 


123.046.833 


73,679,465 


1908 


217,885,850 


♦157,000.000 


1890 


108,993.792 


65,015,465 


1909 




188,705.150 


♦143.000,000 


1891 


143,764.967 


90,576,918 


1910 


• 


214.003,300 


♦175,000.000 


1892 


151.516.098 


93,511,936 


1911 


■ 


217,004.575 


♦190.000,000 


1893 


167,544.370 


105.994,577 


1912 

Totals. . 


t206 .438.900 


♦194,000.000 




$5,543,654,695 


$3,539,359,583 



Fioures for years prior to 1904 are from Chronicle Fire Tables. 
♦Estimated by publishers of the Insurance Year Book. 
fFrom National Board Tables. 



FINANCIAL STANDING OF LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



The combined aggregates of the Financial 
Standing, etc., of the 224 principal insurance 
companies show that the capital stock in -1912 
was $44,329,379. The principal sources of 
income of these companies for the same period 
were as follows: New premiums, $70,382,387; 
renewed premiums, $395,627,108; received for 
anntiities. $6,053,215; dividends, interest, etc., 
$166,288,333; received for rents. $7,027,280; 
and all other receipts, $20,015,381; thus mak- 
ing the total income. $655,393,704. The ex- 
penditures of these same companies for the 
same period were as follows: Faid for death 
losses, $151,176,491; paid for matured en- 
dowments, $52,607,566; annuities paid, 
$7,287,767; paid for surrendered, lapsed and 
purchased policies, $77,219,329; dividends to 
policyholders, $78,716,564; dividends to 
stockholders, $1,573,517; commissions, sala- 
ries and traveling expenses of agents, $61,- 
693,343; medical fees, salaries and other 
charges of employees, $19,854,072; and all 
other expenditures, $33,219,833; thus making 
the total expenditures of the companies, 
$483,348,282. The excess of the incomes over 
the expenditures for the year 1912 amounted 
to $172,045,422. 

The assets amounting to $3,597,659,447 



At the end of the calendar year 1911 there 
were 6,113 Building and Loan Associations 
in the United States having as.sets to the 
sum of $1,040,307,713 and a membership of 
2,355.066. 



of admitted assets and $21,988,858 of assets 
not admitted, were as follows: Real estate 
owned. $127,684,405; bond and mortgage 
loans. $1,197,781,579; bonds owned. $1,493.- 
506,968; stocks owned, $81,677,178; collateral 
loans, $15,191,616; premium notes and loans, 
$539,245,042; cash in office and bank, $50,- 
017,640; net deferred and unpaid premiums, 
$42,606,061; all other assets, $49,948,958. 
The liabilities of these same companies 
amounting to $3,168,194,661 were divided as 
follows: Reserve, $2,988,642,224; losses and 
claims not paid. $16,987,072; claims re- 
sisted, $1,689,163; dividends unpaid, $87,202,- 
774; all other liabilities, $73,673,428. The 
total surplus paid to policyholders (including 
capital) amounted to $429,464,786. 

The policy account of these companies was 
as follows: New business actually paid for, 
$2,240,434,665; whole life policies in force. 
$10,163,447,058; endowment policies in force, 
$3,260,245,355; all other policies in force, 
$2,132,208,758; total insurance in force, 
$15,555,901,171; total industrial business 
written, $842,041,252; total industrial busi- 
ness in force, $3,708,892,514. 

From the "Insurance Year Book;" re- 
printed by permission of " The Spectator Com- 
pany," New York and Chicago. 



The first steam fire engine was invented by 
Braithwaite, 1829; Ericsson, in New York, 
produced a similar one in 1840. They were 
not generally used untU 1860. Fire engines 
driven by motor power first used in 1905. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBEENCB BOOK. 



FIRE, MARINE AND CASUALTY INSURANCE. 

PIKE AND MARINE CASUALTY AND MISCELLANEOUS INSURANCE IN THE 
UNITED STATES IN 1890. AND FROM ISBS TO 1910 TOTAL INCOME 
OP COMPANIES AND PAYMENTS TO POLICY HOLDERS. 



Fire mod Muiae InBurauce. 





Stock and Mutual fompaiiifs. 




r31 




Payments to PoUcy 


Holdera, 






L08SC8. 


Dividends. 


Total. 




i 

493 
52S 

818 
6B7 


»157,867,98£ 
170;75i;iW 
188:312:57^ 
2SS:340;M( 

iiii 
ill 

4oo:33e:io5 










70:440 
00.051 

113:i47 
12,817 

25)07^ 
78.795 
45.697 

11 

s.'i:47e 

I88,0S1 


538 

1 

171 
157 

1 


I 


705 
547 

(23 
8 2 
ME 

i I 

1 

S41 


1 

lit 
47( 

nj 

B5( 


\t 
23 

3S 
292 

1 

20£ 


1 
1 
1 






































































sua 





UoTd'B 


IBBOCltttiMU. 




TOMJ. 


















Number 


TritiLl 1 1J«<P. 




































i 

504 

i 












i 
1 


300.042 
120:211 

ss 


1 
1 


i 










































































































































































































































2S 


4,424,249 

















Ooba's exports of sugar c 



It tlOI.500,000— . 



SCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN RBFl 



CORPORATIONS, JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES OR ASSOCIATIONS, AND 
INSURANCE COMPANIESi YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1912. 



At the eoA ol the fiscal y«Br ended June 
30. 1912, s report bued on 32.347 Snaacill 

includioE haiiks, baDkiiiE associations, trust 

title iDBurtmoe compameB, buiLdine; usoFio- 
tiOH (il »« profit), and insurance companies 
not qMdnUr exempt, allowed that the amount 
of (ba nuiitnl etwit of tbew compasies totaled 
<24S6JS<U,S6S.4e; that the amount of bonded 
ud otW indebtednesB was 1621,183.231:34: 
and thM the net inoome amounted to t4Sl.- 
002.134.M. Porthesame period, the puhliceer- 



light CO 
eompan; 






eived, had a capital stock 
!3: an indebtedneu. b 
I o[ tI7.S31.492,2E1.2e; 
if »80e.324,Z90.3S. The 



1 abopa; sawmills: Sour, 
BoUiee, ekivaton, acri- 



psnies, have^a'oa^al '^cYotKT'SsS.^.' 

wise ainounUnc to tS. 626.627,800.04: and ■ 
total inconiB ol i 1,309, a 19 ,27 1.81. This re- 
port was based on the 92.737 returos leceiTed. 

in coal, lumber, erain. produce, and all goods, 
of'l3?S8<°30^OT0.14: an 'indebted n"a». bonded 



e of 1303.306.165.4:2 



TaUe ^lovlnt Rata ot buama •» Slock* O"*^ Mttbot for Calciilallnc Intensl 



Tabit of Dtji for Computlnl In 



SS5 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AVERAQE PREHIDM RATES PER 11,000 INSURANCE. 





ISM. 


ISTO. 


1S80. 


IBM. 


IMO. 


1910. 




Num. 




Num. 




Nrnr 








N,™. 




Krim- 










































Rale.. 








iS«. 






» 


8 


t>5.27 


2a 


«3,fi7 








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s 








!*■« 








1S.07 




15, 0« 


















































































































nil 


^ 


17M 




r'" 




n'^? 




1 '17 


Tfl 








































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































sa 




M.29 


27 


49.3 




50.72 








„ 


S 


S-K 




























6B 




fla:ig 


27 


eo'^ 




03.18 








<H 


75 


04. H 



• Tha [miumn nta for 1800 ud 1870 in coidihIkI from tee tIcpD 
pirtiiisiil of ISai ud IMB. mtectively. Thsnlei for ISSO uid IHWJ m compilH mm Uis tjptcuia 
YMt Boakg sf IBSl ud 1801, ud the nts for I9O0 and 1010 mfnmttt SpKUtor Hsodr Ouidn la 

AREA OF THE LARGEST ISLANDS OF THE EARTH. 



NewauinoB... 
Bameo 

New Zeaiand.*..'. 



> Newfoundland 40,! 



NovayttZemly»35,520 ] 
Irelaod 3Z,G3a 1 



174 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

OSDINART AND INDUSTRIAL INSURANCE IN FORCE BY BTATES, DECEMBER 3t. 1 



«.. 




r^"" 


Ii,dus«,al 


T=u.l 


ii*»- 
S^.^ 






,»ia).ooo.997 

17,706,369 
91,092,8« 
391,875,391 
131,533,56; 

ail 

1,007,371,651 

22i!(»s[gi( 

116 186 315 
333,24 ,631 
119,298,551 

04)01 ;S61 

lil 

11.983,56 
53.151,854 

391.368,783 

22,159,553 

1,319.488.837 

155,137,86 

l,31i;a65;74, 

lli;62:!829 
83,679,694 
171,632,371 

42! m! 639 
67,608,682 

324.237,061 


.»S,963,B90 


t166. 961.98; 

mIosoIm: 

13 .916,233 
13 .749,826 

III 

273JSi;iOI 
892,930,179 
361.818.196 
257,713,612 
118.708,211 

673!290!60< 

166,217,793 
55,203,241 
888,288,521 

1,706! 97d!i«( 
137,637,701 

aflsliisji; 
iii.^n.nj 






2W 

'7fli 
'201 

331 

:,6oi 

32) 

![7n 
I'm 

2,28! 

'711 
1,295 

a; 071 

'37( 

4 

'871 

'M 

3!S9( 
373 
35; 


i 

061 

S9< 

911 

1 

1 
1 

i 

r, 

512 
3Si 

1 






8,216,271 
S1.M1,832 
17,225,939 
33,163.186 




















CjWkilorCohunbiB 


«s 




2i,6i9,7i6 










103.774,012 
95, 603,74: 

63:2fl7;ani 

9,971,837 

9s;9i5;i34 








Iowa 






m 




























7;«2:2S8 


















14,369,936 
378,891.717 














9.079,936 












Ohio 


197.073.487 

3,611.500 

48.9,104,712 

52,633, 6« 


IS 




















37,405,347 








g':;.:;::::;;:::;: 


126 

















«d fntn SpecUtor Yai Book, 1911. p. 388. 

HIGHEST MOUNTAINS IN THE TVORLD. 



P. L. Hoffman 



Mouat&in. F«et. 

Aua—Mt. Everest. 20,002 

Oodwia-Aiulen . 2S,27S 

K uaehmgiugB. . ..2S, IM 

Gusberbrum 28,378 , 

DbBwaUgiri 28,8213 ' 

Hasherbnim 25.000 

Kakapushi 25,660 

EuthaKuigir,. 24,710 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



175 




PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP ROUTES FROM AFRICA. 



Length 



« 
« 
M 
M 
U 
W 
M 



« U 

U 

M W 

« 

M M 

« « 

U U 

W U 

M U 



of the Equator ' 

Meridian j 

a Tropic ^ , 

Polar pircle 

Ihe Great Axis (diameter of the Equator) 

Little Axis (diameter Uirough the Poles) 

Parallel Desree on the Equator. 

" in the Tropics^ 

in the Polar Circle 

at the Pole 

The solid contents of the Globe amounts to 260,000,000,000 cubic miles. 



u 

u 



u 
w 



Miles. 
24.900 
24.858 
22,853 
9,940 
7.926 
7,400 
69.2 
63.5 
27.7 




176 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 












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177 



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^t^^jfel^ ^s^mk'c 


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PRINaPAL STEAMSHIP ROUTES FROM ASIA. 

ha"--'"*"'"'* 

F™^ MHItO 
^J SUl-V. 



WE5T COAST 
BRAZIL OF AFRICA 

34 .900 W-.SOO 



MEXICO 
fl,000 


FURTHER inoiA 
» E.INDIES 

ftaoo 


CONOO % 

6,000 


«S 


® 


n 


BOLIVIA 
2.900 


PERU 
RITBBBR. 


CFnoN 

< INDIA 
1.43 O 




E31." 



P^ COLOMBIA 

BSawl 70.000.000 

COFFEE. 
Oiilbe.) 



180 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



181 



HIGHEST AND LOWEST ALTITUDES IN UNITED STATES. 



«TATB. 



AtabMita 
Alaska ,. 
Aiiiona ^ 



Arkanais. 



California 



Colorado . 



Connecticut -- 

Delawars- --- 

District of Culnmbia 
Florida.- ..- --•»--->- 

Gcoicia 

GnaM.is : 

Hawau.., — 

Idaho .«. 

nUnois 

Indiana .. 

Iowa....— 



Kentucky 

Loaiaiana 

Maine — 

Maryland 

Maaaachnsetta — 

Michigan 

Hinneaota 

Mianarippi 

Miaaoori 

Montana. 1 - 

Nebraska. 

Nevada 

New Bampehire 



New Jersey- 

New Mexico: 

New York 

North Oarolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio.. 

Oklahoma........ 

Oregon ......... .- 

Pennsylvania..... 

Philippine Islands. 

Porto Rioo 

Rhode Island.. ... 

Booth Oarolina 

6oath Dakota-.... 

Tjennesaoe .:■ 

Texas —..... 

Utah.-... 

Vermont ' 

Vii^nia 

Washington ....... 

West Virs^nia . 

Wisooorio 

Wyoming' ........ 



United Sutea (exdodve 
of Alaska). 



IIIUIIIMT I-UINT. 



Mamk. 



('hmlia MoDiiluiii 

Mount McKinlcy — ....-.- 
San Ftani'isvo Teak 

{Bine Mountain - 
MA(!a>ine Monntain 

Mount Whitney-.- 

{Mount Massive 
Mount EJberl - 

B««r Moantnin .-■ 

Centerville 

Tenley - 

Mount Plenrant - - 

BraMown Bald 

Mount Jnmullonf; Mani^luc 

MaonikKea -- 

Hyudman Peak 

Charies Blonnd 

Oarlos..: 

Prinighar. 

Oii west boundary 

Big Black Mountain 

Northwest part of county - . 

Mount Katahdin 

Backbone Mountain -: 

Mount Greylock 

Porcupine Mountains ...... 

Mesabi Range ^.^^^. 

Holly Springs ^. 

TaumSauk Mountain 

Granite Peak ^ <Hwi,ft 

Soiith west .part of ct>unty... 

Wheeler Peak — /..-—,- 

Mount Washington 



Hi^ Point 

North Trachas Peak 

Modnt Maacy 

Meant Mitchell 

Summit of county-^ - 
Near Mansfield ^... 
Weat end of connty-. 

Mount Hood 

Blue Knob- 

Mount ^po -.<..l — 
IrOqniilo Moontaiiifl.'. 

burfee Ilill 

Saisufras Mountain .. 
Harney Peak .....-> 

Mount Gnyot- 

ElCapitan -' 

Kings Peaks 

Mount Mansfield — . 

Monnt fiogen 

Monnt Rainier - 

Spmoe Knob-— .:- 

Rib Hill 

Gannett Peak 1 '.. 

Mbnni Whitney...^ 



^— *■ 



Klcvatkin 

(rKRT). 



MiWniT l<UINT. 



N*ii«, 



2,407 

20,300 

12.611 

2,800 
2,800 

14,501 

14, 402 
14, 402 

2,355 

440 

420 

301 

4,768 

1.274 

IS, 823 

12,078 

1.241 

1,210 

1,800 

4,135 

4,100 

400 

5,200 

3,340 

3,506 

2,023 

1.920 

600 

1,760 

12,850 

5,350 

13,068 

0,293 

1,809 

13,306 

5,344 

.6,711 

3.500 

1,479 

4,750 

11,235 

3,136 

3.532 

805 

3,548 

. 7,242 

6,636 

9,020 

13,498 

4,.%4 

6,719 

14,363 

4,860 

' 1,940 

13,785 

14,501 



k>nn< 



(^nir of Mexico.. . 
l^cific Ocean... <.. 
Colorado Itivcr... 

icliitii Itiver... 

f>i«th Valley 

Arkansas River... 



— -t 



Blcvatw* 
(r»w). 



liong Island Suiind 

Atlantic Ocean 

Potomac River 

Atlantic Ocean 

do 

Paidfic Ocean ^ 

do 

Snake River 

Miasissippi River 

Ohio River 

Mississippi River 

' Verdigris River 

Misrissippi River 

Gulf of Mexico..., 

Atlantic Ooean 

do 

...-do. -^ 

Lake Erie 

Lake Superior 



Gulf of Mexico ■ 

St Franciii River 

Kootenai River 

Southeast comer of State 

Colorado River - 

Atlantic 0<i'AU 



Atlantic Ooean 

Jled Bluff 

Atlantic Ocean 

do 

Pembina 

Ohio River 

Red River 

Pacific Ocean... 

Delaware River 

Pacific Ooean 

Atlantic Ocean 

.Atlantip Ocean 

do 

, Big Stone I.<akc 

.Miwissippi River — 
Gulf of Mexico .. — 
Beaverdam Creek — 

LakeCbampIain 

Atlantic Ocean 

-Pacific Ocean 

.Potomac River 

.Lake Michigan .^... 
-Belle Fbardie Biver. 

-Death Vallex> 



Sciik'vcl' 
Sea level 
JOO 

65 

TWO 

3,350 

Sea level 

Sea lovel 

Sea level 

Sea level 

Sea level 

Sea level 

Ql-ft level 

: "^720 

279 

816 

477 

700 

257 

Scalev^l 

Sealeve.1 

Sea level 

Sea level 

673 

602 

Sea level 

210 

1.800 

826 

470 

Sen level 

Sea level 

2.876 

Sea level 

Sea level 

790 

426 

300 

Sea level 

Sea level 

Sea level 

Sea level 

i!<ea level 

Sea level 

962 

182 

Sea level 

2,000 

.96 

Sea level 

Sea level 

240 

682 

iioo 

S76 



HAnMMIi 
■UrTAtlAM 



800 



4.100 

660 

2,900 

6,800 

800 
60 
180 
100 
600 



6,000 

000 

700 

1,100 

2.000 

750 

100 

600 

S80 

500 

000 

1,200 

300 

800 

8,400 

2,600 

6,000 

1,000. 

260 
6,700 

900j 

700 
1.900 

860 
1,800 
8,800 
1,100 



200 

860 
2.200 

900 
1,700 
6.100 
1,000 

'960 
1,790 
1,600 
1,050 
6,700 

•8, 600 



U. 8. Qeologieal Surveu- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CUBTOHS AND IHTERHAl. RbVENITE 

Collected on Distilled SpmiTa, 

Wines, Malt LiguoHS and Tobac- 
co WITH Total National Rivencb 

AND PbBCENTAQB. 
For th« Gk&I year endini June 30, 1912, 
tbe toUl astjonal ocdinscy nceipU (rom all 

from '5eoh'oKc"b^vo'ra^ and" li5b»o""lSi<l 
tbe mutiufactureg ol ume amoualed to t332,- 
497.000, or in other words, tbe receipt* from 
aleohalie bevemiea sod tobuco wu 4S.0e 
per nut. ol the total reveaue of the United 



alcoholic t 
which for 



d for the I 

.irita to 13 , 

waa divided ae follows: Prom 






icluHve of Ucenu duti 
aniDuntsd to 1484 .pC 



I reduction in the present raWa and tariffs, 
FoHEiGN Express Rates. 
The folJowing is a tariff of all rates ft 





■/•"S 
























































i^r^i 





In imposAible to get any accural 
the ahipment would actually ei 
publication of a mora eitengi 
ipace will ]>«nnit. 



S SSSSSSSSSg 
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^1^ 






FJIlllltill 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 183 




PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP ROUTES FROM AUSTRALASIA. 



INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE PUBLICATION OF CUSTOMS TARIFFS. 

The International Union for the Publication 
of Customa.'TarifFs was founded by an inter- 
national, convention, July 5, 1890, and con- 
cluded between fifty-two states and semi-inde- 
pendent colonies. The object of the union is 
to publish as promptly and as correctly as 
possible all the tariffs of the world in five 



languages, viz., English, French. German, 
Itafian, and Spanish. The bureau has its seat 
at Bnissels, and is under the direct control of 
the Government of Belgium. The membera of 
the bureau are delegates from the principal 
countries whose language is used in the publi- 
cations. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN BBFERENCB BOOK. 









a„» 


^SSS^ 


WoHtairUDtt. 




Block olrfld. 1 




^^J* 


iBolreal*- 

tlOD. 


TotiL 








United SUta 

AUW^HUB*«7... 


!^£.v;.: 




3M,oao 
T.aio 

l.tDO 

B 

HMO 

i 
1 

i 

am 

in 

3) MO 


■j.roo 


"w: 


■^^ 








E3tf"™™-- 




^^i^.... 


dn 


14. MO 


119, W) 










Indto.: 

ffiS?;,--.:;::::: 


....do.... 

::::&:: 


S!K««di:::; 


■»i;«o- 


iTI^MO 


B 


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u.iao 




fei 










.;li 






is, MO 

auo 

is 
as 

MO 


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2s 


































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iS8 












Sii;:;;;;;:;: 


'.'..'.io'.... 

....do.... 






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a4:«oo 


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:!..do.... 






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»" 


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- 


























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fi 

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i,o«,e«» 





















Hon.— Tbe Muk tpaora In tbli table atgniSj that no nUsIutoff in 
I BaUnuts Ih tha Unllad Klnidon prior lo that tor IMO wars Ua totu only: tbiao Oiuna Indnda 
W»>fil»anlOt bulUoo Id the Bank ot EOi^d: atao (12,200^ gold Monfiag b ludiaii fold^IaDdard 

' Thla IiUe amouot In the camaey naerm. Fred. J. AtUnaoa, acoODUtuit nnenl of India, U ■«■, 
catlnuled the active rupee cinnilallon at 3,OW,<m,0(n rupeni imitll >UVK oolD a^ IMuMCU^ 

■ ladudeg Straita Settieowiit, the Malar Btalea, and Jobon. 

• Thli eatlmate la baaed upon a calmlaUon nude bv Mtmn. P. Annlnlon and B. lUdat In IMS, wh> 
MUmaM tbeglock o( (Old btlieoountrr at from 33,000,000 to 41 jnojOOEiTpUaapoaiida. Tbeman 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



185 



per oipiKa, in ike principal countries of the world, Dee. 31 , 1911. 



I 


Stock of silver. 




Unoovcnd 


P«r capita. 




















TimtmdfK. 


Umited 
toidcr. 


ToUL 


paper. 


Ctold. 


SUvw. 


P^pcr. 


TotaL 




TkoutanSt. 


Tkoiuandt. 


Tkontandt. 


TkouMtndt. 




- 








668.800 

^U. 


ie7,<M)0 


786,000 


764,600 


118.98 


87.76 


88.07 


834.81 


1 


123,000 


122,900 


197,600 


7.21 


Z49 


4. 00 


18.70 


9 


8,700 


2,400 


11,100 


189,000 


6.00 


i.sa 


19.04 


26.66 


3 

4 
5 


NU. 
NU. 


10,000 
7,700 


10,000 
7,700 


/ 


6a 64 

22.29 


8.27 
1.24 


"iiw* 


62.81 
86.29 


79,*i66* 





NU. 


116,800 


116,800 


118,200 


16.80 


2.69 


2.66 


20.96 


7 


97,400 


46,000 


142,400 


46,400 


.14 


.48 


.16 


.78 


8 


NU. 
NU. 


20,000 
19,000 


20,000 
19,000 




8.38 
4.26 


2.66 
U.88 




ia94 
20.81 


9 


*7,*666* 


4.*68' 


10 


NU. 
NU. 
NU. 
Nil 


. 4,8m 


4,800 


9,900 


1.93 


1.20 


2.47 


6.60 


11 


6,000 
7,000 


6,000 
7,900 




20.00 
14.19 


2.88 
2.02 




22.88 
23.62 


12 


i7,866 


•""aii* 


13 


14,800 


14,800 


6,600 


16.17 


1.28 


.66 


18.01 


14 


NU. 

847.400 

NU. 


600 


600 


14,900 


8.66 


.17 


6.13 


8.96 


16 


88,700 


411,100 


245,000 


80.63 


10.46 


6.26 


47.26 


16 


283,400 


288,600 


276,100 


3.16 


8.90 


4.24 


11.80 


S 


NU. 


8,000 


8000 


27 600 


L69 


1.16 


10.83 


'f.t 


1*959 


1^600 


2,600 


8,200 


2.28 


L67 


6.47 


10 


'^ 


1,400 


24,100 


182,300 


8.61 


.71 


6.38 


14.60 


20 


84,200 


64,200 


101,700 


2.67 


1.23 


1.96 


6.66 


21 


fi3.O0O 
NU. 


4,000 


66,000 


61,200 


2.08 


3.78 


8.41 


9.22 


22 


20 000 


29,000 


64,700 


12.81 


4.92 


10.97 


28.70 


23 


8,700 


8,700 


8,700 


8.67 


1.54 


8.62 


18.88 


24 


NU. 


83,100 


83,100 


60,900 


2.69 


6.18 


12.94 


21.76 


26 


NU. 


12,600 


12,600 


43,200 


4.81 


1.86 


6.86 


18.01 


26 


NU. 
NU. 


78,800 
1,800 


78,800 
1,800 




6.91 
2.32 


.49 
.46 




6.40 
4.63 


27 


4,'966' 


i.*76' 


28 


NU. 


62,200 


62,200 


2,100 


.01 


7.46 


.80 


7.77 


29 
80 


NU. 


8,400 


9,400 


V 602,200 


36.47 


1.34 


98.80 


186.70 


81 


NU. 


700 


700 


2,000 


3.89 


.30 


.87 


4.66 


82 


NU. 


26,000 


26,000 


» 77,000 


6,68 


1.22 


8.80 


10.70 


83 


NIL 


8,600 


8,600 


19,000 


.14 


2.43 


6.43 


8.00 


84 


NU. 
NU. 






•10,000 
1,700 






2.33 
1.13 


2.83 
6.60 


36 


i,*a66* 


1,366 


s.'w 


.'87* 


36 
37 
38 


NU. 


400 


400 


100 


.38 


1.34 


.33 


2.00 


NU. 


800 


800 


300 


2.00 


3.00 


8.00 


8.00 


39 


NU. 


100 


100 


600 


1.00 


1.00 


6.00 


8.00 


40 


NU. 
NU. 
NU. 






42,000 


19.00 

2.71 

13.82 




63.63 


72.68 

8.24 

26.00 


41 


2,*466' 

4,300 


2,460 

4300 


.'m 

3.90 


42 


8,666 


7.28* 


43 


NU. 


10,800 


10,800 


800 


1.19 


4.16 


.31 


6.66 


44 


NU. 


268,800 


266,800 


76,000 


10.82 


13.04 


3.86 


27.71 


46 


NU. 


8,600 


8,600 


34,700 


4.81 


1.69 


6.43 


12.83 


46 


NU. 


13,600 


13,600 


27,900 


19.91 


4.09 


8.46 


82.46 


47 


NU. 
NU. 


26,400 
0,200 


26,400 
9,200 




6.93 
.26 


1.10 
1.74 




7.08 
18.96 


48 


89,'666* 


""i6.*96* 


49 


I,007,fi00 


1,623,700 


2,621,200 


8,567,600 












1 









of tlMM fljnires was adopted in this table last year. Since their estimate was made the net imports of 
gold into Egypt to Dec^l, 1911, have amounted to 828,919,061. bat as there Is said to be a considerable 
absorption or gold for ornaments, no change in the estimate of ue monetary stock has been made. 
» Estimate (tf A. De FovUle, 1909. 

• German war fund and Imperial Bank of Germany. No definite informatlmi as to other holdings. 
The coinage of gold since the establishment of the Empire, less recolnage, amounts to 81,125,023^, but 
the enorts are unknown, and there has been an industrial consumption. 

' Gold conversion value. 

• This amount has been reduced to a gold basis; that is, 100 pesos equal 1 United States gold doUar. 

• £zcept Ooeta Rica and British Honduras (gold-standard countries). 



186 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

INTEBJEST TABLES. 



T^ 


i 


1 


i 


1 


1 


i 1 


III ill 


« 


1 


S 


i 


1 


i i 


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77 7-77l:7:|:7:! - 


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i 


errr 


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777 




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f 




















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1 




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iii 


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11 


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ii 


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1 


ii 


1 


i 


1 


a 




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1 




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L nrCBUSB WHEH AT COVFODHD INnBtM. 



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w 


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1 


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™o 


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





Tuumwau 


a aOXET WILL IWDBLB AT BBTEXAL XATU Of 


inzaEn. 


»ter- 


. Stwlt l°UrcU. 




Yn""* 


BllDpl. loU»«. 


a»p«u.d IUR..L 








1 










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H 


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>u 


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... 


... 


... 


... 


..I 


... 


1.. 


,„ 




i 


1 
1 

; 


i 

1 

i 


1 
1 

i 

i 
1 

5 


1 
i 
s 
1 

11 


la 
11 

11 

31 
11 
II 


1! 

fi 
11 
11 

i 
i 

Is 

i 


1 

i 

1 
1 

i 
1 
1 

.00 


1 

1 

1 

i 
1 

S: 
iS 


1 
1 

1 

, i 

11 
VS8 


i 

1 

i 

i 
1 

. 1 
if 


ii 

i 


1 
1 













WEE 


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VAOE 


TABLE. 












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- 


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•e.oo 


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moo 


tliOO 


::::::::: 


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p 




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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Tbe iDtaramtioDal 



Trade Discount Table 

!*■ PoCktt Book, by twimlnlon of the owner 
^- -' Book CompuiT. pfoprletoim of tfa* Is 
" Scrantail. Vm. 



'tbt eopyri^t 



Kate Per Cent. 



issr 




10. lo.wtdi) 

10, lO.uulS 

10. 10. 5, and H.. 



IM.andli 



10. 3. ud2( 

10, S, and 3 

10, 3. 5. and 31.. 




yt'aii'ii.'.', 

30. a*, and ; 
30 and S.... 



^6».: 



30. 10, «nd2t... 

30, lO.andS 

30, 10, and 7t.... 
30^10, and 10.... 

Mdii"-'-' 
,!i,andH... 



md 7i. .; 



, audit... 

, .», andS.... 
, 10, and 71... 



35. 7}. and a}. . 
35, 7J,and3... 
35, 7).>adT).. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Trade Discount Table— (Continued) 



Rate Per Cent 


at- 


«„ 


^,.,„c..,. 


■asr 


let 


" 




!42W 

Is 

!4SoB 

:4JTS 
.4^16 
.4656 
.4 97 
.4931 

!42«6 
.4300 

'.4U0 

iii 

.4870 

■1 

■ii 

is!; 

.5080 
.4831 


i 

M4 
5942 

i 

203 

1 

SS7 
413 

772 
34O0 

i 

730 
606 

1 

033 

ii 




:Sli 

ii 

.490< 

i 

Isoso 

!329S 

■ti 

!4SBI 
.3009 
.3013 

:l| 

:539J 

:sooo 

■11 




KSSI!.::;::; 
Kaa:::::; 


43 
43 


.10 and 10 


«S5 


1 


andZi 

A?'.";:::: 








^rt'*-^^^ 






•^r'.''-.;;:: 


4964 




;!:ai'::::::; 


^m^^-^- 


SS 


. 7 


^i^B 


! -siijiii::;::: 

4 . 10, and 3 


ii 


^ 


: IS; a IS::;:: 


« 


10. and 10 


fliS 




47 
47 








.s,«jd^2i....:.. 




! 






ai«nd2i 




S''i;:;:ii 




is!; 


S:!S.-ai':::::: 


.'O.MdJi 

, 10, and 3 

, 10, and 71 

.io:«idio 


it 




f 
30 
SO 

i 






4 


10.«idl5 


Sr*--- 


*'" 


, 10, uid 3)'. '. ! . . 
: la Md s:. . . . . 


W^^^^ 


1 


4 


KsSi':::::: 

IO.»<174 

iO.^ndlO 


III 



THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD. 



The Benn Wonden of die World, BO-cslled, 
or rather the Seven Wonden of the Ancient 
World, were as follows; The Pharoa of 
AleiaodrU; The Coloeaua of Rhodes; The 
Great Temple of Diana nl Kpheeus; The 
HanginK Gardenn of Bshylon: The Pyramida; 
TbeTomb of MhuboIub: and the Grent Stotue 
■■ " ■■ t Olympi 



Wonde' 



> had t 



I Medile 



n the shores of the 



If tfc 
uainted 
witb the norm ot Kurape or Uis south of 
Alia, they would probably have made a 



le ModetD World> 
lousand ad 



aceordiu£ to the poll • 
in America and Euroi 

importance, with (he votea cast; Wiretcn 
telegraphy, 244 voles; telephone. 185; aero- 
plane. 167; radium, 166; spectrum analysis, 
126: X-ray. 111. The Panama Canal wu 
eivca 100 voles; ancethesia. 94. and eynlhetio 
chemistry. 81. Only one ballot, bearins Che 
niime of one of the most distrngiiished auUiori- 
tiei. on chemistry of Munich, Germany, was 
checked for tlie seven titles, while six batlotis 
showed Ibe wlectioD ot oix of the final seren. 



190 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 






1 



•the PHARaS OF ALEXANDRIA. 




SCIBNTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 191 




THE TOMB OF MAUaOLUS. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPERBNCE BOOK. 




THE PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT, 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 






SKfi 



The Secretary ot Agi 

to the sjciii 

with the exceptioD of the AsButa.at Seeretary 
and the Chief of the Weather Bureau, who are 
ftppointed by the President, and directH the 

offices embraced hi the department. He exer- 
eises advisory superviBioa over agricuLtural 
erperimeat FitatioQB which receive aid frani 
the National Treasury. 

The Bureau ot Animal Industry conducts 

JuneSOrrma". , 

of import andexportanimals- It 



nd unalysea na pertain in general b 
ts of agriculture, dealing with fertil 
agricultural products. It inspect 



e of food and dru 






Pure Food and Drugs Apt o 
Also inepeeta imported ani 



The Bureau of ,Soils has for 

the*^appmg "of °^ilfl'," and"^the 
mapping, and reclamation of b 

The Bureau of Plant Industry studies pluit 
life ID all its relations to agriculture. It in- 
cludes vegetable, palholopoa' 



md stored pmduets. 
The Bureau of Biological Surv. 



!raphical distnOution ot animals and plants 
>nd maps the natural life zones of the country. 

OFFICE OF KXramimMT BTATIONB. 

Tlie, Office of Experirnent Stations , rcpre- 



agncultural 

and direct^ maoaitea the enoeriment stations 
in Alaska, Hawaii. Porto Rico, and Guam. 
It seeks (o promote the interest of agricultura I 
education and investigation throughout the 
United States. 



CHAPTER VI. 



MERCHANT MARINE. 



Number and Net and Gross Tonnage of Steam and Sailing Vessels op 
Over 100 Tons, op the Several Countries of the World, as Recorded 
IN Lloyd's Register for 1913-14. 



Flag. 




Steam. 


. 


Sail. 


Total. 


British 


Number. 


Net tons. 


Gross tons. 


JVumftcr. 


Net tons. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


United King'm 


8,514 


11.109,560 


18.273.944 


700 


422,293 


9,214 


18,696.237 


Colonies 


1.495 


915.950 


1.575.223 


578 


160,083 


2.073 


1,735,306 


Total 


lo.oog 


12.025,510 


19.849.167 


1,278 


5&2.376 


11,287 


20.431.543 


American 
















(United States): 
















Sea 


1.209 


1.280.958 


1.971.903 


1,487 


1.026.554 


2.696 


2,998,457 


NcH^hern Lakes 


593 


1.724,566 


2,285,836 


34 


96.854 


627 


2,382,690 


Philippine 
















Islands 


69 


27.080 


44.555 


8 


1,934 


77 


46,489 


Total 


1.871 


3.032,604 


4.302,294 


1.529 


1.125,342 


3.400 


5.427.636 


Ai^entinian 

Austro- 

Hungarian 


236 


107,172 


180.576 


72 


34,259 


308 


214.835 


419 


629.444 


1.010.347 


8 


1,067 


427 


1,011.414 


Belgian 


164 


186.581 


296.196 


8 


8.190 


172 


304,386 


Brazilian 


402 


188,645 


313.416 


57 


16.221 


459 


329.637 


Chilian 


95 
66 
65 


68.834 
55,375 
37.902 


108.491 
86.690 
60.895 


36 


31,301 


131 
66 
59 


139.792 


Chinese 


86,690 


Cuban 


4 


641 


61,536 


Danish 


652 


415,880 


711,094 


259 


50.960 


811 


762,054 


Dutch 


662 


794,840 


1.286.742 


97 


23.107 


759 


1.309.849 


French 


987 


1.029.113 


1.793.310 


565 


407.854 


1.552 


2.201.164 


German 


2.019 


2.877.887 


^ 4,743.046 


302 


339.015 


2.321 


5.082.061 


Greek 


365 


443,771 


705.897 


77 


16.885 


442 


722.782 


Haitian 


6 
691 


2.017 
773.848 


3.387 
1,274.127 






5 
1,114 


3,387 


Italian 


523 


247.815 


1.521.942 


Japanese 


1,037 


956,702 


1.500.014 






1,037 


1,600.014 


Mexican 


43 


22,838 


37.920 


9 


2.129 


52 


40.049 


Norwegian 


1.597 


1,122,577 


1.870.793 


594 


587.097 


2,191 


2.457.890 


Peruvian 


20 


13,352 


25.814 


40 


19.700 


60 


45.514 


Portuguese 


105 


55.903 


92,636 


103 


27,943 


208 


120,579 


Roumanian 


32 


25.011 


45.123 


1 


285 


33 


45.408 


Russian 


716 

12 

547 

1.043 


463.022 

7.955 

506,073 

551.964 


790.075 

12.936 

826.261 

943.926 


500 


184,103 


1,216 

12 

607 

1,436 


974,178 


Siamese 


12,936 


Spanish 


60 
393 


14.734 
103.344 


840.995 


Swedish 


1.047.270 


Turkish 


135 
50 


65.402 
38.360 


111.848 
62.215 


137 
15 


45.450 
13.316 


272 
65 


157.298 


Uruguayan 


75.531 


Venezuelan 


8 


2.420 


4,232 


5 


679 


13 


4.911 


Other countries: 
















Bulgaria, Co- 
















lo -nbia, Costa 
















Rica. Ecuador. 
















Bgypt. Hon- 
















duras. Liberia. 


. 














Montenegro. 
















Nicaragua, 
















Oman.Panama, 
















Per8ia,8alvador 
















Samos Sarawak 
















Tunis, Zanz- 
















ibar, etc 


54 


16.027 


29,709 


22 


7.123 


76 


36,832 


Total 


23,897 


26.517.029 


43,079,177 


6.694 


3,890.936 


30.591 


46.970,113 



For valuable information relative to ocean travel the reader is referred to "Scientifle 
American Handbook of Travel," published by Munn & Co., Inc., and compiled and 
edited by Albert A. Hopkins. It is the standard book on the subject, and the tables, 
Site., in this Chapter bring it up to date. 

193 



194 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MERCHANT MARINE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



On June 30, 1912, the merchant marine of 
the United States, including all kinds of 
documented shipping, comprised 26,528 ves- 
sels of 7,714,183 gross tons. Of this number 
16,874, having a gross tonnage 3,625,525, 
were operating on the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts; 4,254 vessels, with a tonnage of 
963,319, were operating on the Pacific Coast. 
The power and material of the total number 
of documented vessels were as follows: Sail- 
ing vessels — Wood, 7,442, gross tonnage 
1.279.633; metal, 140, gross tons 259.214; 
total, 7,562, with a gross tonnage of 1,538,847. 



Of steam vessels, 12.192, having a tonnage of 
1,111.905, were made of wood, and 2.073, with 
a tonnage of 4,067,593, were built of metal, 
making a total of 14,265 vessels, with a gross 
tonnage of 5,197,858. There • are also 665 
wooden canal boats having a tonnage of 
72.567, and 3,842 wooden and 174 metal 
barges, having a tonnage of. 922,911 tons. 
During the year 1,505 vessels, having a gross 
tonnage of 232,669 were constructed. Of this 
number 104 metal vessels had a tonnage of 
135,881. 



OCEAN 8TEAMBB8, i6 Ky 0T8 AHl) OVR. Number belonging to each Ck>antry. 



Coantiy* 



Argentine 

Austria 

Belgium , 

Denmark 

France 

Germany , 

Great Britain.., 

Greece , 

Holland 

itniy 

Jftpan 

Pteni 

Roasla 

Spain 

Sweden .., 

United States.. 



aaknot8 
k above. 



6 

5 

xo 



3 

X 



3x 



19 knots. 



• •• 

• •• 

X 
X 

9 



a 

• •• 

X 
X 



•3 



i8ikt«. 



• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

3 

• • * 

XX 



• •• 

• •• 



15 



s8 knots. t7ikt8. 



• •• 

a 



a 

a 

«4 



XX 



• •• 

• •• 



7 

a 
xa 



«3 



17 knots. 



a 

X 

• •• 

a 
a 

»7 

X 
X 
X 

■a 



XX 



16 knots. 



X 

4 

X 

5 

xo 

3 
49 

• •• 

X 

xo' 

a 

X 

' a 
a 
a 

x8 



XXX 



Total. 

X 

9 

a 

5 
X3«* 

X. 

a 
xa 

9 

a 

5 

3 

a 

5S 



•86 



■ • P. ft 0., aS; British India. 14; White Star, 23; Union Castle, u; Can. Paciflo R.. 11 ; Cunard. « ; Orient 
.Union of N.Z., tf : Allui. 4; Atlantic Transport, 4; Anchor. 3: Huddart Pwrker. j; Canadian Northern 8.8. 
Artnd Tnmk Fadflc Coast 8.8. Co.. Howard Smith ft Co., a each : Adelaide S.S. Co., Anglo-AJgerian 8.8. Oa. 
Bermnda Atkntie S.S. Co.. IntemaUonal NaT. Co.*. Ltd.. Khedirial MaU 8.8. Ca. Quebec 8.8. OoTBayal MaU. and 
Wilson line, s eaeh. 

M.B.'-«Tha« were on Jane 30, 191a, about aTOs steamers in the worid capable of a sea-speed of at least sa knots 
per Qonr, of which about x,s73 were British. Of llie total number about two-thirds are ocean-going steamers. 



LABGEST STEAMERS FITTED FOB LIQUID FUEL. 



Built in 


Name. 


Gross Tons. 


Speed. 


Owners. 


X900 
X9X0 

»903 
X903 

X90X 

X90S 

X907 
X907 
X903 
X903 

1903 
X9xa 
X91X 
X90S 

X903 
19x0 
X903 


Tenyo Maru 


x3>4S4 

13,43" 
9,a87 

tx 

«,«7» 
8,615 
8,5«o 
8,580 
7.9«4 
7.9*4 
7.446 

7.3^ 
7.36/ 
7.«9« 
7»«9« 
7.0S9 
7.M5 


ao 
ao 

xs 

xa. 
«3 

«3 

•? 

z8 
x8 

t 

t 

X4 

t 


Toyo Elisen Eabush^ki Kaisha. 


ChivoMaru 




*Kiyo Maru 

*Narragansett 

Arizonan 

Alaskan 

Texan 

Ck>lumbian 

Mexican 

Miasourian 

Virginian 

*Goldmouth 

Wien 

•Pectan 

Snondilus 


Anglo-American 0!1 Co., Ltd. 
American-Hawaiian S.S. Ck>. 

i. i> >i 
»» »» f» 
•f >> •• 
>i II II 
II 11 II 

Anglo-Saxon *^etroleum Co., Ltd. 
Lloyd Austriaco. 

Pectan S.S.'Co., Ltd. (Thomas Woodflend^ 
Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co., Ltd. 


Ilonolulan 

*A8htabula 


American-Hawaiian S.S. Ca 
Anglo-American Oil Co., Ltd. 



• Fitted for tjie carriage of petraleum in bulk. 



t. Under xs knots. 



River Length 

North America 
Mississippi- 
Missouri ....4,194 

Yukon 2r,050 

Colorado 2.000 



LONGEST RIVERS OF THE WORLD. 



River Length 

South America 

Amazon 3,300 

La PlaU 7.960 

Africa 

Nile 3.670 

Kongo 2,806 



River Length 
Niger 2,600 

Asia 

Obe 3.235 

Yangtsekian'g 3,000 

Lena 2.860 

Amur 2,700 



River Length 

Mekong 2.600 

YenlBei 2". 500 

Hwangho 2. SOU 

Indus 2.00V 

Europe 
Volga 2.326 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 
MERCANTILE FLEETS— BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 




SCIENTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Thb World's Fastest Merchant 
Ships Now in Seevicb. 

{TeMab of 22 Knots and over) 



Di6pi»ttiirbine)'M!l 
Empnfls (turbine) ■ - ■ . 
Empms Queen (pad.). 
Invieta (tuibiue) ..... 



Riviera (tuibine) - , , ■ 
St. Aodfen (turbine) . . 
St. Dsvid (turbine)... 



Jan Breydel (turbine).. 
LeopoJd IT. (pod.).,.. 



Princesse Clementine 



DuTCB (3 Sbii 
Mecktenbur 



Oeruah (5 Ships) : 



Kwnprint Wilhelm . . 



.lie Wireless Telegraph 
York Times. 
The Pall Mall Gi 



By Marconi Transat 

toTheNr 

L(>NDON. May * 

6"edieafoffi(«r''for the'p 

no vessel flying the Slsrs sad f^tripes an 
in the Thames in the whole of Ifl^t year. 



^y.^ 



Time and Watch on Boabd Ship. 

Watch. For purposes of diKipline, and 

lo divide the work lairiy, the erew is raus- 



AitamooD WidA 
First Doe " 
Second Dog " 



Doou to 4 p. tn. 

4 p.m. to 6 pjo. 
6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 

5 p.m. to midoi^t. 



This makee seven Watches, whicli ei 
,h. rraw to keep them allematirely, t 
it' ;,'' I, which is on duty in Ihe forenoo 



4 D<ni WatrJm, which ai 
' the hours between 4 o 
.m WaUhtt. 






_. fa kept bym 

Ithou^ there is but one bell 



IB of "Bells." 

-sts. 

First, two strokes of tbe clapper at the in- 
terval of a eeoond, then an interval of two 
seconds; then two more strokes with a sec- 
ond's interval apart, then a rest of two sec- 

BiLL, ONB bbcohd; B., two bboj.: B. a.; 
B. sa.; B. s.; B. as.; B. 
1. Bell'is struck at 12.30. and again at 4.30 
6,30, 8.30 p.m.: 12,30, 4.30, and 5^30 a.m. 

2 Bells at 1 (Btnick with an interval of a 
second between each— B. s. B.), Ihe same 
again at 5. 7, and g p.m.; l,5,andga.m. 

3 Bells at 1.30 (B. s. B. ss, B.) 5,30, 7.30, 
and e.30 p.m.; 1.30, 5.30. and 9.30 a.m. 

4 Bells at 2 (B. s, B. aa, B. s. B.) S and 10 
p.m.: 2, a, and 10 a.m. 

5 Bella at 2.30 (B. s. B. ss, B. a. B. ss, B.) 
snd 10.30 p.m.; 2.30, S.30. ami 10.30 a.m. 

6 Bells at 3 (B. s, B. ss. B. a, B. ss, B. s. B.) 

7 Belb'aV 3.30'(B. s, B. ss. B. s, B. ss. B. s, 
B. ss, B) and 11.30 P.m.: 3.30. 7.30, and 
11.30 a.m. 

S Belb (B. e, B. 88. B. s. B. ss, B. s, B. ss,. 
B, a. B.) every 4 hours, at noon, at 4 p.m. 
S p.m., midni^t. 4 a.m., and 8 a.m. 

Depth or the Sea. 

Yards depth. 
Average. Max. 

Atlantic 4.028 10.120 

Pacific 4,252 10.695 

Indian 3.658 7.S85 

Arctic 1,890 4,400 

Antarctic 3,000 3,950 

Mediterranean I,4TB 4,000 

Irish 240 710 

EngUsh Channel 110 30O 

German 96. 

Levant 72 

Adriatic 45 

Baltic 43 

The Southern Ocean bebw (Tape Horn 
reaches a depth of 5,500 yards, and off Cape 
oC Good Hope. 5,700 yaids. The average 
depth of the Bay of Biscay is 1,200 yards. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



190 



FIRST STEAMBOATS, PIONEER SAILINGS AND EARLIEST LINES. 

1707. Denis Papin experimented on River 
Folda with paddle-wheel steamboat. 

tjjfi. Jonathan Hulls patented designs similar 
to modem paddle boat. 



sTtfo. James Watt invented a double-acting 
side-iever engine. 

S763. Marquess of Jouffrey made experiments in 
France. 

176s. James Ramsey, in America, propelled a 
boat with steam through a stem-pipe. 

S71I5. Robert Fitch, in America, propelled a 
boat with canoe-paddles fixed to a moving 
beam. 

1787. Robert Miller, of Edinburgh, tried primi- 
tive manual machinery. 

1768. Miller, with Symington, produced a 
doable-buU stem-wheel steamboat. 

180a. Charlotte DundaSf the first practical 
steam tugboat, designed by Symington. 

1804. Pocent;!;, screw-boat designed by Stephens 
in New York ; first steamer to make a sea voyage. 

S807. Clermont, first passenger steamer con- 
tinuously employed ; built by Fulton in U.S. A. 

sSxa. Cknnet, first passenger steamer con- 
tinuously employed in Europe ; built by Miller 
in Scotland. 

sSxS. Rob Roy, first sea-trading steamer in the 
world ; built at Glasgow. 

sSio. Savannah, fli-st auxiliary steamer, paddle 
wheels, to cross 'the Atlantic; built in New 
York.- 

i8ai. Aaron MaviJby, first steamer (English 
canal boat) built of iron. 

s8ln. City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. was 
estabushed. 

sStf General Steam Navigation Co. was 
established at London. 

z8a4. Geoi^ Thompson & Co. (Aberdeen Line) 
were established. 

sftM. Enterprise made the first steam passage 
to India. 

s8a( Williatn Faweett, pioneer steamer of the 
P. A 0. 8. N. Ca 

x83a T. A J. Harrison (Harrison Line) were 
estaulished at Liverpool. 

xSja. Elburkah, iron steamer, took a private 
exploring party up the Niger. 

X834. Lloyd's Register for British and Foreign 
fihipping established. 

1830. F. Green A 0>. established at London. 

X830. Austrian Lloyd Steam Navigation Co. 
eetaolished at Trieste. 

s8!37. Francis B. O^en, first successful screw 
tugboat ; fitted with Ericsson's propeller. 
. X83S. ^reAtmede«,madethe Dover-Calaispassage 
nnder two hoars, fitted with Smith's propeller. 

s8|8. R. F, StwMon, built for a tugboat, 
fltteia with Ericsson's propeller, sailed to 
America ; first iron vessel to cross the Atlantic ; 
first screw steamer used in America. 

s8a& ThavMSi pioneer steamer of the Royal 
MaifSteam Packet Co, 

i8a& George Smith & Sons ((^ty Line) were 
estaolished at Glasgow. 

S840. Britannia, pioneer steamer of the Cunard 
Line. 

S840. ChUe, pioneer steamer of the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Co. 

1845. Oreat Britain, first iron screw steamer, 
precursor of modem Atlantic steamer. 

sBm. Tbos. Wilson. Soot A Ca, Ltd. (Wilson 
UoTestablished at HnU. 

1847. P^tciflo MaU Steamihip Co. established 
In America. 



Houlder Brothers & Co. established at 



x8j9. I 
London. 

X850. Bnllard, King & C^. (Natal Line) estab- 
lished at London. 

K850. Messageries Maritimes de France estab- 
lished. 

1850. Inman (now American) Line, established 
at LiverpooL 

x8<x. Tiber, first steamer of the Bibby Line, 
established x8sx at Livei*pool. 

xSsa. Forerunner, pioneer steamer of the 
African Steamship Ca 

x85^ Union Steamship Co. was established 
(nowUnion-Castle Line). 

X853. Borueeia, first steamer of the Hambnig- 
Amencan Packet Co., established 1847. 

X854. Canadian, first steamer of the Allan 
Line, established x89o. 

X854. Donaldson Bros, established at Glasgow. 

x8u. British India Steam Navigation Co. was 
established. 

xBsiS. Tempest, first steamer Anchor Liue. 

iBsj' Waldensian, first steamer of J. T. Rennie, 
Son <E Co. (Aberdeen Line). 

x8c8. Bremen, first Atlantic steamer of the 
Norddeutscher Lloyd, established 1856. 

X858. Oreat Eastern launched into the Thames, 
Jan. 3x ; commenced. May s, x8S4< 

xQsi. British and African Steam Navigation 
Co.', Ltd., established at LiverpooL 

x86x. E. Ropner dt Co, established at West 
Hartlepool. 

x8fa. 8ha#, Savfll & Co. established at 
London. 

x8fa. Compagnie G^ndrale Transatlantique 
established at fiavre. 

x866. Det Forenede Dampskibs Selskab (United 
Steamship Co.) was established at Copenhagen. 

x866. Siooth Line established at LiverpooL 

x866. Agamenmon^ first steamer of Alfred 
Holt (now the Blue Funnel Line). 

X870. Nederland Line established at Amster- 
dam. 

X870. Dominion Line established at Liver- 
pool. 

X870. Leyland Line formed at Liverpool. 

x87x. Hambuig-South American Steamship Co. 
established at Hambui^. 

x87a. Glen Line established at London. 

x^a. Red Star Line established at Antwerp. 

x^a. Chai^urs R^unis established at Puis. 

xm Holland-Amerika line established at 
Rotterdam. 

X873. New Zealand Shipping Co. was formed 
at Cnristchurch, New Zealand. 

X873. Kosmos Co. established at Hamburg. 

X877. Orient Line established at London. 

X878. Clan Line established at Glasgow. 

X87& Hain Steam Ship Co., Ltd., established. 

x88x. Cia. Trasatlantica formed at Barcelona. 

x88x. Moor Line began at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

x88x. Prince Line began at Kewcastle-on-lS'ne. 

X883. Houston Line was formed at Liverpool. 

X883. Rotterdam Ll4yd formed at Amster- 
dam. 

X885. Federal Steam N. Co., Ltd., established 
at London. 

X885. Nippon Yusen Kaisha established at 
Japan. 

x886. Atlantic Transport Ca, Ltd., formed in 
London. 

x88a Anglo-American Oil Ca, Ltd. formed in 
London. 

x888. German Australian S.S. Co. established. 



200 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



LOWEST OCEAN RATES. 

To and from New York, English and Continental Ports. 
(Subject to change without notice.) 



Lines. 



American Line 

SSs. Now York. St. Paul, St. Louis and Phila- 
delphia 

Philadblphia-Livbbpool Steamers 

SSs. Haywford and Morion 

SSs. Dominion 

Atlantic Transport Line 

SSs. Minneapolis, Minnetonka, Minnehaha, Min- 

newaska 

Anchor Line 

SSs. Columbia, Caledonia and Cameronia — 

SS. California 

Mediterranean Service 

SSts. Italia, Perugia and Calabria 

Austro-Americana 

Kaiser Franz-Joseph I 

SS. Martha Washington 

SSs. Laura, Alice, Argentina and Oceania 

Cimard Line 

SSs. Lusitania and Mauretania 

SS. Campania 

SSs. Carmania and Caronia 

BOSTON-LIYBRPOOL SERVICE 

SSs. Franconia, Laconia 

Ivemia and Sazonia 

Mediterranean Service 

SSs. Flranconia and Laconia 

SSs. Caronia and Carmania ^ 

SSs. Ivemia and Saxonia 

SS. Carpathia 

SS. Pannonia 

French Line 

SS. France •. . . . 



SS. 

SSs. 

SSs. 

SS. 

SSs. 

SSs. 



SSs. 
SSs. 
SSs. 
SSs. 



La Provence 

La Savoie and La Lorraine 

La Touraine and Espagno 

Rochambeau 

Chicago and Niagara 

Fioride and Caroline 

Fabre Line 

SS. Patria 

SS. Sant' Anna and Canada 

SSs. Madonna and Venezia 

SSs. Roma and Germania 

Hamburg- American Line 

SS. Imperator 

Amerika and Kaiserin Aug. Victoria 

Cleveland, Cincinnati and Victoria Luise 

Moltke and Bluecher 

President Lincoln, President Grant and Ham- 
burg 

SSs. Graf Waldersee and Pennsylvania 

Mediterranean Service 

SS. Moltke 

SS. Hamburg 

SS. Batavia 

Holland- America Line 

SS. Rotterdam 

SS. New Amsterdam 

SS. Noordam and other ships 

Italian Royal Mail Lines 

SSs. Verona and Ancoma 

SSs. America, Europa and Stampolia 

Philadelphia-Mediterranean Service 

All steamers 

Boston-Mediterranean Service 

SSs. Palermo and Napoli 

Lloyd Italiano 

SS. Taornima 

SS. Mendoza 



1st Class 

to or from 

Europe. 



$05.00 

50.00 
47.50 



85.00 

75.00 
70.00 



80.00 
75.00 
70.00 

127.50 
105.00 
100.00 

92.50 
85.00 

100.00 

105.00 

85.00 

82.50 

75.00 

122.50 

110.00 

100.00 

90.00 



75.00 
75.00 
80.00 
80.00 

127.50 

115.00 

97 . 50 

95.00 

90.00 



95.00 
90.00 



107.50 
95.00 
85.00 

80.00 
80.00 

80.00 



2d Class 

to or from 

England. 



$52.50 



50.00 
50.00 



65.00 
55.00 
57 50 

52.50 
50.00 



67.50 
60.00 
57.50 
55.00 

55.00 



57.50* 
55.00* 



80.00 - L, 
65 . 00 



2d Class, 
to or from 
Continent. 



$60.00 



60.00 

65.00 
65.00 
50.00 

70.00 
60.00 
62.50 

57.50 
55.00 

65.00 
65.00 
65.00 
65.00 
55.00 

70.00 
65.00 
62.50 
60.00 
57.60 
55.00 
47.50 

55.00 
55.00 



55.00 

72.50 
65.00 
60.00 
60.00 

60.00 
67.50 

65.00 
65.00 
65.00 

62.50 
57.60 
55.00 

65.00 
65.00 



65.00 
65.00 



*New York to Plymouth only. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



201 



LOWEST OCEAN BATES—Continued. 



Lines. 



Lloyd Sabaudo 

SSb. Tomaso di Savoia and Principe di Udine 

All othOT steamers 

North German Lloyd 

SSs. Kronprinzessin Cedlie and Kaiser Wilhelm II . 

SSs. Kronprinz Wilhelm, Kaiser Wilhebn der 
Grosse 

88. George Washington 

88. PrlnzFriedrichWilhelm 

88. Grosser Kuifuerst 

88. Barbarossa and other ships 

Mbditerranean Servicb 

88. Berlin 

All other steamers 

Red Star Line 

88. Lapland 

SSs. Finland. Kroonland and Vaderland 

Philadelphia-Antwerp Service 

All steamers 

Russian- American Line. 

SSs. Russia, Kursk and Czar * 

Scandinavian- American Line 

All steamers 

White Star Line 

SS. Olympic 

88. Adriatic 

SS. Oceania; 

SSs. Majestic 

SSs. Baltic, Cedric and Celtic 

BOBTON-LlVBRPOOL SERVICE 

SS. Arabic 

SS. Cjrmric 

Mediterranean Service 

SS. Canopic 

88. Cretic 



Ist Class 

to or from 

Europe. 



75.00 
70.00 

125.00 

122.50 

115.00 

100.00 

95.00 

90.00 

100.00 
90.00 

97.50 
85.00 



2d Class 

to or from 

England. 



••••••• 

05.00 

65.00 
60.00 
57.50 
55.00 
55.00 



2d Class 
to or from 
Continent. 



77.50 

130.00 
110.00 
110.00 
95.00 
100.00 



85.00 
82.50 



57.50 
55.00 



65.00 
57.50 
57.60 
52.50 
55.00 

53.75 
52.50 



65.00 
65.00 

70.00 

70.00 
65.00 
62.50 
60.00 
60.00 

65.00 
65.00 

60.00 
55.00 

55.00 



70.00 



62.50 
60.00 



65.00 
65.00 



* The minlmnm first class fare from New York to Rotterdam is $65.00 and to 
Libau $75.00. Second class fare firom New York to Rotterdam is $45.00 and to 
Libau $50.00. The minimmn first class fare ftom libau to New York is $75.00 and 
second class fare $62.50. 

The above are the lowest or minimum rates from port to port. Through rates to 
London or Paris should be made by adding to the above rates the following railroad 
rates of class and from desired port: 

From Liverpool to London: 1st Class, $7.00. In connection with 2d Class 
ocean tickets a 3d Class railroad ticket is furnished for $2.50. Fishguard to London, 
1st Class, $8.25, and 3d Class. $2.50, in connection with 2d Class ocean tickets. 

From Liverpool to Paris: Ist class $21.00; Fiahgruard to Paris $22.25. In con- 
nection with 2d Class ocean tickets, transportation is provided from Liverpool and 
Fishguard on payment of $7.50. 

From Plymouth to London: 1st Class. $7.50; 2d Class. $4.75; 3d Cla^, $3.75. 

From Dover to London: 1st Class, $4.75; 2d Class. $3.15. 

From Southampton to London: 1st Class. $2.75; 2d Class. $1.75; 3d Class. $1 .40. 

From Cherbourg to Paris: Ist Class. $8.75; 2d Class. $6.25; 3d Class. $3.60. 

From Havre to Paris- 1st Class. $5.60; 2d Class, $4.00; 3d Class. $2.50. 

From Boulogne-sur-Mer to Paris: 1st Class. $5.50; 2d Class. $3.70. 

From Marseilles to Paris, lat Class, $18.85; 2d Class $12.80. 



PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY.— PANAMA LINE. 

Between San Francisco and Mazatlan, San Bla.s, Manzanillo, Acapuico, Salina Cruz, 
Ocos, Champerico, San Jose de Guatemala, Acajutla, La Libertad, La Union, Amapala, 
Corinto, San Jose del Sue, Punta Arenas, Balboa (Panama). 

San Francisco .and Panama, $120. Round Trip. $216. Steerage. $60. San Francisco 
and New. York, $120. Steerage, $65. San Francisco and New Orleans, $120. First class only. 

New express, passenger and freight service direct for Panama and New York, calling 
only at San Pedro (Los Angeles) en route. San Francisco to Panama, $85. Round Trip, $150. 
To New York. $120. To New Orleans, $120. 



202 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM NEW YORK * 

AMERICAN UNB. 



Steamships. 


Year 


Gross 
Tonnage 


Indie. 
H.-P. 


Length 


New York (Rebuilt 1903) 


1888 
1895 
1895 
1899 


10.798 
11.629 
11.629 
10.786 


16,000 
17.500 
17.000 
16.800 


576 


St. Louis 


554 


St. Paul 


554 


Philadelphia 


576 



ANCHOR LINE. 



Columbia. 
Caledonia. 
California . 
Cameronia 




8,400 

9,400 

9,000 

10,500 




503 
516 
485 
532 



ATLANTIC TRANSPORT UNB. 



Minneapolis. 
Minnehaha. 
Minnetonka. 
Minnewaska 




13,448 
13.443 
13,440 
14,317 



9,500 
9,500 
9,500 
9,500 



616 
616 
616 
616 



AUSTRO-AMERICAN LINE. 



Laura 

Alice 

Argentina 

Oceania 

Martha Washington . . 
Kaiser Franz-Joseph I 
Belvedere 



1907 


6,122 


1907 


6,122 


1907 


6,526 


1907 


6,497 


1909 


8,312 


1912 


12,567 


1913 


11,000 




415 
415 
416 
390 
460 
500 
418 



COMPAXIA TRAN8ATLANTICA. 

Cadiz and Barcelona Service.) 



Antonio Lopez. 
Manuel Calvo . . 
Buenos Ay res . , 
Monte- Video . . . 
Montserrat. . . . 




430 

419.8 

410.6 

410 

371 



CUNARD LINE. 

(Queenstown and Liverpool Service.) 



Campania 

Mauretania 

Lusitania 

Caronia 

Carmania 

Franconia 

Laconia 

Aquitania (BuildinR). 



1893 


13,000 


30,000 


620 


1907 


32,000 


70,000 


790 


1907 


32,500 


70,000 


785 


1905 


20,000 


21,000 


675 


1905 


20,000 


21,000 


675 


1911 


18,150 


14,000 


600 


1912 


18,098 


14,000 


600 


.... 


47,000 




901 



CUNARD LINE. 

(Mediterranean and Adriatic Service.) 



Ultonia. . . 
Carpathia. 
Pannoniar. 
Saxonia . . 
Ivemia.. . 



1898 


10,200 




600 


1903 


13,600 




540 


1904 


10,000 




501 


1900 


14,270 


10,466 


680 


1900 


14,210 


10.400 


580 



♦Tables copyright 1913 by Munn & Co., Inc. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



203 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM NEW YORK.— Continued, 



FABRB LINE. 

(Various points, including Naples, depending on season of year.) 



Steamships. 



Year. 



Roma 

Germania. . 
Madonna. . . 

Venezia 

Sant' Anna. 
Canada. . . . 
Patria 



1902 
1903 
1905 
1907 
1910 
1912 
1914 



Gross 
Tonnage 



6,291 
5,103 
6,633 
6,827 
9,350 
9,350 



Indie. 
H.-P. 



6,000 

6,000 

6,200 

7,200 

10,000 

10.000 

12,000 



Lenglii. 



426 
426 
460 
460 
50Q 
500 
525 



FRENCH LINE. 



LaTouraine. 
La Lorraine . 

La Savoie 

La Provence. 

Qiicago 

Niagara .... 
Rochambeau . 
France 



1890 


9,161 


12,000 


636 


1899 


11,874 


22,000 


680 


1900 


11,889 


22,000 


680 


1906 


14,744 


30,000 


624 


1906 


11,112 


9,200 


620 


1908 


9,614 


8,250 


604 


1911 


12,678 


13,000 


643 


1912 


23,666 


40,000 


720 



HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE. 



Pennsylvania 

Patricia 

Pretoria..... 

Bulgaria* 

Gral Waldersee 

Batavia* 

Victoria Luise 

Hamburg* 

Bluecher 

Moltke* 

Amerika 

Kaiserin Auguste Victoria. 

President Lincoln 

President Grant 

Cleveland 

Cincinnati 

Imperator 

Vaderland (Building) 



1896 
1897 
1898 
1898 
1899 
1899 
1900 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1907 
1908 
1908 
1913 
1914 



13,333 
13,273 
13,234 
11,077 
13,193 
11,464 
16,502 
10,532 
12,334 
12,335 
22,226 
24,581 
18,100 
18,100 
18.000 
18,000 
50,000 



* Mediterranean Service. 



6.500 
6,000 
5,400 
4,000 
5,500 
4,000 

14,000 
9,000 
9,500 
9,500 

16,500 

17,500 
7,500 
7,500 
9,300 
9,300 

62,000 



HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE. 

(Netherlands-American Steam Navigation 0>.) 



Potsdam 

Ryndam 

Noordam. . . .' 

New Amsterdam 

Rotterdam 

Statendam (Building) 




12,600 
12,546 
12,540 
17,250 
24,170 
35,000 




667.6 

560 

660 

501.6 

560 

501 , 

686.6 

498 

525.6 

525 

690 

700 

615 

615 

600 

600 

919 



660 
660 
560 
615 
668 
740 



ITALIA LINE 

(Society di Navigazione a Vapore. Naples, Genoa, New York Service.) 



Napoli . 
Anoona. 



1899 
1908 



9,203 
10,000 



7.000 
7,600 



470 
520 



LA VELOCB LINE. 

(Navigazione Italiana a Vapore )■ 



Stampolia . 
Europa — 



1908/9 
1906 



12,000 
8,000 



9,000 
9,000 



526 
425 



NAVIGAZIONE GENERALE ITALIANA LINE. 

(Florio Rubattino). 



America 
Verona. . 
Palermo 




204 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM NEW YORK— Continued. 



LLOTD ITALIANO. 



Florida.... 
Luuiaiana. 
Indiana. . . 
Virginia. .. 
Mendoza. 
Taornima. 



Steamships. 



Year. 



1905 
1906 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1908 



Gross 
Tonnage 



6,018 
4,983 
4,996 
6,181 
6,847 
10,000 



Indie. 
H.-P. 



444 
444 

444 

477 

6,000 

7,600 



Length. 



381.4 

393.7 

393.7 

381.4 

420 

520 



NORTH GERMAN LLOTD. 

(Bremen Service.) 



Friedrich der Grosse 

Bremen i. . . •. 

Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse . 

Rhein 

Grosser Kurfiirst 

Main 

Kronprins Wilhelm 

Kaiser Wilhehn II 

Prinzess Alice 

Kronpr'n Cecilie 

Prina Fr. Wilhelm 

George Washington 

Columbus 




10.568 
11,570 
14,349 
10,058 
13,245 
10,067 
14,908 
19,500 
10,911 
20,000 
17,500 
25,570 
40,000 



7,200 

8,000 

28,000 

5,500 

9,700 

6,500 

36,000 

43,000 

9,000 

45,000 

14,000 

20,000 

25,000 



546 
669 
649 
520 
582 
520 
663 
707 
524 
707 
613 
723 
800 



NORTH GERMAN LLOTD. 

(Mediterranean Service.) 



Koenigin Luise. 
Barbaroesa. ... 
Koenig Albert. . 
Prinzess Irene.. 
Berlin 




10.711 
10,915 
10,643 
10,881 
19,200 




644 
546 
525 
525 
613 



RED STAR LINE. 



Vaderland. 

Zeeland 

Finland 

Kroonland. 
Lapland . . . 
(Building) 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1902 
1909 
1915 



11.960 
11,905 
12,188 
12,185 
18,694 



10,000 
9,800 
9,300 
9,400 

14,500 



580 
580 
577 
577 
620 
670 



RUSSIAN -AMERICAN LINE. 


Russia 


1909 
1911 
1912 


16,000 

• 14,000 

13,600 


10,000 
10,000 
10,000 


475 


Kursk 


450 


Czar 


425 



SCANDINAVIAN-AMERICAN LINE. 



C. F. Tietgen. 

Oscar II 

HelUgOlav... 
United States. 
Frederik VIII. 



(Buildin?). 




8,500 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
12,000 



WHITE STAB LINE. 



Majestic . . 
Oceanic . . 
Canopic. . 

Celtic 

Cedric . . . . 
Baltic... 
Adriatic . . 
Laurentic . 
Megantic . 
Olympic. . 




10,147 
17,274 
12,097 
20,904 
21,035 
23,876 
24,541 
14,892 
14,878 
46,359 



6,500 
8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
10,000 



16,000 
28,000 
8,730 
14,000 
14.000 
15.000 
17.000 
14,000 
11,000 
46,000 



485 
616 
515 
615 
541.5 



582 
705 
594 
697 
697 
726 
726 
666 
565 
882.6 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



205 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM PORTS OTHER 

THAN NEW YORK. 



Parisian. 
Numidian . . . , 

Mongolian 

Cartnaginian. 

Siberian , 

Hungarian. . . 
Hibernian. . . , 
Ontarian. . . . , 
Orcadian. . . . , 



1881 
1891 
1891 
1884 
1884 
1902 
1902 
1900 
1893 



5,395 
4,836 
4,838 
4,444 
3,846 
4,508 
4,505 
4,309 
3.546 





CUNARD T.TNB. 

(Boston-Liverpool Service.) 






Steamships. 


Year 


Gross 
Tonnage. 


Indie. 
H.-P. 


Length. 


Franconia 


1911 
1912 


18,160 
18,098 


14,000 
14.000 


600 


Laconia 


600 




ALLAN LINE. 







774 
582 
582 
'475 
463 
446 
446 
359 
328 



440 
400 
400 
386 
372 
388 
385 
385 
361 



LBTLAND LINE. 



Devonian. . . 
Winifredian. 
Canadian. . . 
Bohemian... 




10.435 

10.422 

9,309 

8.655 



4.702 
4,505 
4,120 
4.019 



571 
571 
549 
529 



WHITE STAB LINE. 



Cymric 
Cretic. . 
Arabic. 




599 
601 
615.6 



WHITE STAB LINE. 

(Australian Service.) 



Gothic. . 
Belgic . . 
Ceramic 




7,758 

9,767 

18,000 




504 
605 



NOBTH GEBICAN LLOTD S. S. CO. 

(Bremen-Boston-New Orleans Service.) 



Breslau 

Cassel 

Chemnitz 

Frankfurt. . . . 

Koeln 

Hannover 

BrandenburK ■ 



1901 
1901 
1901 
1899 
1901 
1901 
1901 



7,524 
7,563 
3,200 
3,200 
8.860 
8,850 
8.860 



3,400 
3,400 
7,642 
7,431 
3.400 
3,400 
3.400 



428 
428 
430 
431 
446 
446 
446 





ALLAN LINE. 

[Montreal Services.) 






Victorian 


1904 
1905 
1900 
1907 
1908 
1907 
1901 
1901 
1899 
1899 
1875 
1882 
1913 
1913 


10.629 

10,764 

10,676 

11,419 

10.920 

10.947 

8.268 

6,508 

6,229 

6,229 

4,349 

4,207 

17,000 

17,000 


• • • • 

'849 
917 
803 
825 
604 
800 
447 
447 
316 
560 
18,000 
18.000 


520 


Vinrinian 


520 


Tunisian 


600 


CoTsican 


500 


Hesnerian 


485 


Gramoian 


486 


Ionian 


470 


Pretorian 


436 


Corinthian 


430 


Sicilian » 


430 


Sardinian 


400 


Pomeranian 


381 


Alsatian (Building) 


660 


Albynian (Building) 


560 



206 



SCIEINTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM PORTS OTHER THAN 

NEW YOBK— Continued. 





CANADIAN PACIFIC BAILWAT CO. 






Steamships. 


Year. 


Gross 
Toimage. 


Indie. 
H.-P. 


Length. 


Emnress o^ "Rritftin .,,..., 


1906 
1906 


14.500 
14.500 


3.168 
3.168 


548 8 


Empress of Ireland 


548.9 



Royal Mail Steamers "Empress of Britain" and "Empress of Ireland" leave Quebec in 
Summer and St. John in Winter. Other vessels of the line carry second only, second and 
steerage only, and steerage oii^. Their names are therefore omitted here. 



WHITE STAR-DOMINION. 



Laurentic. 
Megantic. 
Canada. . . 
Dominion. 
Teutonic. . 




14,892 

15,000 

0.413 

7.036 

9.984 




484 
550 
514 
456 
582 



DONALDSON LINB. 

(Montreal to Glasgow.) 



Athenia. . . : 
Cassandra. . 
Saturnia. . . . 



1904 

1906 

Building 




478 
455 



MONTBISAL SERVICES— THOMSON LINE. 

(Mediterranean Service.) 



Tortona. 



1909 



7.907 



5,400 



450.6 



PHILADELPHI 




lAMSHIP SERVICES — AMERICAN LINE. 



Haverford . 
Merlon. . . . 



1901 
1902 



11,635 
11.621 



4,157 
3.953 



547 
547 




CUNARD LINE. 

(Montreal — London. ) 



Ascania. 
Ansonia . 
Andania , 
Alannia . 




482 
465 
540 
540 



FRENCH LINE. 

(Quebec — ^Havre Service.) 



Niagara . 
Flonde.. 
Caroline. 




504 
437 
437 



(New Orleans — Havre Service.) 



Louisiane. 
Califomie . 
Virginie. . 
Mexico . . . 




403 
417 
409 
409 



These tables include the principal lines engaged in European trade. There are other lines, 
however, carrying passengers, but which are omitted on account of infrequent or irregular 
services, or failure to respond to copies of proof sheets sent out for correction. The Editor 
takes no responsibility for the list as printed, though more than ordinary care has been used 
in its compilation and correction. It should also be borne in mind that "Lowest Ocean 
Rates" means only the lowest fares at any season of the year. During the rush or "high" 
season these fares usually apply only to a very few inside rooms, and plans should not be based 
on this schedule without consulting the steamship company or a reputable tourist agency to 
find if any minimum accommodations are available. In the fall and winter seasons superior rooms 
can usually be obtained at minimum rates without difficulty. If you live out of town do not 
wait until reaching New York, Boston or Philadelphia before attempting to secure passage. 
If you are going in July engage your passage in January if possible. There will be littls 
difficulty in canceling accommodations if plans have to be changed, provided ample notice H glvea tc 
enable steamship company to resell. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



207 



BATES TO EUROPEAN PORTS FROM CANADA.* 



Allan Line. 

MONTREAL AND QUEBEC TO UVEBPOOL. 

First class passaee from St. John or Halifax. 
S72.50 and up; Montreal or Quebec and 
LLverpooU S80.00 and up. Second class, 
S50.00 and up. 

MONTREAL TO GLASGOW. 

First class, $70.00 and up: second class, 
S50.00 and up. One class cabin, $47.50 and 
up. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Co. 

MONTREAL AND QUEBEC TO LIVERPOOL. 

First class, $92.50 from Quebec; $85.00 
from St. John, and upwards; second class, 
$53.75 and up. One class cabin (second class) 
$50.00 and up. 



Ctjnabd Line. 

MONTREAL TO LONDON AND SOUTHAMPTON TO 

MONTREAL. 

Cabin (called second), $46.25 and up. 

Donaldson Line. 

MONTREAL TO GLASGOW. 



Cabin (called second), 
British third class, East, 
West, $31.25. 



$47.50 and up. 
$31.25; prepaid 



White Star — ^Dominion Line. 

MONTREAL AND QUEBEC TO LIVERPOOL. 

First class, summer season, $92.50 and up; 
winter season, $85.00 and up; second class. 
$53.75 and up. One class cabin, $47.50 and 
up. 



RATES TO WEST INDIAN, SOUTH AMERICAN PORTS, ETC.f 



The Booth Steamship Co., Ltd. 

NEW YORK AND PARA, MANAOS, VIA BARBADOS. 

. — Saloon — Third 
Single Return Class 
$110 $27.50 
160 48.00 
195 53.00 
245 75.00 



Barbados $55 

Para 90 

Manaos 110 

Iquitos, Peru 140 



Canadian South African Line. 

MONTREAL OR ST. JOHN, N. B., TO CAPE TOWN, 

PORT ELIZABETH, EAST LONDON, DURBAN, 

AND DELAGOA BAT. 

First class — Cape Town, $110. Durban, 
$135. 



COMPANIA TbANSATLANTICA. 

NEW YORK, HAVANA, VERA CRUZ AND PUERTO 

MEXICO 

To To to 
Havana Vera Puerto 
Cruz Mexico 

First class $37 $60 $60 

Second class 26 40 40 

Round trip 10 per cent, discount. 

Hamburg-American Line — 
Atlas Service. 

NEW YORK TO COLON, COLUMBIA, COSTA RICA 
AND WEST INDIAN PORTS. 



—1st Class — 
One Round 



Oct. 



Kingston 

or Santiago 

Colon 

Puerto Colombia. . 

Cartagena 

Santa Marta .... 

Port-Llmon 

Port au Prince.... 
Jeremie 



way 
1 to 
946 00 
75 00 
80 00 
80 00 
80 00 
80 00 
60 00 

eo 00 



trip 

May 31 
$85 50 
142 50 
152 00 
152 00 
152 00 
152 00 
100 00 
100 00 



—2d Claas— 
One Round 
way trip 



$30 00 
45 00 
45 00 
45 00 

45 00 

46 00 
35 00 
86 00 



$57 00 
86 50 
85 50 
85 50 
85 50 
85 50 
80 QO 
60 00 



CLYDE LINE 

NEW YORK FOR CHARLESTON, 8. 
JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 



C, AND 



Fares from 
New York to 

Charleston 

First Cabin $20 00 

Round Trip 32 00 

Intermediate. ... 15 00 

Round Trip 24 00 

Steerage 10 00 



Fares from 

New York to 

Jacksonville 

$24 90 

43 30 

19 00 

34 80 

12 60 



Insular Line, Inc. 

NEW YORK AND PORTO RICO. 

Rates of Passage. First class — ^To or from 
New York and Porto Rico, $25 and $30. 

Lamport & Holt Line. 

Direct service from New York to Brazil and 
Argentine. Steamers call at Bahia,»Rio de 
Janeiro and Santos. Through tickets issued 
to Paranagua, Rio Grande do Sul, Monte- 
video, Buenos Ayres. All vessels call at 
Barbados and Trinidad northbound. 

^Intermed late — 
S.S. Vestrls 
Minimum and 

1st "V Van-* 8d 
Class Steamers dyck Class 

Bahia $150 

Rio de Janeiro 150 

Slantos 160 

Paranagua 165 

Rio Grande do Sul.. 180 

Porto Alegre 185 

Montevideo 190 

Buenos Ayres 190 

RoEario 196 

Children under 12 years of age. half fare; 
under two years, free. Servants in saloon, 
two-thirds fare. 

* t All rates are subject to change without 
notice, and any tourist agent will give ac- 
curate figures as to cost. On Sept. 1, 1913, the 
rates quoted as printed were believed to be 
correct. 



$75 


$85 


$45 


75 


85 


45 


80 


90 


50 


— 


— 


62 


— 


— 


65 


— 


— 


67 


90 


100 


60 


90 


100 


60 


96 


106 


60 



208 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RATES TO WEST INDIAN AND SOUTH AMERICAN PORTS— Continued. 
MuNSON Steamship Line. 



NEW YORK AND CUBA, 

One RoTind 

First Cabin. way. trip. 

New York to Nipe $35.00 

New York and Nuevitas 35.00 166.60 

New York and Puerto Padre. 60.00 

New York and Gibara 60.00 95,60 

New York and Banes 60.00 

INTERMEDIATE. 

New York to Nipe 125.00 

New York to Nuevitas 25.00 f47.50 

New York to Puerto Padre. . . 35.00 

New York to Gibara 35.00 

New York & Cuba Mail S.S. Co. 

(ward line.) 
new york-havana -mexico service. 
To Ist Class. 

Havana $40.00 and up 

:?rogreso 60.00 

Mexico City 72.20 

Vera Crua 65.50 

Puerto Mexico 75.00 

Children under 3 years, not exceeding one to 
a familv free; each additional child half fare. 
Children 8 to 12, accompanied by an adult, 
half fare. 



NASSAU. 



To 
Nassau . 



1st 
Class 
$40.00 



2d 
Class 
$16.00 



New York & Porto Rico S.S. Co. 

NEW YORK AND SAN JUAN, PONCB AND 
MATf AGUEZ, PORTO RICO. 

First class $46 and up. Excursion $81 and 
up- Second class $26 and up. 

Panama Railroad Steamship Line. 

COLON CANAL ZONE PANAMA, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO, MEXICO, CENTRAL AND SOUTH 
AMERICA. 

New York to Canal Zone (Colon) $76.00 

New Yerk to Canal Zone, Round Trip . 100.00 
New York to San Francisco 120.00 

Peninsular and Occidental S.S. 
Company. 

KEY WEST, CUBA AND THE WEST INDIES, PORT 
TAMPA KEY WEST HAVANA LINE. 

Round 

Trip. 

$42.10 

21.10 

21.00 



One 
Between Way. 

Port Tampa and Havana $25.40 

Key West and Port Tampa. . . 12.90 

Key West and Havana 12.50 

The above rates include meals and berth 
while at sea. 



Southern Pacific Steamers. 

NEW ORLEANS AND HAVANA SERVICE. 

Fares between New Orleans and Havana. 

First cabin $25.00 

Round trip, either direction 45.00 

Steerage 12.50 

Trinidad Line. 

NEW YORK, GRENADA AND TRINIDAD, B.W.I. 

Trinidad or Grenada — first class $50.00 

Trinidad or Grenada — excursion 90.00 



Quebec S.S. Co., Ltd. 

NEW YORK TO BERMUDA AND WINDWARD 
ISLANDS. 

Bermuda Service. 
Cabin passage, round trip, $26 and up, ac- 
cording to steamer and date of sailing. (Sub- 
ject to change.) Steerage passage, $16; 
e.xcursion, $18. Alien Tax $4 additional. 

West India Service. 

New York to St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. 
Kitts, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, 
Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbados and De- 
merara. 

Cabin passage, $50 to $80. Return ticets, 
good for 6 months, $90 to $160. Steerage 
$27.60 to $32.50. U.S. Alien Tax $4 additional. 

Red "D"Linb. 

TO PUERTO RICO AND VENEZUELA, NEW YORK 
TO LA aUAYRA, PUERTO CABELLO, 
CURACAO AND MARACAIBO. 



S.S. 



"CARACAS" 



AND "PHILADELPHIA" 



1st Class 

Upper Saloon 3d 

Deck Deck Class 

New York and San Juan.. $40. 00 136.00 $20.00 
New York and La Guayra 

by most direct route 66.00 60.00 30.00 

New York and Curacao 66.00 60.00 30.00 

New York to Puerto Cabello 70.00 65.00 86.00 
La Guayra and New York 

(via Puerto Cabello) 75.00 70.00 40.00 

Puerto Cabello to New York 66.00 60.00 30.00 



S.S. ZULIA 



"maracaibo" 



New York 
New York 
New York 
New York 

No second 
S.S. "Caracas," 

Round trip 10 
12 months. 



AND S.S. 

1st Class 

and Mayaguez $36.00, 

to La Guayra 60.00 

and Curacao 60.00 

and Maracaibo 75.00 



2d 



class passengers carried 
••Philadelphia," or 
per cent, reduction. 



Class 

$26.00 

40.00 

40.00 

60.00 

on the 

•Merida." 

Good for 



The Royal Mail Steam Packet 
Company. 

NEW YORK AND SOUTHAMPTON VIA CUBA, 
JAMAICA, COLON, CARTAGENA, PUERTO 

COLOMBIA (SA vanilla), TRINIDAD (TRANSFER 
HERE FOR VENEZUELA, BRITISH GUIANA AND 
WINDWARD AND LEEWARD ISLANDS), BAR- 
BADOS, ST. BOCHAELS (aZORES) AND CHER- 
BOURG, RETURNING TO NEW YORK BY SAMS 
ROUTE REVERSED. 

Class Second Class 

Return Single Return 

$80.75 $30.00 $67.00 

86.50 30.00 67.00 

142.50 46.00 85.50 

152.00 46.00 85.50 



First 
New York to Single 
Autilla (Cuba).. $42. 50 

Kingston 45.00 

Colon 75.00 

Cartagena 80.00 

Puerto Colombia 
(Savanilla) ... 80.00 

Trinidad 85.00 

Barbados 90.00 

Cherbourg ) ..176.00 
Southampton j ..200.00 



152.00 
153.00 
162.00 
300.00 
350.00 



Single 

$30.00 

30.00 

46.00 

46.00 

46.00 
55.00 
60.00 



85.50 

99.00 

108.00 



I 125.00 1 200.00 



CUBA. 



Santiago and Camaguey, $45 first class, $30 
second class; Havana, $55 first class; Havana 
via Santiago, $58.50 first class. 

BERMUDA. SERVICE 

New York to Bermuda, first class, round 
trip, $25 and up. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



209 



RATES TO WEST INDIAN AND SOUTH AMERICAN PORTS— Continued. 



United Fruit Company. 

NEW YORK — ^JAMAICA PANAMA COSTA RICA 

AND OOLOilBIA SERVICES. 



NEW ORLEANS GUATEMALA COSTA 

PANAMA SERVICE. 



RICA- 



Per Adult 

Between One 

New York and Way. 

Kingston $45.00 

Colon 75.00 

Cartai^ena 80.00 

Puerto Colombia 80.00 

Santa Marta 80.00 

Limon 80.00 



First Cabin. 

Round 
Trip. 
$85.50 
142.50 
152.00 
152.00 
152.00 
162.00 



BETWEEN PHILADELPHIA AND PORT ANTONIO, 

JAMAICA. 

One Round 
Way. Trip. 
First cabin $35.00 $60.00 

BOSTON COSTA RICA SERVICE. 

Fare, Boston to Limon, one way, $60.00; 
round trip, $114.00. 



Between New Orleans and 
Belize, British Honduras. . . 

Between New Orleans and 
Livingston. Guatemala. . . . 

Between New Orleans and 
Barrios, Guatemala 

Between New Orleans and 
Cortez, Spanish Honduras. 

Between New Orleans and 
Limon, Costa Rica 

Between New Orleans or Mo- 
bile and Bocas del Toro, 
Panama 

Between New Orleans and 
Colon, Panama 



One 
Way 
Cabin 

1st 
Class 


Round 

Trip 

Cabm 

1st 
Class 


$25.00 


$45^0 


30.00 


37.00 


30.00 


57.00 


30.00 


57.00 


60.00 


95.00 


60.00 


95.00 


50.00 


95.00' 



RATES TO PACIFIC AND TRANS-PACIFIC PORTS. 

CANADIAN-AITSTBALAHAN BOTAL MAIL LUfB. 



■ 




ONE-WAY rAsli. 


1 Bomm-TBir 1 


^um. 


TAHOOVVEB. ■. C^ 


flnt 
CUao. 


aorraatt 
Aoooa^ 


0P KpOV 

CUm. 


^ 


Iteor CiiAaa. 


sr 


«• 


mSUo. 


Twtb* 
Moatho. 


TvoHo 
MoMhf. 


■OMOLDLO, HftwdM Uudt. 


WIN 

mm 
mm 
mm 
m.N 

mH 
mm 
ntu 

IU.fi 

m.N 

m.m 

Hill 
Nl.ll 

m.N 
mm 
mN 

m.M 
mm 


INN 
Ut.N 
INN 
Ut.N 

IM.M 
IMN 

INN 
IMN 

im.u 

INN 
■INN 
•IMN 
JMN 
IM.H 
INN 
UTN 

UI.N 
IN.H 


IN.N 

INN 
INN 
INN 
INN 

IMH 
ISlN 
U4.7I 

mn 
in.N 

IMN 

mil 
mil 
in.N 

INN 
INN 

IMM 
IMN 


IN.N 
N.N 
N.N 
NN 
N.N 
HII 
UK 

H.n 

HII 
H.N 
N.N 
INU 
IHH 

n.H 

HH 
HH 

n.H 

HH 


mi.N 

•••••• 


HN'ii 

m.m 
m.m 

m.N 

M.H 
MI.N 

m.N 

NI.M 

mm 
m.n 
mm 
m.m 
m.N 
m.H 

M.H 

m.u 

mm 


mi.N 


■fJTA, WW lAadi 


INN 




IN.N 


aiOJIEl, N«v Sooth WalM. 


mm 


WiW»4ll^ QwiJind. Tto Sydiy — d nil / 

* * Hft SfdMy ud auaatr 


mn 

m.H 


MBLWMJRHBL Vi«t4)riA. tU Sydaty tMd nil 


MIH 

mn 


* ' tU Bydnair ud Istenute atMaar 

ADILAID& South Awtralio, rU SydMr sad rail 


mm 
mn 


* * Ha Sydaay aad latantat* ataaaw . . 
nWMkmiM, Wtot AvMralia, via Sydaoy aad latwatata ttaaoMr . . 

ALBANT. Wtot Aoatralia, vU Sydaoy aad latonUU atoaanr 

■OPAKT. TiOBaaia. ria Sydaor aad Kmbw 


mn 
m.H 

MI.N 


AHA. flkaoaa UaadOb via 8«Ta aad ■toamer 


m.N 


WKUEOTOlf. Nov Zoalaad. vU AooUaad aad otMiaor 

VOB* LTTTUtmi (Chitot ChmA). Nov Zmlaad. Ha Auoklaad 


mm 
mu 


BinnDMN. Nov Soalaad. Ha Aaoklaad aad 010811111? 


mm 







UmON 8TBAM8HIP CO. or new ZBALANU. (Ltd.) 



SAN nUNCUCO. CAI^ 



ONE-WAT rABBS. 


BOUIfD-imiP rARBS. 


First 
Cabia. 


Second 
Cabin. 


Third 
Cabia: 


First 
Cabia. 


Second 
Cabin. 


Four 
Months. 


Moatha. 


•INN 


MIH 


IM.H 


IIHH 


HUH 


Itt.N 


ran 


U.7i 


171. H 


IMH 


Mf N 


®IN.N 


IITH 


m.Ti 


9iii.n 


H7.H 


mn.m 


HH 


m.7i 


«m7i 


IMN 


U7H 


71. H 


m.Ti 


mn 


in.n 


UIH 


7IH 


INH 


UTN 


IM.H 


UIN 


7IN 


mn 


lH7i 


IH.N 


isin 


n.H 


mn 


mm 


mn 


in 71 


HH 


mm 


mm 


•NH 


IISH 


HH 


mm 


mm 


lUN 


in 71 


n.7i 


lUN 


m.H 


mil 


lM7i 


HH 


tUN 


mn 


m.N 


U7.7i 


•1.71 


tm.n 


m.N 


m.H 


IMH 


1I7.H 


W7i 


mm 



Tahiti 

mjmxrtOVQA, Cook laUada 

AFIA, Samoaa Islands. Ha Auckland aad stoamer 

SVTA, FIJI Uaads, Ha ApokUad aad stsamor 

AUCKLAlfD, Nov Zoalaad. Ha WoUlacton 

WBXIMOTON, Nov Zealand 

PORT LTTVLBTOir. (Christ Chunfa), Nov Zoaland, Ha WeUiacton 

DI7NIDIN. Nov Zoalaad. Ha WsUington , 

■OSABTyTasmaais, Ha WoUinctoa 

8TONCT, Nov South Waleo. Ha Wellington and steamor 

BBISBANS, Queensland, Ha Sydney and rail 

MiXBOUBMB; Viotoria. Ha Sydney aad nul 

ADBLAIDB* South Australia. Ha Sydney aad rail 

IBBMANTL^ Went Australia, Ha Sydney and rail 



9FInt caUa oa stoamship boyood Aucklaad, Nov Zoalaad. 



210 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RATES TO PACIFIC AND TRANS-PACIFIC PORTS— Continued. 



HlPPOlg nJBEBf KAMBA (Japm Mafl SteMiislilp Co.)., 



SBATTLB, WAam^ 



YOKOHAMA, Japut 

KOBS. Japan 

MOJI* Japan 

NAGASAKI, Japan 

SHANGHAI. Chin* 

HONO KONG 

MANILA, PUlippIne lalaada. vU 
HoDg Kong. 



ONCWAT rABB. 



Claai. 



HUM 

lUM 
lU.M 
Ui.M 
UI.M 

in.M 

W.N 



SBBTAim 
AOOOKPAlCTUrO 

FAiouaa 



Other 

than 

Aaiatie 



9 
9 
9 



Aaiatie. 



9 



9 
9 



B6oond 
Claaa. 



9mM 

9'n.m 
9 mm 

9 N.M 
9 M.N 
9 M.N 



Aaiatie 
Steer- 
ace. 



I4IM 
MM 
UM 
UM 
U.M 
MM 



■OmiD-TBIP rAKKS. 



.FlMT-CliAW. 



Six 
MoDtha 



tlM.M 
IM.M 

m.M 

ITt.N 
UT.M 

tn.M 



Twelve 
Montha 



nH.M 

IH.N 
Ml.M 
M1.M 
m.Ti 

ni.Ti 

MI.U 



Sbbtahtc AccoMFAirrnia 
Famiuxb. 



Other tktaa Aaiatie 



Aaiatie. 



Foto 
M<»tlia 



9 
9 
9 



Twelve 
Montha. 



9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 



Twelve 
Montha 



9 

9 
9 
9 
9 



SaeoMBCukas. 



Four 
Montha. 



9 
9 
9 
9 



Twelve 
Months. 



9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 

9 



Faraa will net apply via ateaBiahips Y»Mt«ma M^n » SMmialM Mont. 
iCMMtM: no tm ia «ffMt. 



BANK LINE (Ltd.) 





ONE-WAY FABBS. | 


BOVND-TBIP FABBS. 


Wnm 

SBATTUt OB TACOMA. WASH., OB 


First 
Cabin. 


SBRVA.NTa 
AcCOMPANTUyO 

FAJiiuia. 


Asiatla 
Steerage. 


FiBBT Cabin. 


SUTAKTS ACCOMrAXYIirO 

FAiouaa. 


Four 
Montha. 


Twelve 
Months. 


Other than Asiatio. 


Asiatic. 






YANCOWBB, B. C, 
To 


Other 

than 

Asiatic. 


Asiatic. 


Fonr 
Months. 


Twelve 
Months. 


Twdve 
Months. 


YOKOHAMA, Japaa 


4UI.M 
U4.N 
UI.M 
UI.N 

Ui.M 
Ui.M 
UI.N 


Ni.N 

n.M 

MM 

MM 

IM.M 

IM.M 
IM.M 


MtM 
4t.it 
4t.M 
4tM 
tf.M 
4t.M 
U.M 


tM.M 
UN 
tt.M 
tt.M 

4TJ0 
4T.M 

4T.M 


•Ut.M 
UI.M 

Ut.Ti 
IM.M 

m.M 

ITt.M 

m.M 


«m.M 

Ut.H 

.Ut.M 
Ut.M 
Ml.M 
Ml.M 

Nl.H 


tUT.M 
Ut.M 
Ui.M 
Itf.N 
Ut.N 
UT.M 
UT.H 


fUt.N 
Ut.H 
UT.H 

UTH 

inn 

mn 


Nl.H 


KOBB, Japan 


HN 


MOiI,JapMi 

NAGASAKI, Japan. vU Kobe .. 

SHANGHAI. China 

HONGKONG.. 


mn 

H.N 
H.N 
H.H 


MANILA. PhilipmnA Wi^r^»--. 


HN 






OCEAN STBAMSBIP 


CO. (Ltd.) AND CHINA MVTVAL STEAM NAVIGATION CQ, 


atd.) 






From 
E OB TACOMA. WASH., OB YANCOVTBB. B. C. 
To 




m 


ONE-WAY 
FABBS. 


SEATTL 


Asiatie 
Steerage. 


YOKOHAMA, Japan 


Itt.H 


KOBE, Japan 


tt.M 


MOil, Japan 








H.H 


NAGASAKI. Japan 




! - 




tt.H 


SHANGHAI, China 1 


il.M 


HONO KONG ^ 




^ 





il.M 


MANILA, Philippine Islands , ,.. 


H.H 







MATSON NAVIGATION CO. 



From 
SAN FBANCISCO. CAL., 
To 



HONOLULU, Hawaiian blands 

SUVA. Fiji Islands, via Honolultt and Canadian-Australasian Royal Mail Line. 

AUCKLAND, New Zealand, via Honolulu and (Tanadian-Australasian Royal Mail Line 
SYDNEY. New South Walea via Honolulu and Canadian-Australasian Royal Mail Line 

BBISBANE, Queensland, via Sydney and rail 

MBLBOUBNB. Victoria, via Sydney and rail 

ADELAIDE, South Australia, via Sydney and rail 



ONE-WAY PABES. 



First 
Clasa. 



Mi.H 

IMN 

mm 
mnm 
tu.M 
tit.u 
tu.it 



Servants 

Accompanying 

Families. 



SH.N 



Mixed 
Class. 



®$ltt.il 
®14i.N 
®14S.M 
®UI4i 
®U4.Ti 
9UT.M 



Steerage. 



SMM 



BOUND<TBIP 
FABES. . 



First Cla 



Six Months. 



SUt.H 



9First class to Hoadulu and second etass beyond. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 211 



RATES TO PACIFIC AND TRANS-PACIFIC PORTS— Conti 












212 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. CO/S EOTAL MAIL STEAMSmP UNE. 







ONB-WAT rABCS. 


rMis 

▼ANCOUTEB. B. C, 


Fint 
Claaa. 


SUVANTS 

AocoMPANTma 
PAMtuca. 


Inters 
mediate. 


AaiAtifl 
Seeond 
Claaa. 


Asiatia 


• 


Other 

Than 

Asiatic. 


Asiatic. 


Staeraa*. 


TOKOHAMA, Jap^n . . 


®aM.M 

®MTM 


UMM 
Uttt 


SHM 
MM 

®M.M 

®MM 

MM 

MM 

MM 


®SUi.'M 
® Ut.M 

® IM M 


®snM 

®T4M 
®M.M 
®M.M 
®HM 
®MM 
®MM 


(MSI.M 
®ilM 


®ttt.M 


KOBE, Japan 


®U.M 


MOJri, Japan 


®O.M 


NAGASAKI, Ja-pan 


® MSM 

®m M 
9 mm 
®m.M 


91UM 
IMM 
IMM 

IMM 


®ilM 
®ilM 
®il.M 
®ilM 




SHANGBAI, China 


® IMM 
® IMM 

®1M.M 


®il.M 


HONG BONO 


®il.N 


MANILA. PhiliDDina Itlaada. via Hone Konc 


®il.N 






p 


BOUND-TBIP FABBS. 




First Cbxaa. 


Inler- 
aae<fiate 


MiXBD CLASa. 


nmn 


Sis 
MonUu. 


Tw«lv« 
Montha. 


SbKVANTB ACC0MPA.NTINO 

Families. 


Sit 
Moatha. 




▼ANC!OUTBB« B. C* 


Other Than Asiatic. | 


Asiatic. 






Sis 
Months. 


TwelT* 


T» 


Sis 
Months. 


Twelve 
Months. 


Sis 
Months 

or 
Twelve 
Months. 


Months. 


YOKOHAMA, Japan 


®sm.M 

®tU.M 


®MM.M 
®Mf M 


MMM 
MSM 


MMM 
tilM 


UMM 

IMM 
®1MM 
®1M.M 
MOM 
IMM 
UOM 


®nt7.M 
® iN.n 
® niM 


@aMM 
® mM 
®n7.n 

® MT 7S 

® m M 

®MIM 

® m.M 


®mi.M 


KOBB, Japan 


® m.M 




® m.M 


NAGASAKI. Japan 


® m.M 

® H7M 

®tM.M 

®mM 


®Mtn 
®Mt n 

®MI.7I 

®Mi.n 


%mn 
mm 

ttfe.M 

m.M 


®M»M 
MIM 
MI.M 
MSM 

t 


® m M 


SHANGHAI. China 


® m.M 
®m.M 

®m.M 


® m.ii 


HONG KONG 


® m.is 


MANILA. Philippine tilands. via Hon« Kun« 


9m.vk 



or Tiee versa. 
AFaras 



kParea apply only via steamsbipa Bmpntt «/ /adta or Bmpreu oj J»va». 

bPares apply only via steamship MMUeagU. 

^Paraa appw via steamships Bmpre»$ of India, Brnpreu of Japan, or MenUagU. 

^Faraa apply goin« first class via steamships Bmpr*»$ of India or SmprMi •/ Japan, and returning intermediate via steamship livnUafU, 



fotitg fint class via steamshipa Bmpre»» of India or Bmpr4*t o/ Japan to Nagasaki, and rsturaiac intarmediata via ataamihip 
i. or vica vena. Passengers most provide (or their own transportation between Nagasaki and Moji. 



DEPTHS OF PORTS OF THE WORLD. 



Port. 



Amsterdam (canal) 

Holland 

Antwerp, Belgium 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Boulogne, France 

Bremen, Germany 

Bremerhaven, Germany. . 

Brindisi, Italy 

Cherbourg, France 

Copenhagen, Denmark. . . 

Dieppe, France 

Galveston, Tex 

Genoa, Italy 

Glasgow, Scotland 

Greenock, Scotland 

Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Hambu^, Germany 

Havre, France 

Kaiser William Canal, 

Germany 

Key West, Fla 

Konigsbei^ Canal, Ger... . 
Leghorn, Italy 

* Deep water. 



Channel 

(mean 

high 

water). 



Feet. 

30 
37 
31 
36 
29 
18 
34 
32 
42 
26 
34 
30 
60 
30 
36 
83 
32 
42 

29 

30 

. 21 

22 



Quay 

(mean 

high 

water). 



Feet. 



30 
37 
31 
36 
34 
18 
34 
32 
50 
26 
34 
28 
33 
38 
39 
45 
35 
30 



30 
26 



Port. 



Libau, Russia 

Liverpool, England 

London, England *. . . 

Manchester Ship Canal . . 

Marseille, France 

Montreal, Canada 

Naples, Italy 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk. Va 

Ostend, Belgium 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Rotterdam, Holland .... 
St. Johns, Newfoundland 

San Francisco, Cal 

Seattle, Wash 

Southampton, England.. 

Stettin, Germany 

Stockholm, Sweden. .... 

Suez Canal, Egypt 

Toulon, France 

Trieste, Austria 



Channel 

(mean 

high: 

water). 



Quay 

(mean 

high 

water). 



Feet. 


Feet. 


22 


29 


66 


33 


42 


43 


28 


28 


55 


39 


30 


36 


33 


30 


ao 


40 


42 


50 


30 


30 


31 


38 


29 


32 


38 


38 


29 


29 


48 


54 


39 


39 


(*) 


30 to 50 


41 


43 


23 


23 


25 


22 


28 




t26 


t23 


30 


28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



213 



FROM STEAM PACKET TO STEAM PALACE. 



(1) Wood Paddle-boats. 

(2) Iron 



(3) Iron Screw Steamers. 

(4) Steel " 



(5) Steel Twin-Screw Stoamora, 



Date 


Name of Steamer. 


Owners. 


Remarks. 


1833 
1838 


Royal WiUiam. . .(1) 
Sirius 


Quebec & HalifaxS.N.Co. ] 

British and Amer.S.N.Co. . 
Great Western S.N.Co. . . . 

Transatlantic SS. Co 

Cunard Line 


From Pictou (N.S.), 1st to cross the 

Atlantic. 
From Cork, 1st departure from U. K. 


•• 
1840 


Great Western 

Royal WiUiam (2) 

Britannia 

Atlantic 


" Bristol, 1st built for Atlantic. 

" Liverpool, 1st departure. 

" Liverpool, Ist carriedBritish mails. 


1849 


Collins " 


" New York, 1st carried U.S. mails. 


1854 


Canadian 


Allan " 


* Glasgow. Ist steamer of Line. 


1856 


Temnest 


Anchor " 


1st 


It 


Borussia 


Hamburg-American Line . 
Collins Line 


" Hamburg, Ist *' * 


»* 


Adriatic 


Last Sailing of Line. 


1858 


Bremen.. 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


From Bremen to New York. 


1856 


Persia (2) 

Scotia 


Cunard 


1st Cunard iron paddle steamer. 


1862 


<t 


Last 










1845 
1850 


Great Britain. . . . (3) 

City of Glasgow 

Great £ astern. . . . 


Great Western S.N.Co. . . . 
Inman Line 


1st Atlantic iron screw steamer. 
Ist to carrv steerase Dassensrers. 


1858 




Paddle wheels and Drooeller. 


1868 


Italy 


National Line 


1st Atl&ntic SS. with comp. engines. 
1st '* " . " steam steenng gear. 
1st with'midship saloon. &c. 


1369 


City of Brussels. •. . . 

Oceanic (1st) 

Pennsylvania 

Britannic 


Inman " 


1871 


White Star Line 


1873 


■ Anierican " 


1st sailing of Line to Liverpool. 


1874 


White Star " 


1st to exceed 5.000 tons. Great Eastern 


1875 


City of Berlin 

Arizona 


Inman *' 


1st with electric light. [excepted. 
Watertight compartments floatea her. 
1st "ocean greyhound." 
Sunk outside New York; every one 


1879 


Guion. . " •. . 


1882 


Alaska 


«( t< 


1883 


Oregon 


j •* "(1) i 

1 Cunard "(2) t 






saved by N. D. Lloyd ss. Fulda. 


1879 


Buenos Ayrean. . (4) 
Servia 


Allan Line 


1st Atlantic steel steamer. 


1881 


Cunard " 


1st Cunard ** 


1884 


City of Rome 

America 


J Inman (1) Line 1 

1 Anchor(2) " f 

National " 


Fitted with three funnels. 
1st and last express ss. of Line. 


li 


Umbria I 

l Etniria ) 

Aller. . 


Cunard *' 


1st with 20 knots speed. 


1886 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


1st triole-exDansion exoress ss. 








1888 
1889 


) City of NewYork(5) 

1 City of Paria 

j Teutonic 

1 Majestic S 

Ftirst Bismarck 

La Touraine 

f Campania \ 

\ Lucania / 

f St. Paul \ 

\St. Louis / 

KaiserWilhelm d.Gr. 
Oceanic 


Inman & Internationale 1) ( 
American Line (2) | 

White Star Line 


Ist twin-screw ocean expresses. 

1st to exceed 10,000 tons,G.E.excepted 

Designed as mercantile cruisers. 


1890 
1892 


Hamburg-American Line . 
Compagnie G^nerale Trans. 
Cunard Line / 


1st under 6i days from Southampton. 
Record Havre to New York, 6i days. 
Lucania: highest day's run 562 knots. 


1893 

1895 

1897 
1899 


American f 

Norddeutscher Lloyd .... 
White Star Line 


Liverpool to New York reconls. 
Lai^est express steamers ever built in 

America. 
Record day's run, 580 knots. [tons. 
Balanced engines, 1st to exceed 15,000 


1900 
1901 


Deutschland 

Celtic 


Hamburg-American Line.. 
White Star Line 


Fastest ocean steamer in the world. 
1st to exceed 20,000 tons. 


1902 
1903 
1904 


KronprinzWilhelm 
KaiserWilhelm II.. 
Baltic 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 

Norddeutscher Lloyd 

White Star Line 


Largest express steamer in the world. 
Largest ss. in the world — 726x76x49. 
1st fitted with turbine engines. 


ft k 


Victorian 


Allan liine. . t 


1907 


Lusitania 


Cunard Line f 


Fastest in the world. Fitted with 


<4 


Mauretania 

Olvmoic 


it ti 


turbine engines. Record day's run, 


1911 


White Star Line 

•Hamburg-American Line . 


Mauretania. 676 knots. 


1913 


Imperator 


This IS the largest vessel in the world. 




IF ONLY WE COULD ¥L\' THE ATLANTIC. 
ONE WAY BY 'WHICH THE ICEBERG DANGER WOULD BE 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



215 



STEAMSHIP RECORDS. 
Compiled and Revised by A. W. Lewis, Chief. of the Ship News of ihj "Associated Press." 



QUEENSTOWN RECORDS SINCE 1880. 



WESTWARD. 



Date. Steamer. 

1880 Arizona 

1882 Alaska 

1884 Oregon 

1385 Etnirla 

1887 Umbria 

1888 Etruria 

1889 City of Paris 
1891 Majestic 

1891 Teutonic 

1892 City of Ptris 
1894 Campania 

1894 Lucanla 

1895 Campania 
1898 Etruria 
1907 Lusitania 

1907 Mauretania 

1908 Lusitania 

1909 Mauretania 
1909 Lusitania 

1909 Mauretania 

1910 Mauretania 



Line. 
Guion 
Guion 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
In man 
White Star 
White Star 
American 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 



d. 

7 

7 

6 

6 

6 

6 

5 

5 

6 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

5 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 



h. m. 

10 47 

6 43 
9 42 
5 SI 
4 42 
1 55 

19 18 
18 8 
16 31 

14 24 
9 27 

7 23 
9 6* 

20 55 
18 40 

55 

15 
15 55 

11 ♦42 
10 51 
10 •41 



QUEENSTOWN RECORDS SINCE 1882. 



1882 
1884 
1884 
1887 
1889 
1889 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1893 
1893 
1893 
1894 
1894 
1891 
1907 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1911 



Alaska 

America 

Oregon 

Etruria 

City of Paris 

City of Paris 

Teutonic 

City of New York 

Campania 

Campania 

Campania 

Lucania 

Campania 

Lucania 

Lucania 

Lusitania 

Mauretania 

Lusitania 

Mauretania 

Mauretania 

Lusitania 

Lusitania 



EASTWARD. 
Guion 



National 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Inman 

Inman 

White Star 

American 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Cunard 



6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 

•4 
4 

•4 



18 37 

14 8 

11 9 
4 36 

23 38 

22 50 

21 3 

19 57 
17 27 

14 55 

12 7 

13 30 
9 19 

13 11 

8 38 

22 50 
22 29 
22 43 
17 21 
13 41 

15 52 

15 50 



SOUTHAMPTON RECORDS SINCE 1890. 

EASTWARD. 
1890 Columbia Hamburg Amer- 

ican 6 15 

1893 FUrst Bismarck Hamburg Amer- 
ican 6 10 56 
1897 St. Louis American 6 10 14 
1897 Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, 

North German Lloyd. 5 17 8 

SOUTHAMPTON RECORDS SINCE 1892 



WESTWARD. 

North German 

Lloyd 
American 
American 
American 
American 



1892 Lahn 

1893 Paris 

1894 New York 
1896 St. Louis 
1896 St. Paul 
1S97 Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 

(North German Lloyd) 
1898 Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 

(North German Lloyd) 
1910 Kaiser Wilhelm H 

Copyright 1913. by Munn A Co.. Inc. 



6 22 
6 9 37 

7 

2 





6 
6 
6 



14 
24 
31 



5 22 35 



6 
5 



20 10 
18 48 



RECORD OF S. S. MAURETANIA. 

(Cunard Line.) 

WESTWARD. 



Date. 

1907, Dec. 
1909, July 

1909, Sept. 

1910, Sept. 



d. 

5 
4 
4 
4 



h. 


15 
10 
10 



xa 

55 

66 

61 

•41 



4 


18 


40 


4 


16 





4 


11 


•42 


4 


22 


50 


4 


22 


43 


4 


15 


52 


4 


15 


•50 



6 


16 





6 


U 


9 


5 


10 


•23 


6 


11 


5 


5 


8 


7 


5 


7 


♦25 



From Queenstown 
Prom Queenstown 
From Queenstown 
From Queenstown 

* Record. 

EASTWARD. 
1907, Dec. To Queenstown 4 22 29 

1909, June To Queenstown 4 17 21 

1909, Sept. To Queenstown 4 13 *41 

RECORD OF S. S. LUSITANIA. 

(Cunard Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1907, Nov. From Queenstown 

1908, Aug. From Queenstown 

1909, Sept. From Queenstown 

* Record. 

EASTWARD. 

1907, Nov. To Queenstown 

1908, Oct. To Queenstown 

1909, Oct. To Queenstown 

1911, Jan. To Queenstown 

RECORD OF 

S. S. KRONPRINZESSIN CECILIE. 

(North German Lloyd Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1908, Jan. From Cherbourg 

1908, Aug. From Cherbourg 

1910, Sept. From Cherbourg 

EASTWARD. 

1907, Aug. To Plymouth 

1908, Sept. To Plymouth 

1909, Sept. To Plymouth 

RECORD OF S. S. LA PROVENCE. 

Frendi Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1906, April From Havre (first trip) 6 9 10 

1906, May From Havre 6 3 35 

1906, July From Havre 6 3 10 

1906, Sept. Prom Havre 6 2 15 

1907. Sept. Prom Havre 6 1 '3 

EASTWARD. 
1906, May To Havre 6 4 40 

1906, June To Havre 6 2 •48 

RECORD OF S. S. FRANCE. 
(French Line.) 
WESTWARD. 

1912, Apl. 26 Prom Havre 

(First trip) 
1912, May From Havre 

1912, Aug. From Havre 
1912, Sept. From Havre 

EASTWARD. 
1912, May To Havre 

(First trip east) 
1912, Aug. To Havre 

RECORD OF S. S. KAISER WILHELM II. 
(North German Lloyd Line;) 
WESTWARD. 
1903, April From Cherbourg 

1903, Aug. From Cherbourg 

1904, Nov. From Cherbourg 
1909, Nov. From Cherbourg 

EASTWARD. 
1903, May To Plymouth 

1903, Aug. To Plymouth 

1904, Oct. To Plymouth 

* Record. 



6 


2 


31 


5 


• 23 


58 


5 


22 


46 


5 


22 





5 


20 


2 


5 


16 


48 



6 


23 





5 


15 


10 


5 


12 


25 


5 


12 


*8 


6 


1 


30 


6 


10 


42 


6 


8 


•20 



216 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STEAMSHIP RECORDS— Continued. 



RECORD OF 

S. S. KRONPRINZ WILHELM. 

(North German Lloyd Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

Date d. 1 

1901, Sept. From Cherbourg 

(First trip) 6 



1901, Oct. Prom Cherbourg 6 

1901. Nov. From Cherbourg 5 

1901. Dec. From Cherbourg 5 

1902, Sept. From Cherbourg 5 

EASTWARD. 

1901, Oct. To Plymouth 5 

1901, Nov. To Plymouth 6 



10 
21 
19 
15 
11 

9 

8 



m. 

15 

10 

6 

45 

*57 

48 
•18 



5 


16 


24 


5 


12 


29 


6 


12 


23 


5 


11 


54 


5 


15 


6 


6 


11 


45 


5 


7 


38 



RECORD OF 

THE OLD S. S. DEUTSCHLAND 

( Hamburg- American Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1900, July From Plymouth 

(First Trip) 5 

1900, Sept. From Cherbourg 

1901, Aug. From Cherbourg 
1903, Sfept. From Cherbourg 

EASTWARD. 
1900, July To Plymouth 
1900, Aug. To Plymouth 
1900, Sept. To Plymouth 
1900, Sept. To Cherbourg via 

Plymouth 5 13 30 

Her speedy machinery has been removed 

and she is now a superb cruising yacht of 

comparatively low speed and is the "Victoria 

Lulse." 

RECORD OF S. S. " IMPERATOR." 

WESTWARD. 
1913, June- From Cherbourg 

(First trip) 
1913, July From Cherbourg 
1913, Aug. From Cherbourg 

EASTWARD. 
1913, July To Plymouth 

(First trip east) 
1913, July To Plymouth 



6 


5 


14 


5 


21 


30 


5 


19 


8 


6 


1 


28 


5 


18 


24 



RECORD OF 

S. S. KAISER WILHELM DER GROSSE. 

( North .German Lloyd Line.) 



Date 
1897, Oct. 
1897, Nov. 
1899, July 

1899, Sept. 

1900, Jan. 

1901, Oct. 



EASTWARD. 

To Plymouth 
To Southampton 
To Cherbourg 
To Cherbourg 
To Cherbourg 
To Plymouth 



d. 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 



WESTWARD. 



1897, Sept. From 

1898, April From 

1899, Mar. From 
1899, Sept. From 
1899, Oct. From 
1899, Nov. From 
1901, Oct. From 

1901, Nov. From 

1902, April From 
1902, Sept. From 

♦Record. 



Southampton 

(First Trip) 5 

Southampton 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 6 

Cherbourg 6 

Cherbourg 5 



h. 
16 
17 
20 
17 
15 
10 



22 
20 
21 

18 
17 
17 
17 
16 
18 
15 



RECORD OF S. S. " OLYMPIC." 
WESTWARD. 



1911, June From Queenstown 

(First trip) 5 

1911, July From Queenstown 5 

1911, Aug. From Queenstown 5 

1911, Sept. From Queenstown 6 

EASTWARD. 

1911, July To Plymouth 

(First trip east) 5 

1911, Aug. To Plymouth 5 

1911, Sept. To Plymouth 5 

1911, Dec. To Plymouth 6 



15 

13 

12 

7 



m. 
10 
8 
56 
M 
60 
•0 



85 
10 
8 
15 
48 
87 
28 
84 
46 
♦20 



6 
23 
29 



18 


SO 


17 


46 


14 


32 


12 


16 



PROPORTIONAL STEAMSHIP SPEEDS. 





Miles 


Feet 


Feet 




MUes 


Feet 


Feet 


Knots. 


per 
Hour. 


per 
Minute. 


per 
Second 


Knots. 


per 
Hour. 


per 
Minute. 


per 
Second. 


1 


1.151 


101.333 


1.689 


13i 


15.545 


1,368.000 


22.800 


U 


1.727 


152.000 


2.533 


14 


16.121 


1,418.666 


23.644 


2 


2.303 


202.666 


3.378 


Hi 


16.696 


1,469.333 


24.488 


2i 


2.879 


253.333 


4.222 


15 


17.273 


1,520.000 


25.333 


3 


3.454 


304.000 


5.066 


15^ 


. 17.848 


1,570.666 


26.177 


3i 


4.030 


354.666 


5.911 


16 


18.424 


1,621.333 


27.022 


4 


. 4.606 


405.333 


6.755 


16^ 


19.000 


1,672.000 


27.866 


4i 


6.181 


456.000 


7.600 


17 


19.575 


1,722.666 


28.711 


5 


6.757 


506.666 


8.444 


17i 


20.151 


1,773.333 


29.555 


5i 


6.333 


557.333 


9.288 


18 


20.727 


1,824.000 


30.400 


6 


6.909 


608.000 


10.133 


18i 


21.303 


1,874.666 


31.244 


6i 


7.484 


658.666 


10.972 


19 


21.878 


1,925.333 


32.088 


7 


8.060 


709.333 


11.822 


19^ 


22.454 


1,976.000 


32.933 


7i 


8.636 


760.000 


12.666 


20 


23.030 


2,026.666 


33.777 


8 


9.212 


810.666 


13.511 


20i 


23.606 


2,077.333 


34.622 


8i 


9.787 


861.333 


14.355 


21 


24.181 


. 2,128.000 


35.466 


9 


10.363 


912.000 


15.200 


2U 


24.757 


2,178.666 


36.311 


9h 


10.939 


962.666 


16.044 


22 


25.333 


2,229.333 


37.154 


10 


11.515 


1,013.333 


16.888 


22i 


25.909 


2,280.000 


37.998 


10^ 


12.091 


1,064.000 


17.732 


23 


26.485 


2,330.666 


38.842 


11 


12.666 


1,114.666 


18.577 


23i 


27.060 


2,381.333 


39.687 


lU 


13.242 


1,165.333 


19.421 


24 


27.636 


2,432.000 


40.532 


12 


13.818 


1,216.000 


20.266 


24i 


28.212 


2,482.666 


41.376 


12i 


14.394 


1.266.666 


21.111 


25 


28.787 


2,533.333 


42.220 


13 


14.969 


1,317.333 


21.955 


26 


29.938 


2.634.666 


43.910 



Copyright 1913, by Munn & Co.. Inc. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 317 




ipiiyrlKhe 190!i by Munn * Cn, 
THE DEVELOPMENT Oi' 

The " Half Moon" of 1809, il 
□f 1807 made 4* knoU. "' ■ 
The engine and boiler roc 



PAST THREE CICNTliKIRS. 

.. ahouteknota. The "Cleimor.t," 
ined the Atlantic at a 29-knot gait, 

xvBTtabfp on f^e dcek above witb her bull and 



218 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DISTANCES IN KNOTS OR NAUTICAL MILES. 



Short Track — ^Aug. 24 to Jan. 14, East. 

Aug. 15 to Jan. 14, West. 
Long Track — Jan. 15 to Aug. 23, East. 

Jan. 15 to Aug. 14, West. 

Ambrose Channel Lightship* and — 

Alexandria, Egjrpt 

Antwerp 

Azores (Ponta del Gada) 

Bremen 

Brow Head 

Cape Race 

Cherbouig 

Dover 

Faatnet 

Fire Island Lightship 

Flushing 

Genoa .- 

Gibraltar 

Hamburg 

Havre 

Liverpool (Landing Stage) 

Lizard Point 

London (Tilbury Docks) 

Nantucket Lightship 

Naples 

Needles 

Newfoundland (Banks of) 

Pljonouth 

Queenstown 

Roche's Point 

Rotterdam 

Scilly Islands (Bishop Rock) 

Souuiampton (Docks) 

Philadelphia to Delaware Breakwater, 88 miles. 
Delaware Breakwater and — 

Antwerp 

Fastnet 

Flushing 

Gravesend 

Liverpool (Landing Stage) 

Lizard Point 

London (Tilbury Docks) 

Nantucket Lightship 

Newfoundland (Banks of) 

Boston (Dock) to Boston Light, 16 miles. 
Boston Light and — 

Antwerp 

Azores (Ponta del Gada) 

Brow Head 

Gibraltar 

Liverpool (Landing Stage . ) 

Queenstown 

Montreal and — 

Antwerp 

Liverpool (Landing Stage) 

London (Tilbury Docks) 

Quebec 

Portland to — 

Halifax 

Liverpool 

New Orleans to^— 

Liverpool (Landing Stage) 

London (Tilbury Docks) 



EASTBOUND 



Short Long 
Track Track 



4,952 
3,323 
2,227 
3,663 
2,744 

998 
3,073 
3,190 
2,751 
29 
3,278 
4,021 
3,168 
3,511 
3,145 
3,033 
2,929 
3,257 

193 
4,116 
3,073 

935 
2,978 
2,814 
2.810 
3,327 
2,880 
3,095 



3,397 
2,825 
3,352 
3,335 
3,116 
3,002 
3,336 
277 
1,009 



3,161 
2,064 
2,583 
3,048 
2,882 
2,652 



3,150 

2,755 

3,082 

155 



326 
2,862 



4.465 
4,676 



4,962 
3,432 
2,231 
3,692 
2,869 

3482 
3,299 
2,876 

• ■ • • 

3,387 
4,031 
3,178 
3,621 
3,246 
3,158 
3,038 
3,366 

4,i26 
3,182 

• • • ■ 

3,087 
2,939 
2,935 
3.436 
2,989 
3,204 



3,506 
2,950 
3,461 
3,444 
3,241 
3.111 
3,445 

• • • • 



3.280 
2,078 
2,718 
3,062 
3,017 
2,787 



3,254 
2,968 
3,186 



2.985 



4.465 
4.676 



WESTBOUND 



Short 
Track 



4.945 
3.296 
2.221 
3,536 
2,717 

3,046 
3,163 
2,724 

3,26i 
4,013 
3,160 
3,485 
3.110 
3,015 
2,902 
3,230 

• • ■ • 

4,108 
3,046 

■ • • • 

2,951 
2,787 
2,783 
3,300 
2,853 
3,068 



3,379 
2,807 
3,334 
3,313 
3,098 
2,985 
3,314 



3,126 
2.064 
2.548 
3.048 
2,947 
2,617 



3,150 
2,755 
3,082 



2,819 



4,465 
4,676 



Long 
Track 



4,954 
3,389 
2,230 
3,629 
2,823 

• • • • 

3,139 
3,259 
2.830 

• • • ■ 

3,344 
4,023 
3,170 
3,578 
3,205 
3,124 
2,995 
3,326 

4,ii8 

3,139 

3,047 
2,893 
2,889 
3,393 
2,946 
3,161 



3,472 
2,913 
3,427 
3,409 
3,204 
3,078 
3.410 



3.233 
2,078 
2,668 
3,062 
2,967 
2,737 



3.254 
2.968 
3.186 



2,935 



4,465 
4,676 



♦New York (Battery) to Ambrose Channel Lightship, 25 miles. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



219 



MARINE DISASTERS. 



Among the marine disasters on record 
that have resulted in the loss of Ufe are: 

1860, Feb. 19. — American ship Luna 
wrecked off Barfleur; about 100 hves lost. 

1860, Sept. 8. — Steamer Lady Elgin sunk 
by collision on Lake Michigan; 287 lives lost. 

1863, Feb. 7. — British steamer Orpheus 
wrecked off coast of New Zealand; about 200 
lives lost. 

1863, April 27. — Steamer Anglo-Saxon 
wrecked in fog off Cape Race, N. F.; about 
237 lives lost. 

1865, Aug. 24. — Emigrant ship Eagle Speed 
foundered near Calcutta; 265 lives lost. 

1866, Jan. 11. — Steamer London, on her 
way to Melbourne, foundered in the Bay of 
Biscay; 220 lives lost. 

1866, Oct. 3. — Steamer Evening Star from 
New York to New Orleans, foundered ; about 
250 lives lost. 

1867, Oct. 29 — Royal Mail Steamers Rhone 
and Wye and about fifty other vessels driven 
ashore and wrecked at St. Thomas, West In- 
dies, by a hurricane; about 1,000 lives lost. 

1868, April 9. — Steamer Sea Bird burned 
on Lake Michigan; 100 lives lost. 

1869, Oct. 27. — Steamer Stonewall burned 
below Cairo, 111. ; 200 lives lost. 

1870, Jan. 28. — Inman Line steamer City of 
Boston, left New York with 117 passengers 
and was never heard from. 

1870, Sept. 7. — British warship Captain 
foundered off Finisterre; 472 lives lost. 

1870, Oct. 19. — Steamer Cambria lost off 
Inishtrahul; about 170 lives lost. 

1871, July 30. — Staten Island ferryboat 
Westfield exploded in New York Harbor; 100 
hves lost. 

1873, Jan. 22. — British steamer Northfleet, 
sunk in collision off Dungeness; 300 lives lost. 

1873, Nov. 23.— White Star Uner Atlantic 
wrecked off Nova Scotia; 547 lives lost. 

1873, Nov. 23. — French Line steamer Ville 
du Havre, from New York to Havre, in col- 
lision with ship Loch Earn, sank in sixteen 
minutes; 110 hves lost. 

1874, Dec. 26. — Immigrant vessel Cospat- 
rick took fire and sank off Auckland ; 476 hves 
lost. 

1875, May 7. — Hamburg mail steamer 
Schiller wrecked in fog on Scilly Isles; 200 
Uves lost. 

1875, Nov. 4. — American steamer Pacific in 
collision thirty miles southwest of Cape Flat- 
tery; 236 lives lost. 

1875, Dec. 6. — Steamer Deutschland 
wrecked at mouth of the Thames; 157 lives 
lost. 

1877, July 15. — British steamer Eten 
wrecked off Valparaiso; about 100 lives lost. 

1877, Nov. — Steamer Atacama wrecked off 
Caldera, Chile; 105 lives lost. 

1877, Nov. 24.— United States Sloop of War 
Huron wrecked off North Carolina coast; 110 
lives lost. 

1878, Jan. 31. — Steamer Metropolis wrecked 
off North Carolina; 104 Uves lost. 

1878, March 24. — British training ship 
Euryd>;e, a frigate, foundered near the Isle of 
Wight; 300 Uves lost. 

1878, Sept. 3. — Brttish iron steamer Prin- 
cess Alice sunk in colUsion in the Thames ; 700 
Uves lost. 



1878, Nov. 25.-^teamer Pomerania sunk 
in midnight collision with a bark in the 
English Channel; 47 lives lost. 

1878, Dec. 18. — French steamer Bjrzantin 
sunk in colUsion in the DardaneUes with the 
British steamer Rinaldo; 210 lives lost. 

1879, Dec. 2. — Steamer Borusia sunk off 
coast of Spain; 174 Uves lost. 

1880, Jan. 31. — British training ship At- 
lanta, left Bermuda with 290 men and was 
never heard from. 

1880, Nov. 24. — French steamer Oncle 
Joseph sank by colUsion off Spezsia; •250 
Uves lost. 

1881, May 24. — Steamer Victoria capsized 
in Thames River, Canada; 200 Uves lost. 

1881, Aug. 30. — ^Steamer Teuton wrecked 
off the Cape of Good Hope; 200 Uves lost. 

1883, Ji^ 3. — Steamer Daphne turned tur- 
tle in the Clyde; 124 lives lost. 

1884, Jan. 18. — American steamer City of 
Columbus wrecked off Gay Head Light, Mass. ; 
99 lives lost. 

1884, April 3. — Steamer Daniel Steinman 
wrecked on Sambro Head, N. S.; 131 Uves 
lost. 

1884, April 19. — Bark Ponema and steam- 
ship State of Florida sank in midocean after 
collision; 145 Uves lost. 

1884, July 23. — Spanish steamer Gijon and 
British steamer Lux in collision off Finistere; 
150 lives lost. 

1886, March 14. — Steamship Oregon, Cu- 
nard Line, run into by unknown steamer, 
eighteen miles east of Long Island, sank eight 
hours afterward; no lives lost. 

1887, Jan. 29. — Steamer Kapunda in col- 
Usion with bark Ada Melore off coast of Brazil ; 
300 Uves lost. 

1887, Nov. 15.— British steamer Wah 
Young caught fire between Canton and Hong- 
kong; 400 lives lost. 

1887, Nov. 19. — Steamer W. A. Scholten 
sunk by colUsion in the EngUsh Channel; 
134 Uves lost. 

1888, Aug. 14. — Steamship Geiser sunk by 
colUsion with the ThingvaUa; 105 Uves lost. 

1888, Sept. 13. — Italian steamship Sud 
America and steamship La France in collision 
near the Canary Islands; 89 lives lost. 

1889, March 16. — United States warship 
Trenton, Vandalia, and Nipsic and German 
ships Adler and Eber wrecked on Samoan 
Islands; 147 lives lost. 

1890, Jan. 2. — Steamer Persia wrecked off 
Corsica; 130 lives lost. 

1890, Feb. 17. — British steamer Duburg 
wrecked in China sea; 400 Uves lost. . 

1890, March 1. -^British steamship Quetia 
foundered in Torres Straits; 124 Uves lost. 

1890, Sept. 19.— Turkish frigate Ertogrul 
foundered off Japan; 540 Uves lost. 

1890, Dec. 27. — British steamer Shanghai 
burned in China Sea; 101 Uves lost. 

1891, March 17. — Anchor liner Utopia in 
coUision with British steamer Anson off Gi- 
braltar and sunk; 574 Uves lost. 

1891, April 16.— British ship St. Catharis 
wrecked off Caroline Island; 90 Uves lost. 

1892, Jan. 13. — Steamer Namehow wrecked 
in China Sea; 414 Uves lost. 

1892, Oct. 28. — Anchor Uner Romania 
wrecked off Corsica; 113 Uves lost. 



220 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MARINE DISASTERS— Continued. 



1893, Feb. 8.— Anchor Line Trinalria 
wrecked off Spain; 115 lives lost. 

1893, Feb. 11.— Steamer Naronic, White 
Star Line, lost on the Atlantic and never 
heard from; 74 lives lost. 

1893, June 22.— British battleship Victoria 
sunk in collision with the Camperdown off 
Syria; 357 lives lost. 

1894, Nov. 1. — Steamer Wairaro wrecked 
off New Zealand; 134 Lives lost. 

1895, Jan. 30. — German steamer Elbe sunk 
in CQllision with British steamer Crathie in 
NorUi Sea; 335 lives lost. 

1895, March 11.;— Spanish cruiser Reina Re- 

Senta foundered in Atlantic at entrance to 
Mediterranean; 400 lives lost. 

1895, May 28. — French steamer Dom 
Pedro wrecked off coast of Galacia; about 
100 lives lost. 

1896, June 17. — Steamer Drummond Castle 
wrecked off Brest, France; about 250 lives 
lost. 

1897, March 7.— Steamship Ville de St. 
Nazaire, French Line, burned in a storm off 
Cape Hatteras; 40 lives lost. 

1898, July 2. — Steamship La Bourgoyne 
rammed British steel sailing vessel Cromarty- 
shire and sank rapidly; 584 lives lost. 

1904, June 15. — Gen. Slociun, excursion 
steamboat, with 1,400 persons aboard; took 
fire going through Hell Gate, East River; 
more than 1,000 lives lost. 

1904, July 3. — Steamship Norge foundered 
at sea; 519 lives lost. 

1905, Sept. 12. — Japanese warship Mikasa 
sunk after explosion m Sasebo Harbor; 599 
lives lost. 

1907, Feb. 12. — Steamship Larchmont in 
collision with Harry Hamilton in Long Island 
Sound; 183 lives lost. 

1907, Feb. 21. — English mail steamship 
Berlin wrecked off the Hook of Holland; 142 
lives lost. 

1907, Feb. 24. — Austrian Lloyd steamship 
Imperatrix, from Trieste to Bombay, wrecked 
on Cape of Crete and sunk; 137 lives lost. 

1907, Januarv. — British steam.ship Pen- 
gwem foundered in the North Sea; crew and 
24 men lost. 

1907, January. — Prinz Waldemar, Ham- 
burg-American Line, aground at Kingston, 
Jamaica after earthquake; 3 lives lost. 

19P7, Februaiy . — French warship Jean Bart 
sunk off 'coast of Morocco. 

1907, March. — Steamship Congo sunk at 
mouth of Ems River by German steamship 
Nerissa; 7 lives lost. 

1907, March. — French warship Jena blown 
up at Toulon; 120 lives lost. 

1907, Jime.— Steamship Aden sunk off So- 
cotra, on the east coast of Africa; 78 lives lost. 

1907, July. — Steamship Columbia sunk off 
Shelton Cove, Cal., in collision with steamship 
San Pedro; 50 lives lost. 

1908, Feb. 3.— Steamship St. Cuthbert, 
bound from Antwerp to New York, burned at 
sea off Nova Scotia; 15 lives lost. 



1908, April 25. — British cruiser Gladiator 
rammed by American liner St. Paul off Isle of 
Wight; 30 lives lost. 

1908, July. — Chinese warship Ying King 
foundered; 300 lives lost. 

1908, Aug. 9. — Steamship Prudentia lost on 
voyage to Argentina. 

1908, Aug. 23. — Norwegian steamship Fol- 
gefouden sunk; many lives lost. 

1908, Nov. 5. — Steamship Archimedes lost 
in Baltic Sea; 10 drowned. 

1908, Nov. 26. — Steamship Finance sunk 
by steamship Geologic off Sandy Hook; 4 lives 
lost. 

1908, Nov. 6. — Steamship Taish sunk in 
storm off Etoro Island; 150 lives lost. 

1908, Nov. 27.— Steamship San Pablo sunk 
off Philippine Islands; 100 lives lost. 

1908, Dec. 13.— Steamship Ginsei Maru 
wrecked off Wei-Hai-Wai ana crew and pas- 
sengers drowned. 

1908, Dec. 4. — Steamship Soo City found- 
ered off Newfoundland; crew lost. 

1909, Jan. 24. — Steamship Republic ram- 
med off Nantucket by steamship Florida; 8 
lives lost in collision; vessel sank; help re- 
ceived by wireless. 

1911, Feb. 2. — Steamship Abenton wrecked 
70 lives lost. 

1911, April 23. — Steamship Asia ran 
aground; 40 lives lost. 

1911, Sept 5. — Steamship Tuscapel wrecked 
81 lives lost. 

1911, Oct. 2.— Steamship Hatfield in col- 
lision and sunk; 20 lives lost. 

1911, April 2. — Steamship Koombuna 
wrecked; 150 lives lost. 

1912, Jan. 18.— Wistow Hall, British 
steamer, foundered off coast of Aberdeenshire, 
Scotland; 53 drowned. 

1912, Feb. 13. — Ryoha Maru and Mori 
Maru, Japanese steamers, sunk in collision 
off Nagasaki; 46 lives lost. 

1912, March 21. — Steamship Cachepol sunk 
after an explosion of her boilers, off the west 
coast of Peru; 70 lives lost. 

1912, April 8. — Nile excursion steamer sunk 
in collision near Cairo, Egypt; 200 lives lost. 

1912, April 15. — Steamship Titanic, White 
Star Line, struck an iceberg and sank; 1,517 
lives lost. 

1912, April 30.~Coasting boat Texas, 
Archipelago Steamship Company, sUnk by a 
submarine mine at the entrance to Smyrna 
Bay; 69 lives lost. 

1912, Sept. 23. — Russian steamer Obnevka 
sunk in Dvina River; 115 lives lost. 

1913, Jan. 8. — Steamer Rosecrans sunk with 
33 men on Pacific Coast. 

1913, May 22. — French Messageries liiari- 
times liner S^n^gal blown up by a mine in 
the Port of Smyrna; about 200 lives lost. 

1913, May 26. — Steamship Nevada blown 
up by a mine in the Port of Smyrna; about 
245 lives lost. 

1913, Aug. 18. — State of California, steamer 
struck rock in Alaskan Sea and sank almost 
immediately; 32 perished. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



221 



Operations of the United States 
Life-Savin Q Service. 

During the year ending June 30, 1912, a 
total of 1,730 vessels were reported by keepers 
of life-eaving stations as having sustained 
casualties, more or less serious, within the 
field of service operations. Of these vessels, 
455 were documented and 1,275 undocu- 
mented, the latter class comprising launches, 
sailboats, rowboats, etc. 

Of the 455 documented vessels, 46 were lost; 
of the 3,731 persons on board, 6 were lost; 
280 persons were succored at stations and 
612 oays' succor was afforded. The value 
of the vessels involved was $9,396,480; value 
of cargoes, $2,499,725; total value of property 
involved, $11,896,205; value of property 
saved. $9,860,995; value of property lost, 
$2,035,210. 

Of the 1,275 undocumented vessels, 13 
were totally lost; of the 3,462 persons on 
board, 10 perished, 164 persons were succored 
ac stations and ^2 days' succor was afforded. 
The value of the vessels involved was 
$1,314,420; value of cargoes, $37,680; total 
value of property involved, $1,352,100; value 
of property saved, $1,294,175; value of proper- 
ty lost, $57,925. 

Of coursci these figures do not represent 
the entire amount saved by the service. A 
considerable portion was saved by salvage 
companies, wrecking tugs and other instru- 
mentalities, often working in conjunction with 
the seamen. It is equally impossible to give 
an approximate estimate of the number of 
lives saved. Often a vessel with a long 
passenger list and a large cargo was saved 
only by the warning signals of the patrolman, 
while in many cases, either where vessels 
suffered actual loss or where thev were warned 
of danger, no loss of life would have resulted, 
even though no aid had been rendered. 

General Summary of Operations 
Since the Introduction of the 
Present Life -Saving System, 
1871-1912. 

Since the introduction of the present life- 
saving system, the disasters at sea have 
totaled 24,441, and the number of persons 
involved 159,332, this number including per- 
sons rescued not connected with vessels in- 
volved in disaster. The number of lives lost 
was 1,330. Eighty-five of these were lost at. 
the disaster to the steamer "Metropolis" in 
1877-78, when service was impeded by dis- 
tance, and fourteen others in the same year 
owing to similar causes. The number of 
persons succored at stations, inclusive of those 
not connected with vessels involved in dis- 
aster, was 24,201, and the days' succor 
afforded was 54,516. 

The total value of the vessels involved in 
disaster was $231,360,845, of which amount 
$86,909,229 represented the value of cargoes 
involved. $256,228,037 was saved and 
$62,042,037 was lost. 

United States Steamboat Inspec- 
tion Service. 

This service is now under the jurisdiction 
of the Department of Commerce and Labor. 
The Supervising-Inspector General reported 



that for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, 
the number of annual certificates of inspection 
issued to domestic steam, motor, sailing 
vessels and barges, was 7,398; number of 
certificates issued to foreign passenger steam 
vessels 438, making a total of 7,836. The 
number of new life preservers inspected was 
244,565, of which number 2,750 were rejected. 
3,786 marine boiler plates were tested at the 
mills by assistant inspectors. There were 
7,616 applicants for original and renewal of 
licenses examined for color-blindness, 206 
of whom were found color blind and rejected. 
During the year there were 3 accidents caused 
by fire, resulting in the loss of 4 lives; 17 
collisions in which 31 lives were lost; 8 ex- 
plosions or accidental escape of steam, result- 
ing in the loss of 14 lives; 32 killed as a cause 
of 1 1 accidents from striking snags, wrecks and 
sinking; 139 cases of accidental drowning and 
44 deaths by miscellaneous accidents. During 
the fiscal year 307,692,494 passengers were 
carried on steam vessels that are required by 
law to report the number of passen^ters 
carried. Taking the total number of lives 
lost as 264, it is seen that 1,165,501 passen- 
gers were carried for each life lost, whether of 
passengers or crew, and from all causes. 

United States Revenue Cttter 
Service. 

The United States Revenue Cutter Service, 
organized in 1790, is a military arm of the 
Government attached to ana under the 
direction of the Treasury Department. It 
is charged with the enforcement of the navi- 
gation and customs laws of the United States, 
the assistance of vessels in distress, the pro- 
tection of the sealing industry in Alaska, 
the enforcement of quarantine laws, the 
destruction of derelicts and other dann^ers 
to navigation and numerous other duties. 
There are in the service 228 commissioned 
officers and cadets and 1,500 petty officers 
and enlisted men. 43 vessels, including 2 
tug-boats and 6 launches, are used in the 
service. 

Coal Consumption of Ocean 
Steamers. 

The amount of coal consumed by a steam- 
ship increases much faster than ^e rate of 
increase of speed. This is shown in the fol- 
lowing table, which applies to a "typical ves- 
sel" of 10,000 gross tons. 





Tons of 


Number 






Coal Con- 


of 


Mileage 




sumed 


Firemen 


per 
Year. 


dots. 


per Day. 


Required. 


10 


44 


15 


42,000 


11 


53 


18 


46,200 


12 


65 


22 


60,400 


13 


79 


26 


54,600 


14 


96 


32 


58.800 


•15 


117 


39 


63,000 


16 


144 


48 


67,200 


17 


173 


58 


71,400 


18 


209 


70 


75.600 


19 


254 


85 


79,800 


20 


305 


102 


84,000 


21 


371 


127 


88,200 



222 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AROUND THE WORLD IN THIRTY-SIX DAYS. 



When Jules Verne wrote his fas- 
cinating story, ** Around the World in 
80 Days," he probably did not realize 
that within a comparatively short pe- 
riod this trip could be made in much 
abbreviated time. In fact Phineas 
Fogg could now make the complete 
circuit of the earth in slightly less 
than thirty-six days. 

Numerous attempts have been made 
to beat the fictional record of Phineas 
Fogg by both men and women. The 
first of these journeys around the world 
against time was made in 1889 by 
Nellie Bly in 72 days 6 hours 11 min- 
utes and 14 seconds. Geo. Francis 
Train made the trip in 1890 in 67 
days 12 hours and 3 minutes. In 
1901 Charles Fitzmorris made the trip 
in 60 days 13 hours 29 minutes and 42 
2-5 seconds, in the race of schoolboys 
conducted by the Hearst papers. 

Fitzmorris left Chicago May 20, 1901 

New York May 22, 1901 

Berlin May 30, 1901 

Moscow June 1, 1901 

Irkutsk June 10, 1901 

Stretensk.SiberiaJune 13, 1901 
Blagoveschensk June 21, 1901 
Vladivostok. . . .June 27, 1901 

Yokohama July 5, 1901 

Victoria, B. C.July 16, 1901 

Arrived in Chicago July 20, 1901 

The first record breaker to use the 
Trans-Siberian Railway was Henry 
Frederick, who in 1903 made the cir- 
cuit in 54 days 7 hours 20 minutes. 
In 1907 Col. Burnley Campbell re- 
duced the time to 40 days 19 hours 
SO minutes. In 1911 Andrew Jaeger- 
Schmidt made a record-breaking trip, 
the elapsed time being 39 days 19 
hours 42 minutes 37 4-5 seconds. 

July 17, 1911, 1:15 P.M., left Paris, 

July 20, Moscow, 

July 22, Omsk, 

July 25, Irkutsk, 

July 28, Harbin 

July 29, Vladivostok, 

July 31, Yokohama, 

Aug. 12, Vancouver, 

Aug. 18, Montreal, 

Aug. 19, New York 

Aug. 26, Paris. 

This trip cost $1,426. Of this 
amount only $596 was spent for rail- 
road fare and transportation, while 
$600 went in tips and gratuities. 



The record of Jaeger-Schmidt was 
broken in 1913 by John Henry 
Mears by 3 days 22 hours and 37 
seconds. Mears made the world trip 
of 21,066 miles in 35 days 21 hours 
35 minutes and 4-5 seconds, thus 
traveling at an average speed of 587 
miles a day or 24 H miles an hour. 
Jaeger-Schmidt had traveled 19,300 
miles at an average- daily rate of 480 
miles, or 20 miles an hour. 

Mears left New York July 2, at 12.45 a.m. 

Berlin July 9 

St. Petersburg. July 12 

Harbin Jiily21 

Yokohama . . .July 24 

Victoria Aug. 2 

St. Paul Aug. 5 

Chicago Aug. 5 

Arrived in New York; . . .Aug. 6, at 10.20 p.m. 

During the entire trip Mr. Mears 
slept in a hotel but once, and that 
was for two hours in London. The 
trip cost less than $800 ; this includes 
the liberal tips he distributed along 
the way and the money he spent in 
bribing the engine crew on the Trans- 
Siberian Railway. 

An interesting feature of the trip 
was the flight of fifteen miles in an 
hydroaeroplane over Puget Sound 
from a yacht to Seattle. Mr. Mears 
stated after his trip that in order to 
break his record it would probably 
be necessary to resort to the use of 
an aeroplane from Fishguard to Lon- 
don and from Dover to Moscow, then 
cutting off about two days. It is 
expected that the new record will 
stand for years. 

. The record around the globe by the 
westward route is claimed by Daniel 
D. Bidwell, who in 1911 made the 
complete circuit in 47 days and 22 
hours. The route taken by Mr. Bid- 
well took in Montreal, Vancouver,. 
Yokohoma, Vladivostok, Moscow, 
Dover, and back to New York. 

On July 23, 1911, a bicyclist named 
Pankratow started on a trip around 
the world on a bicycle from Harbin, 
Manchuria. He finished on Aug. 10, 
1913, having ridden around the world 
on his wheel in two years and eigh- 
teen days. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



k ^ ^i 




RZGS OF SAILING VESSELS. 



rigB of BultDc vesapls u thete are veuels, 

log but gli^tly from 'others, and there is 
muoh coEUusion of IK>meaclaturep even 
amoDg thaqe wbo bhould know better than to 

St the rise mixed in tlieir minds. To aid in 
ipellin^ misuiidelBtaiidiiwt ^ to tbe names 
lumtid nsa are to be iindeietood, the aecom- 



anying ilLuBtratiooa have been prepared, 
lie moat simple, soJUiic vessels to the lusest 
In the first iSsee we may make b 



of masts, which 



I attached, nitanded. a 



224 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



crosswise of the mast, some on yards which 
lie obliquely to the horizontal, others^having 
booms or gaffs attached at only one end to 
the mast, and others again having no sprit or 
spar by which to aid in their extension. 
Some sails are triangular, others have four 
well defined sides. Some vessels have all the 
sails centered at the masts, or are square 
rigged; in others all the sails are "fore and 
aft;" and others a^ain have the sails on one 
or more masts of different type from those on 
the other or others; while in some, part of the 
sails on a mast are of one type and the rest of 
one or more others. 

Referring to the illustrations, and consider- 
ing only the number of masts: A to I inclusive 
have but one; J to X inclusive, two; and the 
rest have three. There are vessels having 
four and even five masts, but these do not 
require illustration as the sails on the other 
mast or masts are of the same general type as 
those on the three. 

Of sails we have as distinct types No 5 A, 
which is a leg of mutton, havine a boom to 
extend its lower edge; 5 B, which is a sauare 
sail, having its upper edge extended oy a 
yard and K>und also at 4 and 5 L, M and 
N, 4 V, W, X, Y, Z, AA and BA; 5 X, Z, AA 
and BA, and 6 AA and BA. All these square 
sails have no yard to extend them on their 
lower edges. 

In vessels F and J there will be seen to be 
one lonjs yard at an angle to the mast and 
having its lower end made fast to a convenient 
point below. This is called a lateen rig. 

In vessels D, E, G, H, I, O, P, Q, R, S, 
T, U, V, W, Y, all sails marked 5 are bent to 
the mast at their inner edjp;e, and extended by 
a boom below and a gaff above. These are 
fore and aft sails. Other fore and aft sails, 
bent to stays and not to any mast, boom or 
yard, are the stay sails seen in vessels D, E, I, 
J, K, M, N, and on all the others from P on, 
inclusive. The particular sail on vessel A is 
a leg of mutton sail^ on B, a lug sail or lug; on 
C, a split lug, diffenng from that on B by one 
portion being bent to the mast as well as to 
the yard above. In vessel K may be seen a 
"sliding gunter," the upper portion of which 
is extended by a spar which is hoisted along- 
side of the mast, constituting, practically, a 
sliding topmast; the sail being bent to both 
halves of the mast proper. On vessel L there 
is a dipping lug, and on M a three-9uarter lug. 

In S we see a schooner the topsails of which, 
marked 12 and 13, are extended by the top- 
mast and the gaff; these being called gan- 
topsails; while in T they have at their lower 
edges comparatively short spars called clubs, 
by which they may be more flatly strained 
than where ihe attachment is made directly 
to the corner (or clew) oiF the sail. In BB we 
see the topsails double; that is, instead of 
there being only one sail to the topmast, as 
in AD, 9, 10, 11, they are double, the upper 
haff being bent to the regular yard above, and 
the other to a yard which is hoisted on the 
mast; the object being to enable the sail area 
to be more readily reduced than by reefing 
one large sail. 

Taking the different rigs in order as lettered, 
A, is a leg of mutton, B a lug, C a split lug, D 
a sloop (having a single mast and only fore 
and ait sails), E a sloop having a gaff topsail, 
F a lateen rig, G a skipjack (having no dow- 
sprit and no staysail nor topsail), H a cat- 



boat (which differs from the skipjack only in 
the hull), I the cutter as known in the United 
States Navy (distinguished by being sloop 
rigged, with a square topsail instead of a gan 
topsail or a club topsail), J a lateen rigged 
felucca, K a sliding gunter (having practically 
a sliding topmast to which as well as to the 
mast the sail is bent), L a dipping lug, M a 
three-quarter lug, N a standing lug (one 
lower corner of me sail being secured to the 
mast, and the lower edge oeing extended 
without a boom), O a pirogue (having no bow- 
sprit, no staysails, and no topsails, and being 
fitted with a lee board as shown), P a sloop 
yawl (having a small mast stepped astern and 
bearing a leg of mutton sail), Q a sloop yaw^l 
with a jigger. 

R is a schooner having two masts, both 
fore and aft rigged; this one having no top- 
sails and only one staysail; S a schooner with 
gaff topsails (sometimes called a gaff topsail 
schooner), T a schooner with club topsails 
(sometimes called a club topsail schooner), 
U a topsail schooner (having a square top- 
sail on the foremast and a gaff topsail on the 
mainmast), V a hermaphrodite or modified 
brig (two masted and having the foremast 
square rigged and the mainmast fore and aft 
rigged), W a brigantine (having two masts, 
the foremast being square rigged and the 
mainmast having square topsails and but a 
mainsail extendi by gaff and boom), X a 
brig (a two masted vessel square rigged on 
bom masts), Y a barkentine (having three 
masts, the foremast being square rigged and 
the other two fore and aft rigged), Za bark 
(having three masts, the foremast and main- 
mast being square rigged and'the mizzenmast 
fore and aft rigged), A A a full rigged ship 
(having three masts, all square rigged), and 
B A a full rigged merchant ship (having double 
topsails as before explained). 

The sails as illustrated on all the vessels 
shown bear the same numbers for the same 
name throughout. In all, 1 is the flying jib, 
2 the jib, 3 the foretopmast staysail, 4 the 
foresail, 5 the mainsail, 6 the cross jack sail, 
7 the spanker, 8 the jigger, 9 the fore topsail, 
10 the main top>sail, 11 the mizzen topsail, 12 
the fore gaff topsail, 13 the main gaff topsail, 
14, the main topmast staysail, 15 the mizzen 
topmast staysail, 16 the lower fore topsail, 17 
the lower main topsail, 18 the lower mizzen 
topsail, 19 the upper fore topsail, 20 the upper 
main topsail, 21 the upper mizzen topsail, 22 
the fore topgallant sail, 23 the main top- 
gallant sail, 24 the mizzen topgallant sail, 25 
the fore royal, 26 the main royal, 27 the 
mizzen royal, 28 the main skysail, 29 the main 
topgallant staysail, 30 the mizzen topgallant 
staysail, 31 the jib topsail, 32 the fore trysail. 
33 the staysail, 34 the gaff topsail, 35 the main 
royal staysail. 

There are other kinds of sails not shown, as 
for instance studding sails, which are extend- 
ed by yards on square rigged vessels, and 
other staysails than those shown may be set 
when the wind is light and they can be used 
to advantage to catch any wind. 

There are other rigs which embody the 
features of those already shown, such for 
example as the three masted, four masted, 
and five masted schooners, the four masted 
and five masted ships and the four masted 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



225 



shipentine, all of which are an extension of the 
rigs shown. 

BUOYS. 

In the United States it is customary to 
mark channels with red and black buoys. 
As the channel is entered from the sea the 
red buoys are on the starboard, or right side, 
and the black buoys on the port. Usually 
there is a difference in form between the two 
sets of buoys. The starboard or red buoys 
are of the type known as "nun" buoys, 




. CAN BUOY 

sometimes called "nut" buovs, the part that 
projects out of the water being conical in 
lorm. The port or black buojrs are of the 
type known as "can" buoys, the part that 
projects out of the water having the form of a 




NUN BUOY 

plain cylinder or else a sligntly tapered 
cylinder. In winter weather in waters where 
tnere is apt to be a great deal of ice, "spar" 
buoys are used instead of "can" and "nun" 



buoys, the "spar " buoys having the shape of 
a spar as the name implies. In Europe buoys 
are not as consistently used as in the United 
States and it is impossible for us to summarize 
here the significance of the different buoys in 
various European ports. At night certain 
channels are marked by "light" buoys; that 
is, buoys fitted with acetylene, Pintsch gas, 
or electric lights. 



NAUTICAL TERMS 

Abaft: Toward the stern or end of the vessel. 

Aft: Toward the stern or end of the vessel. 

Alleyway: The ship's passageway. 

Altitude: This is the angiHar distance of 
the pole above the horizon. 

Bower Anchor: This is an anchor which is 
ready for immediate use. 

Bulkhead: A longitudinal or transverse 
partition. 

Cart: A sea map. _ 

Deadlight: This is a covering of wood or 
metal used in severe weather to protect glass 
portholes or windows. 

Equinox : This is the equal length of the dav 
and night occurring toward the end of March 
and September. 

Ebb-Tide: Falling tide. 

Forward: Toward the bow or front of the 
vessel. 

Fore-and-aft: This refers to the length of 
the ship. 

Fo'castle: This was formerly the seamen's 
quarters, but in the modern vessel they are 
quartered almost anywhere near their work. 

Fathom: Six feet. 

Flood-Tide: Rising tide. 

Galley: This is the Kitchen. 

Height of tide: This is the difference be- 
tween the level of high water and that of low 
water. 

Larboard: The opposite of starboard; port 
is the later and more preferred term. 

Lee-side: This is the side away from the 
wind. 

Latitude: Distance directly North or South 
of the Equator. 

Longitude: Distance directly East or West 
of Jihe meridian of Greenwich. 

Lights of vessels: These are the port and 
starboard lif^hts, red and green, respectively, 
besides a white light in the foretop. 

Mid-ship : This means the point which is 
equidistant between the bow and the stern. 

Neap-tide: This is low tide caused by the 
sun and moon being farthest apart. 

Port: This is the left-hand side of the ship 
looking toward the bow. 

Porthole: A stateroom window secured in a 
massive metal ring adapted to be closed 
tightly. 

Starboard: This is the right-hand side of 
the ship looking toward the bow. 

Scuppers: Channels for water, usually at 
the outer edge of the deck. 

Soundings: Depth of water in fathoms. 

Spring-tide: This is hieh tide caused by the 
sun and moon being on the meridian together 

Sheet-anchor: This is a spare anchor which 
is reserved for emergencies. 

Thwartship: Crosswise to the ship. 

Weather-side: This is the side of the ship 
toward Hie wind. 



2S6 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




FOR A SINGLE 



The Book of GcnesiB does not record 
the tonnage of the huge vessel which 
finally stranded on Mount Ararat, af- 
ter finishing the most wonderful voy- 
age ever described in the annals of 
Qjisafeiiid. But it is quite safe to ss- 
Bume that the dimensions of the Ark, 
that old-time floating storehouse, are 
exceeded in size by tbe largest of 
■tearaships now crossing the Atlantic. 

Not tbe least striking evidence of 
the size of these modern jnonaters of 
the deep is afforded b; the vast quan- 
titieB of food which must be taken 
aboard for a single Bix-da; trip across 
the Atlantic For the 1,500 passen- 
gers and the several hundred men con- 
stituting tbe crew, carloads of food 
and whote tanks of liquids are neces- 
sary. To enumerate in cold type the 
exact quantities of bread, meat, and 
vegetables consumed in a wpekly trip 
would give but an ioadn^uate idea of 
tbe storing capacity of a modern liner. 
We have, therefore, prepared a picture 
which graphically shows by compari- 
son with the Bversge man tbe equiva- 
lent of tbe meat, poultry, and bread- 
stuffs, as well as the liquors used. 
Each kind of food bas been concen- 
trated into a giant unit, compared 
with which the figure of the average 

On the "KroQprinz Wilhelm," of the 
North German Lloyd Line, which 
steamship we have taken for the pur- 
pose of institnting our comparisons, 
Mms 19,800 pounds of fresh meat and 



14300 pounds of salt beef and mut- 
ton, in all 34.100 pounds of meat, are 
eaten during a single trip from New 
York to Bremen. This enormous quan- 
tity of meat bas been pictured in tbe 
form of a single joint of beef, which. 
If it actually existed, would be some- 
what less than 10 feet high, 10 feet 
long, and 5 feet wide. If placed OD 
one end of a scale, it would require 
about 227 average men in the other end 
to tip the beam. 

For a single voyage the "Kronprins 
Wilhelm" uses 2,640 pounds of ham, 
1,320 pounds of bacon, and 506 pounds 
of sausage — in all, 4,466 pounds. 
Since moat of this is pork, it may 
well be pictured In the form of a ham. 
That single ham is equivalent in 
weight to 374 average hams. It is 
TA feet high. 3 feet in diameter and 
2 feet thick. 

TTie poultry eaten by the passen- 
gers of the steamer during a trip to 
Bremen or New York weighs 4,840 
Ijounds. Suppose that we show these 
4,840 pounds of poultry in the form 
of a turkev, dressed and ready for 
the oven. Tbe bird would be a giant 
10 feet long. 8 feet broad, and 5 feet 
high. 

Sauerkraut, beans, peas, rice, and 
fresh vegetables are consumed to the 
amount of 25.320 pounds. Packed for 
market, these preserved and fresh vege- 
tables would be contained in 290 bas- 
kets of the usual form, which piled up 
make a formidable truncated pyramid- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




THE COMPLICATED GEAR OF A LARGE VESSEL. 
Photogtapb taken on the ''George Washington." 

1 Mftin Deck. S Cargo Wincbn. 

2 l>3wer Promenade Deck, B Riggjrai. 



Bridge Deck, 
Cargo Beams, 




THE OLYMPIC ON HER MAIDEN VOYAGE. 



SCIKNTIFIC AUKRIGAN REFERENCE BOOK. 229 




AUIDSHIPS THERE IS MORE SPACE TO WALK ON THE 8UH DECK. 

7 Boat Tackle. 

S Ventilators. 

S Various Deck Houses. 



1 Smoke Stack. 

2 WinWr Gardea. 

3 Boat Deck. 
■ Sun Deck, 




UFEBOAT DRILL ON A TRANSATLANTIC LINER. 
PROVISIONING THE BOATS. 
Taken specially for this ijoob. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION ( 



Second CluB PiomE 
Keeerre rudder nia< 
Rudder maohibe 



Rudder 



■ THE TWIN SCREW- 
OS cafe (emokers) 



Post office 
Second class paatri 
Second class kitche 



Fiist class Smoking n 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF THE TURBINE-DRIVEN 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




EXPRESS STEA.MER "KAISER WILHELU II 




27 


Firat class kitcheo 




















Cap Cain 'a rooms 














































































sa 






STEAMER -FRANCE," A FINE TYPE 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TABLE SHOWING THE DISTANCE OF THE HORIZON 
AT DIFFERENT EIjEVATIONS. 



1 


Distame 


1 


Diatonoe 


i 


Distance 


i 


Distaoee 


1 


Distance 


Horizon 


£ 


Horizon 


tS 


HoriH.n 


1 


Horizon 


8 


Horizon 


F«t 


Nautical 


Feet 


Nautical 


Feet 


Nautical 


Feet 


Nautical 


Feet 


Nautical 




Mna. 




Miles. 




Mils. 




Miles. 




Milee. 


, 


I 15 


33 


660 


85 


10 59 


245 


17.98 


450 


24.36 




i:62 


34 


sVo 


90 


moo 


2S0 


8.16 


60 


24.63 










































B 


2^57 


37 


a.99 


05 




265 


s:70 


90 


25.42 




2.81 




7.08 





20s 


270 


R.87 


500 










7.17 














8 


3 '25 


40 




20 


268 


280 


9:22 


20 


26: 19 








7.35 






285 






























aisi 


43 


7:53 


5 


3 35 




19:73 


550 


26:93 




3.98 




7.62 


40 


360 


00 


19.89 


560 


27. 8 
















20.06 


























15 


4;4S 


47 


7187 


5 


4 


15 


20:38 


590 


27:90 






43 


7.96 




45i 




20.55 


600 


28. 3 


17 


4 74 


49 


8.04 


165 


4 5 


325 


2071 


610 


2S37 


18 


4:S7 


SO 


8.12 




49 


330 


20:86 


S20 


28:60 






















21 


5'2fl 


53 


8:38 


8 




345 


21:33 


650 


29:2s 


22 


5.39 








sai 


350 


21.49 


660 


29.51 






















24 


siaa 


56 


8:60 


200 


6 24 


360 


21.79 


680 


29.95 


2S 








2aa 












26 


5^86 


58 
















27 


5,97 






2 5 


6 84 


3B0 


22.68 


710 


30.80 


2S 


















0.82 
























6:29 


70 


9:61 




42 


420 


23:54 


740 


1:24 




8.40 












211.82 




1.46 


32 




SO 


10,27 


240 


* 


4 




760 


1.66 



EXAMPLE.— A lower 200 fi 
elevated 15 feet above ibe 
15 feet elevation, disU 



{"fti 



20.69 nautical miles. 




ENGINE ROOM, OIL MOTOR-DRIVEN "SEI.ANDIA. 



CHAPTER VII. 



RAILROADS. 



For iiiTaluable informatiOD relative 
to Railroads, both tor tlie United 
States and foreign countries, tiie Edi- 
tor is indebted Co Mr. Slason Thomp- 
sun, Director of the Bureau of Rail- 
way News and Statistics, Chicago. 
■ A considerable cumber of the tables 
are printed through bis courtesy, and 
a painstaking revision of this chapter 
is also duu to him. 

In single-track mileage the Bureau 
figures 1)3% of the total mileage oper- 
ating in the United States ; in traffic 
figures they cover 07.5%. 

The passenger mileage is obtained 



by multiplying the number of passen- 
gers carried by the average journey 
in miles. In the case of the United 
Kingdom that is an approiimation of 
7.8 miles, from the formula of the 
Ijondon Statist. Same is true of the - 
average haul of 25 miles fur freight 
in the United Kingdom. In this case 
it is corroborated by tlie individual 
figures of the Northeastern Railway 
of England, which is (lie only British 
road giving that information. The 
ton mileage can be obtained by multi- 
pl.ving (he freight tons carried by the 
average haul in miles. 





A 




%!r- - 








m 


^ 




'T^ 


liiiiiiL 



POWEIt OF A MONSTER I^COMOTIVE. 

rini.in-tii li:-li-ht (.iiglni.>. weighing WO tonn. was 
uH|iHU1e of Imuling 1 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



235 



GROWTH OF RAILWAYS OF THE WORLD. 

In the following table is given the mileage of the principal countries in the 
world from the earliest date available to the latest: 



Country 



Great Britain. 

United States 

Canada 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

Austria (proper) 

Russia in 
Europe 

Italy 

Holland 

Switzerland.... 

Huncary 

Denmark 

Spain 

Chili 

Braail 

Norway 

Sweden 

Argentine Re- 
public 

Turkey in 
Europe 

Peru 

Portugal 

Greece 

Uruguay 

Hezioo 

Roumania 

Australia* 

Japan 

British India. . . 

China 

Africa 



Miles of Road Completed 



Opened 



1825 
1827 
1836 
1828 
1835 
1835 
1837 

1838 
1839 
1839 
1844 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1851 
1851 
1854 
1856 

1857 



1869 
1869 
1868 



1874 
1853 
1883 



1840 



1,857 

2.818 

16 



341 
207 



13 
10 



1850 



6,621 

9,021 

66 

1,714 

3,637 

554 

817 

310 

265 

110 

15 

137 

20 

17 



1860 



10,433 
30,626 
2,065 
5,700 
6.979 
1,074 
1.813 

988 

1,117 

208 

653 

1.004 

69 

1.190 

120 

134 

42 

375 



41 

47 
42 



838 



1870 



15,537 

52,922 

2,617 

11,142 

11,729 

1,799 

3,790 

7,098 

3,825 
874 
885 

2,157 
470 

3.400 
452 
504 
692 

1.089 

637 

392 
247 
444 
6 
61 
215 
152 



4.771 



1880 



17.933 

93,296 

7,194 

16,276 

20,693 

2,399 

7.083 

14,026 
5,340 
1.143 
1,596 
4.421 

975 
4,550 
1,100 
2,174 

970 
3.654 

1.536 

727 

1,179 

710 

7 

268 

655 

859 

789 

75 

9.162 



583 



1889 



19,943 

160,544 

12,585 

21,899 

24.845 

2.776 

9.345 

17.534 
7,830 
1.632 
1,869 
6.751 
1.217 
5.951 
1,801 
5,546 
970 
4,899 

4,506 

1,024 

. 993 

1.118 

416 

399 
5.012 
1.537 
4.850 

542 
15,887 

124 
2.873 



1899 



21.666 



17,250 
26.229 
31.386 
2.883' 
11,921 

26,889 
9,770 
1.966 
2,342 

10.619 
1.764 
8.252 
2,791 
9.195 
1.231 
6,663 

10.013 

1.900 

1.035 

1.475 

604 

997 

8.503 

1.920 

11,111 

3.632 

23.523 

401 

5.353 



1910t 



23,280 
236,422 
24.731 
29.364 
36.235 
2.888 
13,591 

35,347 

10.425 
2.235 
2.791 

12.177 
2.121 
8.961 
3.451 

11.863 
1.608 
8,321 

14.111 

1,967 

1.470 

1.689 
845 

1,371 
14,845 

1.976 
17.956 

5,130 
30,809 

4.997 
19,207 



1912t 



23,417 
248.888 
26.727 
30.119 
37.255 
5.132 
14.038 

41.888 

10.425 
2.439 
3.034 

12,821. 
2,121 
9.272 
3.451 

12.968 
1.845 
8.554 

18,166 

2.100 

1.470 

1.689 
979 

1.443 
14,990 

2.153 
18,195 

5,130 
32,099 

5,274 
20,758 



^Including New Zealand. 
fOr latest figures. 
(Includes Asiatic Railways. 



The proportion of state to privately owned railways as given by Mr. Edwin A. 
Pratt in 'Railways and Nationalization," 1908, was: 



Company Owned Railways. 
State Owned Railways 

Total 



389.000 
161,000 



650.000 



236 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STATISTICS OF 



Country 



United Kingdom . . 
Grerman Empire. . , 

France 

Russian Empire. . . 

Austria 

Hungary 

Italy (a) 

Spain (a) 

Portugal , 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark (a) 

Belgium (a) 

Holland (9) 

Switzerkuid 

Roumania 



Year 



Total Europe. 



Canada 

Argentina 

Japan (a) 

British India 

New South Wales. . 

New Zealand.; 

United States 



1911 
1910 
1909 
1908 
1910 
1910 
1910-11 
1905 
1908 
1909 
1911 
1911 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1911 



Miles 
Covered 
by Capi- 
talization 



1912 
1910 
1911 
1910 
1912 
1911 
1912 



23,417 

36,740 

25,017 

41,888 

14.038 

12.821 

8.90S 

8,810 

1,465 

8,366 

1,S91 

1.215 

2.685 

1,978 

2,924 

2.153 

194.316 

26,727 

17,381 

4,764 

32,099 

3.831 

2,761 

248,888 



Ci^italisation 

or Cost of 

Construction 

(c) 



$6,447,969,398 

4.163.615,519 

3,593,660,000 

3,378,839,810 

1,654,207,119 

858,732,000 

1,131.300.000 

649,919,610 

162,385,280 

277,952,716 

81,467,176 

70,277,640 

504,210.184 

d 163,798,304 

341.208,367 

186,670,372 

$23,666,213,495 

1,585.724,797 
868,914.950 
411,598,253 

fl,448,700,000 
260,613,180 
153.448,830 

14,657,546.000 



Passenger 
Revenue 



$215,168,940 

198,737,378 

152,566,693 

80,787,020 

48,520,000 

25,009,200 

36,060,084 

16,215,866 

4,039,350 

12,226,160 

2,667,672 

5,429,948 

19,750,243 

12,374,800 

18.542,282 



$848,095,636 

56,543.664 

21,072,498 

63,261,000 

11,439.630 

5.521,470 

668,642,865 



Freight 
Revenue 



$308,197,950 

452,969,934 

184,394,516 

306,014,545 

135,360,000 

65,460,200 

60,247,652 

34.694.555 

6,715,150 

20,762,228 

3,437.904 

6.942,900 

38,275,374 

12,094,800 

22,577,912 



$1,656,145,620 

148.030,269 

20,428,230 

100,419,000 

18,092,050 

9,805,390 

1,980.805.606 



Other 
RevenueB 



$96,197,110 

69,765,822 

5,284,147 

39,811.560 

12.500,000 

4.265,800 

5,264,847 

6,190.271 

351,750 

992,672 

359.656 

796.496 

1,672.178 

1.272.400 

l.oUo.Vn 



$246,534,663 

14.829,819 

2.646.016 
6.049,000 
2,079.490 
2.144.045 
221.288.226 





COMPARISON OF WORLD'S RAILWAYS BY CONTINENTS AND 

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES, 1909. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



237 



FOREIGN RAILWAYS. 







Rates 




Aver- 




Avw- 


Per Cent 


Total 


Operating 


Exx>en- 


Passengers 


age 


Freight 


age 


Net Rev- 


Revenues 


Expenses 


sesto 


Carried 


Journey 


Tons 


Haul 


enue to 






Revenues 




(Miles) 


Carried 


(Miles) 


Capital 


1619,564,000 


$380,689,660 


61.8 


1,793,820,800 


b 7.8 


523,653.004 


b 26.0 


3.67 


722,473.134 


490.999.236 


67.9 


1,540.872,110 


14.2 


531,527,817 


60.4 


5.74 


342.245.356 


200.834.642 


58.6 


491,936.930 


20.5 


165,027,920 


80.2 


3.94 


426.613,125 


344.497.405 


80.8 


162,117,000 


79.0 


229,654,000 


160.1 


2.43 


196.380.000 


150,860.000 


76.9 


254,618,531 


18.3 


137,599.886 


68.2 


2.76 


94.735.200 


61,362,800 


64.7 


140,002,000 


19.5 


68,806.000 


.72.9 


3.87 


101.572.383 


81.486.337 
27.760.936 


80.3 
48.6 




b25.0 
b26.0 




b66.0 
69.4 


1.77 


57.100,692 


41.846.249 


22.662.548 


4.50 


10.106.250 


4.672.500 


46.2 


14,585.698 


b20.0 


4.315.385 


b54.0 


3.35 


33,981,060 


26.836,984 


79.0 


53,787,226 


16.6 


31.133.716 


43.4 


2.57 


6,466.232 


4,803.096 


74.2 


13,795,396 


16.1 


5.196,241 


38.6 


2.22 


12,169.344 


11,257,072 


92.5 


22,344,630 


21.8 


4.934.799 


53.1 


1.33 


• 59.697.795 


39.123.036 


66,5 


173,491.334 


15.4 


58.793.837 


49.7 


3.80 


25.742,000 


21.365.860 


83.0 


47,711,000 


17.9 


16.702.400 


51.9 


2.67 


42.930,138 


27.230,010 


63.2 


110,068,466 


13.0 


16.466,758 


46.6 


4.60 


18.756.585 


11.660.674 


62.1 


10.233,000 


43.7 


8,823.551 


b96.6 


3.80 


12,770.632.294 


$1,885,610,248 


6S.0 


$4,871,230,360 


15.1 


1,825.197.951 


64.3 




219,403.752 


150,726,530 


68.7 


41,124.181 


70.8 


89,444.331 


218.7 


4.27 


107.058.065 


63.616,485 


59.4 


59.014,600 


24,2 


33,606,626 


120.9 


3.85 


44.147.128 


21.624,686 


43.9 


138.629.706 


21.9 


25.481,868 


83.5 


5.47 


168.729.000 


89,595,000 


53.1 


371.680.000 


36.1 


65.600,000 


184.3 


6.46 


31.611.170 


20.303,030 


64.2 


70,706»728 


15.4 


10,631.751 


81.0 


4.35 


17.470.905 


11.516.860 


64.8 


11,200.613 


b23.0 


5.863,674 


80.0 


4.02 


3.870.736,697 


e2,108,351,953 


73.4 


994.382.480 


33.7 


1.806.173.565 


148.0 


5.25 



(a)State only. Cb)Estimated. (c) From latest report^ not alwayj year named. (d)Estimated 
capital cost of Holland's railways not given since 1897. (e)Including taxes. (f)Valuing the 
Indian rupee at 33 cents (.324 1-2) 



From 1908 to 1910 the rate per 
ton mile in the United Kingdom 
was 2.33 cents; in France. 1.36 
cents; in Germany, 1.41; Russia, 
.95; Austria, 1.36; Sweden, 1.60; 
Norway, 1.77; Denmark, 2.00; Hol- 
land, 1.35; Belgium, 1.17; and in 



Switzerland, 2.86 cents. No recent 
ton mile statistics for Italy are 
available, though taking the aver- 
age haul as under 70 miles, the 
average receipts per ton mile were 
probably in the neighborhood of 
2.25 cents. 



DISTANCES ACROSS NEW YORK CITT. 

^ . >^ 

From Pier 1, North RiTer, Tia Battery place aod Whitehall street to East Riyer. ooe-half mile; from 
foot of Dey street. North River, to foot of Fulton street. East River, tbree-qoarten of a mile; from foot 
of ChMnbera street. North River, via Cbambers, New Cbambera and James slip to East River, one mile; 
from foot of Canal street. North River, to Broadway, tbree-qoarten of a mile; from foot of Canal street. 
North River, to Bowery, one mile and an eighth; from foot of Canal street. North River, to foot of Grand 
street. East River, two and an elgbth miles; from foot of -West Hooston street to foot of East Honston 
street, two and an ^ghth miles; from foot of West Fourteenth street to Broadway, one and an eighth miles; 
from foot of West T'ourteenth street to foot of East Fourteenth street, two and three-eighths miles; from 
foot of West Twenty -third street to Sixth avenue, one mile; from West Twenty-third street to foot of East 
Twenty-third street, two and three-eighths miles. North of Twenty-third street the average width of the 
Islaiid of Manhattan la from two to two and a half miles. 



23S 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF THE WORLD'S RAILWAYS AND RATIO OF MILEAGE TO AREA 

AND POPULATION IN EACH COUNTRY IN 1910. 



Countries 



I. EUROPE 

Qerinany 

AustriarHungary (including Bosnia and Herze- 
govina) 

Great Britain and Ireland 

France 

Russia in Europe (including Finland 2,246 
miles) 

Italy 



Belgium , 

Luxemburg , 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

Spain , 

Portugal 

Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden 

Servia 

Roumania 

Greece 

Bulgaria 

Turkey in Europe 

Malta, Jersey, Isle of Man. 



Total for Europe, 1910. 

• • « 1909. 

■ • • 1908. 

• • • 1907. 

• • « 1906. 
« • « 1905. 

• • « 1904. 

• • « 1903. 

• • « 1902. 
« • • 1901. 

• « • 1900. 

• «. « J899. 

■ « • 1898. 

• • • 1897. 
« « • 1896. 



Mileage in 1910 



State 
Railways 



Increase in fourteen years. 



34,625 

22.047 

5,511 

21,659 
8,830 
2,686 
119 
1.663 
1,701 

671 
1,217 
1,557 
2,717 

357 
1,980 

987 



107,727 



Total 
Railways 



Miles of 

Line per 100 

Sq. Miles 



37,996 

27,571 
23,351 
30,687 

37,008 

10,538 

5.288 

318 
1,984 
2,921 
9,317 
1,808 
2,192 
1,921 
8,688 

494 
2.238 

981 
1,106 

968 
68 



207,447 
204,864 
201,619 
199,345 
196,437 
192,507 
189,806 
186,685 
183,989 
180,817 
176,396 
172,953 
167,614 
163,550 
160,030 



47,417 



17.9 

10.6 
19.3 

14.8 

1.8 

9.5 

46.3 

31.7 

15.6 

18.3 

4.8 

5.1 

14.8 

1.6 

5.0 

2.6 

4.3 

3.9 

2.9 

1.4 

16.1 



5.6 
5.5 
5.3 
5.3 
5.2 
5.1 
5.0 
5.0 
4.9 



4. 
4. 
4. 
4. 
4 
4 



Inhabitants 
per Mile 
of Line 



1.724 

1.852 
1.923 
1.282 

3.449 
8.334 
1.408 

795 
2.941 
1.220 
2,000 
2,940 
1,176 
1.220 

629 
5.882 
3.030 
2,703 
3,846 
6.250 
5,263 



2.180 
1.923 
1.941 
1.887 
1.993 
2,084 
2,084 
2,084 
2.127 
2,174 
2,220 
2.220 



RELATION OF RAILWAYS TO AREA AND POPULATION (See page 241.) 

Although .this table is favored by railway statisticians in comparing railway 
conditions relatively to area and population, it is doubtful whether It conveys an 
adequate impression of the exceptionally favorable transportation facilities enjoyed 
by the inhabitants of this continent, and especialy those of the United States 
and Canada. For Instance, the figures mean that the United States with 800,000 
,' squajpfe miles less territory and not one-quarter the population, ^as 36,0(X) more 
•miles ot railway than all Europe, while Canada, having a territory In which the 
United Kingdom could be lost thirty times, and only one-sixth the population, 
has actually more railway mileage than the parent kingdom. v 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



239 



SUMMARY OF THE WORLD'S RAILWAYS AND RATIO OF MILEAGE TO ArEA 
AND POPULATION IN EACH COUNTRY IN 1910— Continued. 



Countries 



II. AMERICA 

Canada 

United States of America (inclusive of Alaska 
420 miles) 

Newfoundland 

Mexico 

Central America (Guatemala, 594 miles; Hon- 
duras, 90 miles; Salvador, 122 miles; Nicara- 
gua, 2(X) miles; Costa Rica, 647 miles; Pan- 
ama, 47 miles) 

Greater Antilles (Cuba, 2,331 miles; Dominica, 
195 miles; Haiti, 139 miles; Jamaica, 185 miles; 
Porto Rico, 200 miles) 

Lesser Antilles (Martinique, 139 miles; Bar- 
badoes, 108 miles; Trinity, 88 miles) 

United States of Colombia 

Venesuela 

British Guiana 

Dutch Guiana 

Ecuador 



Peru 

Bolivia 

United States of Brazil . 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 

ChiU 

Argentine Republic 



Total for America. 



III. ASIA 

Central Russia in Asia 

Siberia and Manchuria 

China 



Japan (including Corea). 

British India 

Ceylon 



Persia 

Asia Minor, Syria, Arabia, including Cyprus. 

Portuguese Indies 

Malay Archipelago 

Dutch Indies 

Siam 

Cochin China 



Mileage in 1910 



State 
Railways 



Total for Asia. 



1,718 



42 



844 
5.443 



1,883 
2,467 



12,197 



6,181 



4.542 
24,460 



912 



637 



36.733 



Total 
Railways 



24,726 

241.203 

666 

15,260 



1,599 



3,031 

336 

510 

633 

103 

37 

333 

1.584 

756 

13.278 

157 

1.546 

3.526 

17,794 



327,084 



4,066 

6,739 

5,420 

6.093 

32.092 

577 

34 

3,130 

51 

757 

1,551 

637 

Q,178 



Miles of 

Line per 100 

Sq. Miles 



I 



63.329 



0.8 

6.8 
1.6 
1.9 



0.1 

0.16 

0.11 



0.32 

0.32 

0.16 

0.5 

0.16 

2.3 

1.0 

1.6 



1.9 

0.14 

0.13 

2.4 

1.6 

2.3 

0.005 

0.5 

3.5 

2.3 

0.6 

0.32 



Inhabitants 

per Mile 

of Line 



263 

369 
359 
952 



9,091 
8.846 
2,850 



4,160 

2,940 

3,030 

1,618 

4,000 

671 

948 

276 



2,825 

1,032* 

83,300 

10,000 

9,091 

7,143 

280,000 

6,250 

11.110 

9,434 

20.000 

14.278 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





Mileage 


iD 1010 


MilaoC 
LiEBpa-IOO 
Sq. Mi)» 




Countrias 


Stato 
Railways 


Total 
Railways 


perUile 
of Line 


IV. AFRICA 
Egypt 


2.792 


3,67* 
3.131 

0.M5 

l!807 

1,300 

72 


I.O 


8,125 
2,128 






Sauth AlriaD Ud»ii, luclHliiiE Cape Colony, 
Natal, Cent. So. Africui and Rbodeuaa Rail- 


l.OTl 






COLON1E8 








































22,1W0 












V. AUSTRALIA 


2,716 
3,490 
3,M2 


2.746 
3.S06 
3.783 

♦ion 
2.m 

83 


M 
2.4 


371 


























Hawaii, etc 


1,234 




ia,OM 




0.6 








RECAPITIILATION 


107.727 

36,733 
13.871 


207.(47 
22.900 


l.S 






















D.S 










135.303 


M0,032 













DISTANCES IN NEW YORK. 







































1 


rSmS- 


iS 1 SSit 


s* 


E^« SS- 


13:4 fii'^n Pt 












i 


^Mi"'' 




i» 


ij::sss: 


13?J £n SOBtb' 


























^ i;s!Di?h. 








■K 








"* if"'™''.^ 


























1 


k£ 


f pUilS: , 


!* 


-i" K?' 


iii £!:'■" 








38 















SCrENTIPiC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



241 



Summary of Railway Mileage in the United States, by States, for the 
Years Ending June 30, 1912, 1911 and 1910, and its Relation to Area 
AND Population. 



Sute 



Alabama 

Amona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia , 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland.. 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

ICissouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada. 

New Hunpehire. . . 

New Jeney 

'Neiw Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Or^on 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island: 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

VirgiBia 

Washmgton 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wytfming 

Dist. of Columbia. 

Canada! 

Mexioot 



United States. 



Bureau's Figures 



1912 

Miles 

Operated 



5.054 
1.974 
4,376 
6.739 
5,716 
1,000 
339 
3.923 
6,839 
2,151 

13,024 
7.629 
9,867 
9.312 
3,687 
4,695 
2.113 
1,325 
2,138 
8,471 
8,952 
3,860 
8.287 
4.332 
6.224 
1.630 
1,237 
2.260 
3,048 
8,353 
4,228 
4.430 
9.261 
5,90/ 
2,131 

10,986 

195 

3,072 

3.994 

3,633 

18,977 
1.834 
962 
4.421 
5,140 
3,068 
7,351 
1,477 
61 
1.871 



236.444 



1911 

Miles 

Operated 



4.994 
1.962 
4.253 
6,610 
5.646 
1,000 
340 
3.769 
6,631 
1.925 

13.257 
7,098 
9.967 
9.216 
3,494 
4,477 
2.096 
1,326 
2.087 
8,360 
8.893 
3.672 
8,336 
4.294 
6.161 
1,601 
1.213 
2,146 
2,975 
8,338 
4.110 
4,379 
9.028 
5.898 
2,125 

10,894 

196 

2,878 

3.984 

3.587 

13,081 

1,819 

936 

4,436 

5,133 

2,885 

7,106 

1,457 

62 

1,760 

226 



232,117 



Commission's Figures 



1910 

Miles 

Owned 



5.226 
2,097 
5,306 
7,772 
5,532 
1,000 
337 
4.431 
7,056 
2,178 

11,878 
7,420 
9.765 
9.007 
3.526 
6.554 
2.248 
1.426 
2.116 
9.021 
8.669 
4.506 
8,083 
4.207 
6.067 
2,276 
1.245 
2.260 
3.032 
8,430 
4,932 
4,201 
9,134 
5.980 
2,284 

11.290 

212 

3.442 

3.947 

3,816 

14,281 
1.986 
1,100 
4.634 
4.875 
3.600 
7.475 
1.645 
36 



240,438 



Miles of 

Line per 100 

Sq. Miles 



10 19 

1.84 

10.10 

4.99 

5.34 

20.76 

17.04 

8.06 

12.02 

2,61 

21.20 

20.69 

17.66 

11.01 

8.77 

12.23 

7.62 

14.36 

26.31 

15.69 

10.72 

9.72 

11.76 

2.88 

7.90 

2.07 

13.80 

^0.06 

2.48 

17.09 

10.12 

5.99 

22.42 

8.62 

2.39 

25.18 

19.88 

11.29 

5.14 

9.15 

5.44 

2.42 

12.06 

11.26 

7.29 

14.99 

13.53 

1.69 

59.96 



8.08 



Population 

Per Mile 

of Line 

1910 » 



409 
97 
296 
306 
144 

1.115 
604 
169 
369 
149 
474 
364 
228 
184 
649 
298 
330 
901 

1.692 

ail 

239 
399 
407 
89 
196 
35 
346 

1.122 
108 

1,061 
447 
137 
621 
277 
294 
678 

2.657 
440 
148 
572 
272 
188 
323 
454 
234 
339 
312 
89 

9.174 



382 



« Census figures 1910 divided by commission's figures for 1910. 
tHilsafe operated in Canada and Mexioo by American roads. 



242 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF MILEAGE OF SINGLE TRACK, SECOND, THIRD 

AND FOURTH TRACK AND YARD TRACK AND SIDINGS 

IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890 TO 1912. 



Year 


Single 
Track 


Second 
Track 


Third 
Track 


Fourth 
TTrack 


Yard 

Track and 

Sidings 


Total 

Mileage 

Operated 

(all Tracks) 


1912 Bureau, 95% 


236,444 


24,944 


2,528 


1,763 


90,693 


356,372 


1911 Official 


•246,124 
•240,831 
•235,402 
•230,494 
227,455 
222,340 
216,973 
212,243 
205,313 
200,154 
195,561 
192,556 
187,543 
184,648 
183,284 
182,428 
180,667 
178,708 
176,461 
171,563 
168,402 
163,597 


23,452 
21,659 
20,949 
20,209 
19.421 
17,396 
17,056 
15,824 
14,081 
13,720 
12,845 
12,151 
11,546 
11,293 
11,018 
10,685 
10,639 
10,499 
10,051 
9,367 
8,865 
8.437 


2,414 

2.206 

2,169 

2,081 

1.960 

1.766 

1.609 

1,467 

1,303 

1,204 

1,153 

1,094 

1,047 

r.0O9 

995 

990 

975 

953 

912 

852 

813 

760 


1,747 

1,489 

1,453 

1,409 

1,390 

1,279 

1,215 

1,046 

963 

895 

876 

829 

790 

793 

780 

764 

733 

710 

668 

626 

599 

561 


88,973 
85,581 
82,376 
79,452 
77,749 
73,760 
69,941 
66,492 
61,560 
68,220 
54,914 
52,153 
49,223 
47,589 
45,934 
44,912 
43,888 
42,661 
42,043 
39,941 
37,318 
35,255 


362,710 


1910 • 


351.767 


1909 • 


342,351 


1908 • 


333,646 


1907 • 


327,975 


1906 • 


317,083 


1905 • 


306,796 


1904 • 


297,073 


1903 • 


283,821 


1902 • 


274,195 


1901 • 


265,352 


1900 • 


258,784 


1899 • 


250,142 


1898' " 


245,333 


1897 • 


242,013 


1896 • 


240,129 


1895 • 


236,894 


1894 ■ 


233,533 


1898 " 


230,137 


1892 ■ 


222,351 


1891 ■ 


f 215,999 


1890 • 


208.612 



•Since 1908 the official mileage is exclusive of switching and terminal companies. In 1908 these 
had 1,624 miles of main track and 2,085 of yard tracks and Sidings; in 1909 they reported 1,623 miles 
of main track and 2,384 of yard tracks and sidings and in 1910 they reported 1,614 and 2,270 miles 
respectively. 

SUMMARY CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVES AND THEIR PRIN- 
CIPAL CHARACTERISTICS: 1910. 



Class. 



Single expansion , 

Average per locomotive. 

Foor-cylinder compound 

Average per locomotive. 

T woKsyUnder compound . . . . 
Average per locomotive. 



TotaL 

Average per locomotive , 



Number. 



55,867 



1,611 
862 



58,240 



Tractive 
power. 



PotMMfo. 

1,502,296,606 
26,801 

50,594,482 
39,440 

27,003,390 
31,326 



1,688,894,480 
27,282 



Orate 
surface. 



Bq.ft, 
1,862,769 

35 
61,467 

49 
82,021 

39 



1,066,257 
35 



Heating 
surfsoe. 



Sq.ft. 
117,725,234 

2,107 
5,272,515 

3,489 
2,107,880 

2,649 



125,105,129 
2,160 



Weight 
exclusive 
of tender. 



ToflB, 

4,032,797 

72 

168, 7S7 

112 

72,624 

84 



4,274,208 
78 



Wel^ 

on 
driveis. 



SVm. 
3,314,873 

63 

131,278 

87 

60,868 

71 



3.606,800 
00 



The above table does not include locomotives in the service of terminal companies. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



243 



TWO DECADES IN RAILWAY PROGRESS. 

RAILWAY RESULTS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1892, 
1902 AND 1912 WITH PERCENTAGES OF INCREASE BY DECADES. 



Item 
(msThousands) 



Population 

MiloB of Line (operated) . 
Mike of AU Track 



Net Capitalisation (m) 

Net Capitalization per Mile of Line. . 
Net Capitalization per Mile of Track. 



Revenues from Operation (m) 

Revenues per Mile Operated 

Expenses of Operation (m) 

Expenses of Operation per Mi. operated 
Net Revenues from Operation (m) . . 
Net Revenues per Mile operated . . . : . 
Ratio of Expenses to Revenues 



Receipts from Passengers (m) . 

Receipts from Freight (m) 

Receipts from Mail (m) 

Receipts from Express (m) . . . 



Passengera Carried (m) 

PassengOTS Carried 1 Mile (m) 

Average Receipts per Passenger Mile 

(cents) 

Average Passengers in Train 

Average Journey per Passenger (miles) 



Freight Tons Carried (m) 

Freight Tons Carried 1 Mile (m) 

Average Receipts per Ton Mile (mills) 

Average Tons in Train , 

Average Haul per Ton (miles) 



Locomotives (number) 

Locomotives Weight without Tender 

(tons) 

Passenger Cars (number) 

Freight Cars (number) 

Frdght Cars Capacity (tons) 



Employee (number) 

Employes per 1(X) Miles of Line 

Employes Compensation 

Proportion of Gross Earnings 

Proportion of Operating Expenses. . . 



Taxes 

Per Mile of Line 

Proportion of Gross Earnings. 



1892 



65.086,000 
162.397 
211.051 

18,294,679 
52,348 
40,050 

1,171.407 
7,213 

780,997 
4,809 

390,409 
2.404 

66.67% 

$286,805 

799,316 

26.861 

22.148 

560,958 
13,362,898 

2.126 

42 

23.82 

706,555 

88,241,050 

8.98 

181 

124.89 

33,136 

1,457,984 

28,876 

966,998 

22.240,954 

821,415 

506 

$468,598,170 

40.00% 

60.08% 

$34,053,495 

209 

2.90% 



1902 



79,230,563 
200,154 
274,195 

$9,925,664 
50,962 
36,921 

1,726,380 

8,625 

1,116.248 

5.577 

610.131 

3.048 

64.66% 

$ 392,963 

1,207,228 

39,835 

34,253 

649,878 
19,689,937 

1.986 

45 

80.30 

1,200.315 

157.289.370 

7.57 

296 

131.04 

41,225 

2,308.000 

36.987 

1,546,101 

43,416,029 

1,189.315 

594 

$676,028,592 

39.17% 

60.56% 

$54,465,437 

272 

3.15% 



1912 



95,656,000 
248.888 
370,317 

$14,657,545 
61.508 
41,204 

2,870,736 

11,534 

1,990,198 

7,996 

880,538 

3,538 

09.33% 

$ 668.642 

1.980,805 

51.620 

74,736 

994.382 
33.510,673 

1.992 

57 

33.76 

1.806,173 

267,313,687 

7.41 

422 

148 

62,291 

4,892.101 

51,306 

2,243.465 

84.129,937 

1.728,603 

695 

$1,268,977,272 

44.20% 
63.76% 

$120,873,472 

485 
4.21% 



1912 
Over 
1892 

% 



46.9 
53.3 
75.5 

76.7 

17.6 

3.0 

145.1 
69.9 

154.8 
66.3 

125.5 

47.1 

4.0 

133.1 

147.8 

92.2 

238.0 

77.3 
150.8 

d 6.3 
35.7 
41.7 

155.6 
' 202.9 
dl7.5 

133.1 
19.3 

88.0 

235.7 

77.7 

132.0 

278.2 

110.4 
37.3 

170.8 
9.1 
6.0 

254.9 

132.0 

45.2 



1912 
Over 
1902 

% 



20.8 
24.3 
36.1 

47.7 
20.8 

ii.e 

66.3 
33.7 
78.3 
43.4 
44.3 
16.1 
7.2 

70.2 

64.0 

29.6 

118.4 

53.0 
70.2 

.3 
26.6 
11.4 

50.4 
69.9 
d 2.1 
42.5 
12.9 

51.1 

111.9 
38.7 
45.1 
93.7 

45.3 
17.0 
87.7 
12.8 
6.0 

121.9 
78.8 
33.0 



244 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS. 



At the end of the year 1911 there 
were 58 passenger locomotives for 
every thousand miles of line, 148 
freight locomotives, 38 switching loco- 
motives, 5 unclassified, making a total 
of 249 locomotives per th6usand miles 
of line. There were 9,586 cars per 
thousand miles of line, divided as 
follows : 203 passenger cars ; 8,- 
920 freight cars; and 463 cars 
for the company's service. At 
the end of the same year it was 
es'timated that 66,757 passengers were 
carried per passenger locomotive ; 2,- 
268,097 passenger miles covered per 
passenger locomotive ; 48,007 tons car- 
ried per freight locomotive ; 6,913,259 
ton-miles covered per freight locomo- 
tive. For every million passengers 
carried there were 50 passenger cars, 
and for every million tons of freight 
carried there were 1,235 freight cars 
employed. 



At the end of the year 1911 there 
were 49,818 passenger cars in service ; 
2,195,511 freight cars; and 114,006 
company cars, making a total of 2,- 
359,335 cars in the service. The fast 
freight line service required 28,138 
cars for its service. 

Figurine the cost of a locomotive 
at $15,000, the 60,890 locomotives re- 
quired for the 236,444 miles of track 
operated in 1912 cost $913,350,000; 
the 50,152 passenger cars, valued at 
$6,500, cost $325,988,000; the freight 
cars, 2,192,987 in number, valued at 
$1,000 each, cost $2,192,987,000; and 
the 113,392 company cars, valued at 
$600 each, cost $68,035,200. Thus 
the approximate value of all equip- 
ment of American railways was $3,- 
500,360,200. The single item, mainte- 
nance of equipment, for the year 1912, 
amounted to $446,446,230. 



ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES. 



The heaviest electric locomotive on 
the New Haven has a weight on its 
drivers of 182,000 pounds, a maxi- 
mum guaranteed speed of 45 miles, 
and is designed to trail a load of 
800 tons. The Grand Trunk (St. 
Clair Tunnel) locomotive has a 
weight on the drivers of 132,000 
pounds, a guaranteed speed of 30 
miles an hour, and is designed to trail 
a losid of 500 tons. The Pennsylvania 
R. R. locomotive having a weight on 
the drivers of 207,800 pounds and a 
guaranteed speed of 80 miles, is de- 
signed to trail a load of 550 tons. 
The N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R.'s largest 



electric locomotive, having a weight 
on the drivers of 141,000, has a guar- 
anteed speed of 75 miles per hour. 
The Baltimore & Ohio has electric 
locomotives having a weight of 184,- 
000 pounds on the drivers, a guar- 
anteed speed of 55 miles, and is de- 
signed to trail a load of 850 tons. 
The Paris-Orleans locomotive has a 
weight on the drivers of 110,000 
pounds and a maximum guaranteed 
speed of 45 miles. The Great North- 
ern's largest electric locomotive has 
a weight of 230,000 pounds on the 
drivers and a maximum guaranteed 
speed of 30 miles. 



COST OF LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS. 



T-iOComotives for railway service 
cost approximately as follows : Mogul, 
for freight service, having an average 
weight of 160,000 pounds, cost $14,- 
100 ; Consolidation, for freight serv- 
ice, average weight 200,000 pounds, 
cost $18,500 ; Mallet Compound, for 
freight service, average weight 400,- 
000 pounds, cost $40,000; Atlantic, 
for passenger service, average weight 
185,000 pounds, cost $15,970; Pacitit.*, 
for passenger service, average weight 
225,000 pounds, cost $20,800; and 
Ten Wheel, for passenger ser\ice, 
average weight 170,000 pounds, cost 
$15,000. 

Wood box cars (with steel under- 
frame) weighing 36,000 pounds, hav- 



ing a capacity of 1(X),000 pounds, and 
inside dimensions of 40' 6" x 8' 10" x 
8', cost $1,500; steel coal (gondola), 
weight 46,(XX) pounds, capacity 110,- 
000 pounds, inside dimensions 46' x 
8' 9" x 10' 6", cost $1,200 ; flat cars, 
weight 34,000 pounds, capacity 100.- 
0(X) pounds, inside dimensions 40' 2' 
x 9' 2", cost $700; day coach, weight 
112,000 pounds, capacity 80 passen- 
gers, dimensions 78' 3" x 10' x 14' 5", 
cost $8,500; sleeping car (wood), 
weight 115,000 pounds, capacity 27 
berths, inside dimensions 72' 6" x 
8' 6" X 9' 6", cost $16,700; sleeping 
cars (steel), weight 152,300 pounds, 
capacity 24 berths, inside dimensions 
72' 6" X 9' 9" X 9' 6", cost $27,000. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERiaJCE BOOK. 



A dining car costs $30,000 to $35,000. 
A combination ca(£ car costs about 
f2S,UUU. We &re indebted to the 
"World Almanac" (or many of thine 
iDtf resting figures. 

The Mallet Compound, built for the 
Atcliison, Topeka « Santa Fi, baving 
a lolal weight of mii,0VO pounds, and 
a weight of !S50,000 pounds on Its 
drivers, is tbe largest and most 
powerful locomotive in tbe world. 
It has ten drivers on each side, 
having a diameter of 57 int-hea. 
BDd was built by tbe Santa t'6 
by converting a 2-l6'3 type loco- 
laative by tbe addition of a front 
unit. From tbe tip of the pilot to 
the end of the tender it is 121 feet 
T iuchee long. It has a heating si 
face of 6.570 square feet. Its cyli 
ders are 28 X 38 I 32 inches and i 



tractive effort is 111,600 pounds. It 
was built fur operation over tbe A., 
T. & S. F. from I^s Angelea to 
Alburjuerque, where the maximum 
grade ranges from 2.2 per cenL to 
3 per cent. The locomotive burns fuel 
oil, and the tender has a capacity of 
4,0U0 gallun 

"" " 'let Compound paw 

,..:.. L.. .r. A "••-(,. p^ 

. _. .jbt Is a:" " 

pounds and the weight on its driv< 
73 incbes in diameter. Is 268,400 
pounds. It has a beating surface of 
4,756 square feet. Its cylinders are 
24x38x28 inches and its tractive ef- 
fort is 62.850 pounds. It is for use on 
a division having 2.2 per cent, graiiea. 
and over which the schedule speed 
averages about 25 miles. 



At tbe end of tbe year 1912 I ?2.'(0,550.544, 



236,444 miles of raili-oad and that of the roads 
ihe total cost of locoiijotivp fuel cent, of the gi 
for operating trains over them waj | roads. 



total operating expense 



I earnings of the 




246 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF RAILWAY EMPLOYEES, COMPENSATION AND RATES OF PAY 
PER DAY BY CLASSES IN 1911. AGGREGATES FROM 1899 TO 1912. 



1912 

(236,444 Miles Repieaented) 

Claaa 

General Officers 

Other Officers 

General Office Clerks 

Station Agents 

Other Station Men 

Enginemen 

Firemen 

Conductors 

Other Trainmen 

Machinists 

Carpenters 

Other Shopmen 

Section Foremen 

Other Trackmen 

Switch Tenders, Crossing Tend- 
er! and Watchmen 

Telegraph Operators and Des- 
patchers 

Employes acct. Floating Equpt. 

All other Employes & Laborers. 

Total (95% Mileage Repre- 
sented) 



Number 



3,622 

9.866 

77,722 

36,862 

161,275 
63,260 
66,423 
48,792 

135,508 
54,467 
69.210 

248,440 
43.113 

347,433 

38,783 

42,557 

11,918 

231,457 



1.690,709 



Per 100 

MUes 

of Line 



1.5 
4.2 
32.9 
15.6 
68.2 
26.8 
28.1 
20.6 
67.3 
23.0 
29.3 

105.1 
18.2 

147.0 

16.4 

18.0 

5.1 

97.9 



Compensation 



Total 



715.2 



18,111,992 
21,702,497 
64,047,042 
29,018,678 
97,758,363 

101,449,397 
61,309,898 
67,372,682 

127.285,178 
62,194,886 
62,027,465 

167,095,651 
30,835,624 

133,320,207 

23,095,845 

34,701,160 

8,968,119 

149,131.100 



1,239,425,284 



Average 

Pay 
Per Day 



$15.22 
6.45 
250 
2.23 
1.90 
5.02 
3.03 
4.29 
3.02 
8.27 
2.57 
2.25 
2.09 
1.50 

1.73 

2.46 
2.32 
2.13 



2.44 



Percent 

of Gross 

Revenues 



0.6 
0.8 
2.3 
1.0 
3.5 
3.6 
2.2 
2.4 
4.5 
l.t 
1.9 
6.0 
1.1 
48 

0.8 

1.2 
0.3 
5.3 



44.20 



1911 Official Figures. 

1910 

1909 

1908 

1907 

1906 

1905 

1904 

1903 

1902 

1901 

1900 

1899 

1898 

1897 

1896 

1895 

1894 

1893 

1892 

1891 

1890 

1889 



1.702,164 

1,732,435 

1,528,808 

1,458,244 

1,672,074 

1,521,355 

1,382,196 

1,296,121 

1,312,537 

1,189,315 

1,071,169 

1,017,653 

028,924 

874,558 

823.476 

826.620 

785.034 

779.608 

873,602 

821,415 

784,285 

749,301 

704,743 



687 
716 
638 
632 
735 
684 
637 
611 
639 
594 
548 
529 
495 
474 
449 
454 
441 
444 
515 
506 
486 
479 
459 



$1,230,186,019 

1,165,444,855 

1,005,349,958 

1.051,632,225 

1,072,386,427 

(a) 930,801,653 

839,944,680 

817,598,810 

775,321,415 

676,028,592 

610,713,701 

577,264,841 

522.967,896 

495,055,618 

465,601,581 

468,824,531 

445,508,261 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 



(b) $2.42 

2.29 

2.24 

2.25 

2.20 

2.09 

2.07 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 



43.7 

41.82 

41.00 

43.88 

41.42 

40.02 

40.34 

41.86 

40.78 

89.28 

88.30 

88.82 

39.81 

89.70 

41.60 

40.77 

41.44 



(a) Includes $30,000,000 estimate x>ay-roll of Southern Pacific, whose records were destroyad in 
the San Francisco disaster. 

(b) Bureau computations. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



247 



NUMBERS OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF FREIGHT CARS. 



At the close of the year 1910 the 
several classes or kinds into which 
freight cars are divided, were as fol- 
lows : box cars, 966,577 ; flat cars, 
153,918 ; stock cars, 77,584 ; coal cars, 
818,689; tank cars, 7,434; refrigera- 



tor cars, 30,918; and other cars 
78,411. The average capacity in tons 
of a box car was 33 ; of a flat car 
33; a stock car 30; a coal car 41; 
a tank car 39 ; a refrigerator car 30 ; 
and of other cars 37. 



PASSENGER TRAFFIC. 



A summary of the passenger traflSc 
for the year 1911 shows that there 
were 997,409,882 passengers carried ; 
that there were 33,201,694,699 passen- 
gers carried one mile ; and that the 
mileage of revenue passenger trains 
amounted to 572,929,421. The aver- 



age number of passengers in a train 
55 ; the average journey per passen- 
ger was 33.48 miles; and the average 
revenue per passenger per mile was 
1.974 cents. The passenger revenue 
amounted to $657,638,291. 



FREIGHT TRAFFIC. 



At the end of the fiscal year 1911 
the grand total of freight traflSc for 
the tJnited States amounted to 1,718,- 
014,118 tons, plus 63,623,836 tons— 
the latter amount being unassigned 
freight, while the former was assigned. 
The products of agriculture, having a 
total freight tonnage of 166,864,072, 
were divided as follows : Grain, 71,- 
126,786 tons ; flour, 19,557,516 ; other 
mill products, 15,475,563; hay, 12,- 
033,156; tobacco, 1,706,044; cotton, 
7,228,879; fruit and vegetables, 29,- 
108,043 ; other products of agricul- 
ture, 10,628,085 tons. 

The products of animals, totaling 
41,214,057 tons, were divided as fol- 
lows: Live stock, 20,416,150; 
dressed meats, 5,637,469 ; other pack- 
ing-house products, 4,809,181 ; poultry, 
game and fish, 1,587,942 ; wool, 1,023,- 
914; hides and leather, 2,653,507; 
other products of animals, 5,085,894 
tons. 

From the products of the mines the 
total freight traffic amounted to 921,- 
129,439 tons and was divided as fol- 
lows : Anthracite coal, 127,402,064; 
bituminous coal, 479,638,745 ; coke, 
60,804,241; ores, 133,082,878; stone. 



sand, and other like articles, 99,352,- 
583; other products of mines, 20,848,- 
929 tons. 

The products of the forests, divided 
into lumber, 125,185,647 tons, and 
other products of the forest, 61,770,- 
233 tons, amounted to 186,955,880 
tons for the year 1911. 

The manufactures of the United 
States, making a total freight tonnage 
of 267,776,334, were divided accord- 
ing to freight traffic as follows : Pe- 
troleum and other oils, 17,596,449 ; 
sugai:, 6,923,808 ; naval stores, 1,553,- 
271 ; iron, pig and bloom, 22,713,623 ; 
iron and steel rails, 8,920,596; other 
castings and machinery, 23,052,502 ; 
bar and sheet metal, 29,899,867; ce- 
ment, brick and lime, 61,082,645 ; agri- 
cultural implements, 3,264,739 ; wag- 
ons, carriages, tools, etc., 3,008,857; 
wines, liquors and beers, 6,829,700 ; 
household goods and furniture, 3,820,- 
113 ; other manufactures, 79,110,164 
tons. 

The freight traffic for merchandise 
amounted to 60,976,778 tons and mis- 
cellaneous — other commodities, to 73,- 
097,558 tons. 



SUMMARY OF FREIGHT MILEAGE, REVENUE, AND RECEIPTS 

PER TON MILE. 



During the year 1901 the number 
of tons carried one mile amounted to 
147,077.136,040 and during the year 
1912 to 261,416,643,000 ; thus making 
a total increase for the 11 years of 
77.5 per cent. The freight revenue 



for the year 1901 amounted to $1,118,- 
543,014 and for 1912 to $1,936,237,- 
488 ; making an increase of 73.1 per 
cent, for the 11 years. The. receipts 
per ton mile in 1901 amounted to 7.50 
mills and in 1912 to 7.41 mills. 



"IFIC AMERICA.N REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



249 



PASSENGER AND FREIGHT REVENUES. 



Analyzing the revenues of the pas- 
senger service for the fiscal year 1890, 
we find that the revenue per passenger 
per mile was 2.167 cents ; the rev- 
enue per passenger carried, $0.50818 ; 
the revenue per train-mile, passenger 
trains, $1.08641 ; and the passenger 
earnings per mile of road, $1,978.19. 
For the freight service for the same 
year the revenue per ton per mile 
amounted to 0.927 cents ; the revenue 
per ton of freight carried $1.08781-! 
the revenue per train-mile, freight 
trains, $1.65434: freight earnings per 
mile of road, $4,588.82. Thus the 
total revenue per train-mile for all 
tfains amounted to $1.44231, and the 
cost of running a train one mile 
$0.96006. 

In 1900 the passenger revenues 
were as follows : revenue per passen- 
ger per mile 2.003 cents ; revenue per 
passenger carried $0.56459 ; revenue 
per train-mile, passenger trains, 
$1.01075 ; passenger earnings per 
mile of road $2,067.17. The freight 
revenues for the same year were : 
revenue per ton per mile 0.729 cents ; 



revenue per ton of freight carried 
$0.99373 ; revenue per train-mile, 
freight trains, $2.00042; freight 
earnings per mile of road $5,466.47. 
Thus the revenue per train-mile for 
all trains amounted to $1.65721 and 
the cost of running a train one mile 
$1.07288. 

The passenger revenues for the year 
1911 were divided into revenue per 
passenger per mile, 1.974 cents ; rev- 
enue per passenger carried, $0.65798 ; 
revenue per train-mile, passenger 
trains, $1.30921 ; and passenger 
earnings ,per mile of road, $3,312.00. 
On the freight service the revenue 
per ton per mile amounted to 0.757 
cents ; the revenue per ton of freight 
carried $1.07944 ; the I'evenue per 
train-mile, freight trains, $2.89548 ; 
the freight earnings per mile of road, 
$7,895.00. Thus the revenue per 
train-mile for all trains amounted to 
$2.24824 and the cost of running a 
train one mile $1.54338. The term 
"ton" generally signifies the short 
ton of 2,000 pounds. 



CONSUMPTION OF FUEL OIL. 



The increasing use of fuel oil is 
due to many causes. It has been 
demonstrated from tests made on some 
of the railroads accessible to the oil 
fields and refineries of the West, 
where fuel oil can be purchased 
cheaply, that the cost of operating 
with oil is less and its use equally 
as efficient as coal, the supplies of 
which are at times very low and 
uncertain on account of strikes and 
shutdowns of mines, and often on 
account of shortage of cars for the 
transportation of the coal, especially 
in the winter season. In some locali- 
ties where oil is coming into use, as 
in Nevada, the cost of coal is ex- 
tremely high. Another reason for the 
use of oil is the prevention or the 



elimination of forest fires, which in 
the last few years have been so dis- 
astrous in the northwestern part of 
the country. In addition to the econ- 
omy of the use of oil as compared 
with coal on railroads, it is very 
much cleaner and safer for the trav- 
eler, there being no smoke or cinders. 
In 1911 there were 27,368 lines of 
mile operated by the use of fuel oil. 
The total quantity of fuel oil con- 
sumed by railroads for the same year 
amounted to 27,774,821 barrels. The 
total mileage made by oil-burning en- 
gines for that year was 104,270,964 
and the average number of miles 
traveled per barrel of oil consumed 
was 3.75. 



REVENUES AND EXPENSES. 



A general summary of the monthly 
reports of revenues and. expenses made 
up by the Bureau of Railway News 
and Statistics (95% of all roads) 
shows that the average number of 
miles operated during 1912 was 236,- 
444. The operating revenue, which 



amounted to $2,806,177,194, was made 
up as follows : Passenger, $653,598,- 
401; freight, $1,936,237,488; mail, 
$50,458,769 ; express, $73,053,799 ; 
other revenues from operation, $92,- 
828,737. The operating expenses, 
amounting to $2,064,645,750, were 



250 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



divided as follows : Maintenance of 
way and structures, $360,446,190; 
maintenance of equipment, $446,446,- 
230; traffic expenses, $59,8^5,212; 
transportation expenses, $1,008,019,- 
735; general expenses, $71,684,564; 
taxes, $118,153,819. Deducting the 
total expenses and taxes from the rev- 
enues from operation, we have a total 
operating income of $746,385,701; of 
this amount, $741,531,444 was derived 
from rail operations, and $4,854,257 
from outside operations. 

At the close of the year ending 
June 30, 1800, the r^iilroads had a 
total of $4,409,658,453 stocks out- 
standing, of which $1,598,131,933, or 
36.24 per cent., were paying divi- 
dends. This stock of the railroads 
paid dividends at an average rate of 
5.45 per cent. The* railroads paid 
$87,071,613 dollars in dividends and 
$221,499,702 interest on the funded 
debt, making a total of $308,571,315. 
The interest on interest-bearing cur- 
rent liabilities amounted to $8,114,- 
768. 

In 1900 the total stock of the rail- 
roads was $5,845,570,593 and the 
stock-paying dividends amounted to 
$2,668,969,805, or 45.66 per cent, of 
the total amount of stock. The aver- 
age rate paid was 5.23 per cent., mak- 
ing a total of $139,597,972 paid in 
dividends. The interest on the funded 
debt amounted to $252,949,616, mak- 
ing a total expenditure on dividends 



and interest on the funded debt of 
$392,547,588. The interest on the 
interest-bearing current liabilities 
amounted to $4,912,892. 

At the end of the year 1911 the 
total amount of stock paying divi- 
dends was $5,730,250,326, or 67.65 of 
the total amount of outstanding stock. 
The average rate paid on stock was 
8.03 per cent., or $460,195,376. The 
interest on the funded debt amounted 
to $410,326,852, making a total of 
$870,522,228 paid for interest and div- 
idends. The interest on the interest- 
bearing current liabilities amounted to 
$26,207,567. 

At the end of the fiscal year 1911, 
the assets for the 244,089.14 miles pf 
line represented were as follows : Net 
investment in road and equipment, 
$15,872,462,792 ; other investments, 
$4,551,785,530; sundry assets (in- 
cluding deferred debit items), $348,-. 
227,510 ; current accounts, $1,743,- 
499,260 ; making the total assets $22,- 
515,975.092. 

The liabilities for the same number 
of miles of road and for the same year 
were as follows : Capital stock, $8,- 
582,463,256; bonded debt (including 
real estate mortgages, equipment, 
trust obligations, etc.), $10,989,608,- 
551; unfunded debt (including appro- 
priated surplus), $418,122,751; cur- 
rent accounts, $1,139,377,126 ; sinking 
and other funds, $230,573,472. The 
excess of assets over liabilities was, 
therefore, $1,155,829,092. 




RAIL ROAD LINE FROM NEW YORK TO BUFFALO. 




fW 



^i»,<xmd, /torn ^Aew ^oin ^ 

One ntmmea hoan</d (^ vaaaaae /lee £>r eac^ £4^ Aau^en^er on ine 

x^mver, ana jk/iu /louncM on ine S^khuc f^&oaa an(/ ^ana/. 



TOW BOAT 



To JOHN M. HUGHES, { 
ScKmaa»d^. \ 



NEW YORK, 



183 



RAILROAD TICKET OF THE EARLY THIRTIES. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



251 



RAILROAD SPEEDS. 



Month, 
day, year. 

6-14-'80 
O- 0-'80 
4-22-'82 
7-12-*83 

5- 9-'84 

5- 8-'86 
7- 9-*86 
6-17-'86 

7- 5-'86 

8- 8-'86 
7-10-*88 
8- 0-'88 

8- 0-*88 
8-30-'88 
8-31-'88 
4- 8-'89 

5-19-'89 
5-26-'89 
3-10-'90 
3-10-'90 

3-10-'90 
6-22-'91 
8- C^'91 
»-14-*91 

ia-16-*91 

ll-28-*91 
12-22-'91 

3-28-'92 
ll-18-'92 

ll-18-'92 
12- 0-'92 

6- 9-'93 

5-19-'93 
6-19-'93 
5-28-'93 

8-28-'93 
3-23-'94 
4-17-:94 
8-26-94 

4- 0-'96 
4-21-'96 
8-21- 95 
8-21-'95 

9-ll-'96 

9-24-'95 

10-24-'95 

10-24-'95 

10-24-'95 

5- 7-*96 

6- 7-'96 
6-10-'96 

6-20-'96 

7- 3-'96 

ll-21-'96 
2-16-'97 
3-ll-'97 



Railroad. 



P.R.R. 

Gt. N. (Eng.) 
W.Jersey 
B. S. & N. Y. 

P. & R. 

L.S.and N.Y.C. 
W. Shore 
C.,B. &Q. 

Wabash 

N.Y.C. &H.R. 
L. & N. W.-Cal. 
L. &IN. W. 

L. & N. W. 

N. E. (Eng.) 
Gt. N. (Eng.) 
C.&N.W. 

P., F.W. &C. 
Mich. C. 
PAR. 
P. R. R. 

P. R. R. 

N.Y.C.&H R. 
Canadian Pac 
N. Y. C. & H. R. 

N. Ry. (France) 

P. R. R. 

B. &0. 

N.Y.C. &H.R 
Cent. N. J. 

P.&R. 

L. & N. W. 

N. Y. C. & H. R. 

N.Y. C. &H R. 
N. Y. C.&H. R 
N. Y. C. & H. R. 

L. 8. & M. S. 

f^., O.. O. & 8t. ±Jm 

C. & N. W. 
L. S. & M. S. 
A. C. Line 

C. B. & Q. 

Camden & Atl. 
West Coast 
East Coast 

N. Y. C. & H. R. 
N. Y. C. & H. R. 
L. S. & M. S. 
L. S. & M. S. 

P. R. R. 
Mich. C. 
Mich. C. 
Atlantic City 

Atlantic City 

C, M. & St. P. 

S.&R. 
C.,B. &Q. 
Char. & Sav. 



From. 



Philadelphia 
London 
Camden 
Syracuse 

N. Y. Div. 
Chicago 
Alabama 
Princeton 

K. City 
Syracuse 
London 
Crewe 

Preston 
York 
London 
Chicago 

Ft. Wayne 
S. Bridge 
Philad^phia 
Jersey Oity 

Washington 
New York 
Vancouver 
New York 

Paris 

Jersey City 
Philadelphia 

Oneida 
Fanwood 

Jenkintown 

Crewe 

Grimesville 

Syracuse 
Looneyv^ille 
New York 

Seymolur 
C. BluflTs 
Cleveland 
Jacksonville 

Chicago 
Camden 
London 
London 

New York 
Albany 
Erie 
Chicago 

Jersey City 
Windsor 
St. Thomas 
Camden 

Camden 

Forest Glen 

Weldon 
Chicago 
Cent. June. 



To. 



Jersey City 
Grantham 
Cape May 
Bingham ton 

M. P. 48 
New York 
Gen. June. 
Burlington 

Peru 
Fairport 
Edinboro 
Preston 

Carlisle 
Ni?wcastle 
Edinhoro 
Council Bluffs 

Chicago 
Chicago 
Jersey City 
Washington 

Jersey City 
Buffalo 
Brockville 
E. Buffalo 

Calais 

Washington 
Canton 

DeWltt 



L'home 
Rugby 



E. Buffalo 

Grimesville 

Chicago 

N. Tower 
Chicago 
Erie 
Washington 

G'burg 
Atlantic City 
Aberdeen 
Aberdeen 

E. Buffalo 
Syracuse 
Buffalo 
Buffalo 

Philadelphia 
St. Thomas 
Fort Erie 
Atlantic City 

Atlantic City 

Nat. Ave. 

Shops 
Denver 
Ashley J. 



Dist. 
Miles. 



Time, 
h. m. 8. 



90 

105.5 
81.5 
79 

14 

964 
36.3 
170 

563 

70.25 
400 

51 

90 
80.5 

392.5 

490 

148.3 
511 
90 
226 

226 
439.52 
2,792 
436.32 

184 

227 
91.6 

21.37 
1 

5 

76 

1 

146 

5 

964 

42 

488 

95.5 
780.8 

163 

58.3 
540 
623J 

436.32 
147.84 
86 
510.1 

89.6 

11.2 

118.2 

65.5 

55.5 

74 

76.8 
1,025 
102 



1:33:00 
1:51:00 
1:23:30 
1:23:00 

0:11:19 

22:45:00 

0:30:00 

2:58:00 

13:45:00 
1 :01 :20 
7:52:00 
0:50:00 

1:30:00 

1:18:00 

7.26:45 

12:30:00 

2:59:00 

11:41:00 

1:25:00 

4:18:00 

4:19:00 

8:58:00 

76:31:00 

7:17:30 

3:43:00 

4:11:00 
1 :41 :00 

0:17:40 
0:00:37 

0:03:25 
1:11:00 
0:00:35 

2:21:00 

0:03:00 

19:57.00 

0:35:34 
12:52:00 

1:35:00 
15:49:00 

2:45:00 
0.45:45 
8:55:00 
8:40:00 

6:51:56 
2:10:00 
1:10:46 
8:01:07 

1:33:21 
1:43:05 
1:47:15 
0:48:00 

0:57:00 

1:22:00 

1:12:30 

18:53:00 

1:40:00 



Speed 

miles 

per H . 

58.06 
66.5 
58.63 
57.11 

74.2 
42.38 
72.60 
57.3 

41 

68.73 
50.85 
61.20 

60 
62 
52.7 
39.2 

49.7 
43.74 
63.53 
52.56 

52.35 
49.2 
36.49 
59.56 

49.51 

54.22 
54.41 

72.69 
97.3 

87.8 
64.23 
102.8 

62.13 
100 
48.2 

70.96 
41.1 
60.32 
49.36 

59.27 
76.46 
60.56 
60.35 

63.54 
68.23 
72.91 
63.61 

57.6 
64.72 
36.13 
69.4 

58.42 

54.2 

63.56 
54.27 
61.02 



252 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RAILROAD SPEEDS— Continued. 



Month, 
day, year. 



4- 9-'97 
4-21-'97 
7-14-'97 
7-16-'97 
8- 3-'97 

8- 3-'97 
ll-29-'97 

12- 4-'97 

2-13-'98 
8-20-'98 

1- 2-'99 
4-23-'99 
7- 9-'99 

7-19-'99 

7-22-' 99 

7-31-'99 

10- 7-'99 

10-14-'99 

11-22-' 99 

3-27-00 

4-30-'00 

7- 9-'00 

7- 4-'00 
8-16-'00 
9-30-'00 

12-21-*00 
3- 1-01 

9- 5-'01 

2- 9-'02 

3-24-02 
3-24-'02 
6-21-'02 
5-25-'03 

6-19-'03 

8- 8-03 
4-27-*04 
6- 9-04 
7-20-04 
5-14-05 

6- 8-'05 

6-13-'05 
0- 0-'05 

7- 9-'05 



10-23-'05 



10-23-'05 
10-24-'05 
11- 3-*05 



5- 5-'06 



6-19-06 



Railroad. 



Atlantic Coast L. 
Lehigh V. 
Atl. City (P. &R.) 
P., Ft. W. & C. 
Union Pacific 
Union Pacific 
Union Pacific 

Union Pacific 

Erie 
Atlantic City 

Chic, B. & O. 
ChlcB. &0 
Del.. L. & W. 

Vandalia 
Atlantic City 
W. J. & S. (Penn.) 
Penn. W. Pittsburgh 

Wabash 
L. S. & M. S. 
Atch., T. & S. F 
Chic.B. &Q. 

N. Y. C. & H. R. 

Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Penn. Lines 

Burlington 
Sav.,F. &W. 
Mich. Cent. 
N.Y.,N.H. &H. 

Penn. 

Burlington 

Penn. 

L. S. & M. S. 

L. & N. W. 
A. T. & S. F. 
Mich. Cent. 
Gt. Western 
Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Penn. 

L. S. acM. S. 
J N. Y. C. i 

1 L. S. & M. S. S 

A. T. & S. F. 

f Southern Pac. 1 
Union Pac. 
-I Chic. & No.West. 
I L. S. &M. S. 
LErie 

Penn. 
Penn. 
Penn. 

f Southern Pac. 

Union Pac. 
-i Chic & N. W. 
I L. S. AMich.So. 

N. Y. Cent. 

Atlantic City 



From. 



Florence, S. C. 

Alpine 

Camden 

G. R. & I. Jc 

Evanston 

N. Platte 

Cheyenne 

Sidney 

Jersey City 
Camden 

Omaha 

Clyde 

Bath 

Clayton 
Camden 
Camden 
Ft. Wayne 

Tilton 
Buffalo 
Los Angeles 
Burlington 

Rochester 
Camden 
Camden 
Ft. Wayne 

Omaha 
M. P. 69 
Susp. Bridge 
Harlem R. 

Philadelphia 
Eckley 
Harrisburg 
Toledo 

London 
Chicago 
Niagara Falls 
Plymouth 
Camden 
Atlantic City 
E. Tolleston 

Chicago 
New York 
Los Angele- 



Oakland 



Crestline 
Crestline 
Harrisburg 



Oakland 



Camden 



To. 



Rocky Mt. 
Geneva June. 
Atlantic City 
Colehour 
Omaha 
Omaha 
Coimcil Bluffs 

Omaha 

Buffalo 
Atlantic City 

Chicago 
Burlington 
East Buffalo 

Transfer 
Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Chicago 

Granite City 
Cleveland 
Chicago 
Chicago 

Syracuse 
Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Clarke J. 

Billings 
M. P. 74 
Windsor 
Bo.ston 

Jersey City 
Wray 
Altoona 
Elkhart 

Carlisle 

Los Angeles 

Windsor 

London 

Atlantic City 

Camden 

Donaldson 

Buffalo 

Chicago 

Chicago 



Jersey City 



Ft. Wayne 
Clarke J. 
Chicago 



New York 



Atlantic City 



Dist. 
Miles. 

172.2 

44 

65.6 
132.5 
955.2 
291.0 
519 


Time, 
h. m. s. 


3:00:00 
0:33:00 
0:46 30 
2:15:00 
23:55.00 
5:35:00 
9:19:00 


414.2 


7:12:00 


423. 
65.5 


7:30:00 
0:46:45 


600.2 
197.3 
104 


8:43:00 
3:04:00 
1:30:00 


18 
55.5 
58 3 
148.3 


0:14:00 
0:51:15 
0:50:30 
2:50:00 


176.6 
183 
2.236 
205.8 


2:47:30 

3:25:00 

58:00:00 

3:23:00 


•80.7 
55.5 
55.5 

126 


1:25:00 
0:44:15 
0:44:16 
2:38:00 


892.6 
4.8 
229 
228 


16:23:00 
0:02:40 
3:40:00 
4:12:00 


89.8 

14.8 

131.4 

133.4 


1:19:00 
0:09:00 
2:10:00 
1:54:00 


299.2 

2,267 

225.7 

246.8 

55.5 

55.6 

50 


6:58:00 
52:49:00 
3:18:00 
3:46:48 
0:43:00 
0:42:33 
0:38:00 


525 


7:33:00 


964 


18:00:00 


2.246 


44:64:00 


3.239 


73:12:00 


131.4 
257.4 
717 


1 :41 :20 

3:27:20 

12:49:00 


^,255 


71:27:00 


55.5 


0:43:30 



Speed 

miles 

per H. 

57.70 

80. 

71.60 

58.8 

39.93 

52.1 

55.7 

67.6 

56.4 
71.2 

67.38 
64.33 
69.30 

77.00 
65.00 
69.30 
62.30 

63.30 

38! 55 
60 80 

56.70 
75.20 
75.20 
47.90 

54.40 

107.90 

62.45 

54.30 

68.17 
98.66 
60.70 
70.20 

60.14 
42.80 
68.38 
65.30 
77.40 
78.26 
79.00 

69.53 
53.65 
60.00 



44.30 



77.81 

74.55 

56.00 



45.60 



76.70 



*From Locomotive Dictionary. — Courtesy Railroad-Age-Gazette, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



253 



LATEST RAILROAD SPEEDS. 



MbntK 
day, year. 


Railroad. 


From. 


To. 


Dist. 
Miles. 


Time, 
h. m. s. 


Speed 

miles 

per H. 


3-28-'09 


/ N. Y. C. \ 

\ L. S. / 
/ L. S. 1 
I M. C. 1 

d & N. w. 

C. & N. W. 
U. P. 


Mott Haven 


Chicago 


959 


16:30:00 


68.12 


7-29-'09 


Toledo 


Elkhart 


134 


1:50:00 


73.08 


8-16-'09 

8-17-'09 

10- 2-'09 


Chicago 
St. Paul 
Omaha 


St. Paul 
Chicago 
Denver 


409 
409 
575 


7.24:00 

7:24:00 

12:30:00 


54.05 
54.05 
46.0 


1-17-'10 


/ N. Y. C. \ 

1 L. S. [ 


New York 


Chicago 


964 


18:30:00 


52.1 


5-21-' 10 
12- O-'IO 


Mich. C. 
C. of N. J. 

r s. P. 1 

R. Is. 

IN. Y. C. J 
P. R. 
F. R. 

C. & N. W. 
N. Y. C. 
C. of N. J. 


Windsor 
Jersey City 


Falls View 
Washington 


224 
227 


3:44:00 
4:04:00 


60.0 
55.8 


2-16-'ll 

2-28-' 11 
2- O-'ll 
12-22-' 11 
4-00-'ll 
4-00-' 11 


Yuma 

Altoona 

Washington 

Chicago 

Syracuse 

Philadelphia 


New York 

Philadelphia 
New York 
Clinton 
Buffalo 
Jersey City 


2,787 

235.1 
226.8 
138 
149 
90 


74:19:00 

3:29:00 
3:55:30 
2:16:00 
2:20:00 
1:42:00 


40.41 

67.5 

57.8 

59.1 

63.84 

52.9 



Courtesy Railroad- Age-Gazette. 



RAILWAY MAIL REVENUES. 



Year 



1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

Mil : 

1912 

Ten years' increase, per cent 



Railway 

Mail 
Revenues 



39.963,248 
41.709,390 
44.499,732 
45,426,125 
47.371,453 
50,378,964 
48.517,563 
49,380.783 
48,913,888 
60.702,625 
50,458,769 
* 28.8% 



Number of 
Railway 
MaU 
Clerks 



9,627 
10,418 
11,621 
12.474 
13.598 
14.357 
15,295 
15.866 
16,578 
16,792 
16,636 
72.8% 



Foetal 
Revenuos 



121.848.047 
134.224,448 
143,482,624 
152,826,586 
167,932,783 
183,585.006 
191.478.663 
203.562,383 
224.128,657 
237.879,823 
246.744.015 
101.7% 





Risk of Employees and Passengers on 
American Railways. 




Safety Appliances on 
American Railways. 



SCIENTIFIC AUBRtCAN REPERENCB BOOK. 



RAILWAY 

The Futort Stmnina:, without 



SPEED IN ENGLAND. 
(toppMfa, ia mada ^ the 



North Eutem.... 



loDdoo and North Wvstc 
IdDdon and South Weite 
Caledonian 



Great Southern 



n.BriEbtc 
D, Tllbar 



libnrTA*. 

Hall and fiArnBjey -„,. 

Great Northern (Ireland) .. 



Moith Stagord-, 



k-*.. 



I Kott«4ng....-.,.{B» 

: Wllleaden Conaitn' 

I BiBlngrtoke VaiuhaU .-... 

I FsrLb [AbsniHn ...— 

> Uverpuo] lUaniitanla' ... 

I U^nuheiter IWeBtDerbr... 

1 LiDuiln Bpaldlng 

i Kflniuaook Dumtrlei 

; BillybTDphy ...Mallov 

:TuTibridBG 'ABhtcrd 

I VklJiria iHrl^ton 

1 atepnel iWealclfff 

j Droghedn , " ' ■' 

I Blair AtliD 



::;:!o^i;ur 

.... Petth ., 
^iRhM .. 






ThB Longest Runs without Stoppage are made lij the Cuiupai 






DnqiulT. 


TV.', 


P™u [ 


Tin,». 


1>1™«, 


»• 




"38 






ii 

< 5> 


is' 










igjsSE;:: 


SjS^'^-t: 


%i 








'Edlntiurgh 




S^B^i.r""'^"""' ■■ 


**" 


Olaseow and South Westttrn.. 




■s 

■« 










London Brighton & South Coail 


^^anham JuncL 




BovefToira 












Peterborough .. 


MElKinCoMfbU 


^'i 










3«'7 






Dublin 



FASTEST LONG-DISTANCE TRAINS. 



Korlbem (France) 

Prussian 

London ti North West 

N YCd;L8dMS 

Caledonian 

P L * M (France) 

Orleans (France) 
N Y C AH R 
O d « (Prance) 



nburg 



&X" 






Ijoetachbcrg Railway Tunnel | 



Tifore the third 



connecti. 
Milan tc 



1 rurope It gives a direct 
1 »ith the Simplon Tunnel 
and Bborteas the route from 
Calais b; about eighty mllea. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



255 



RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. 



During the year 1900 there were 
2,550 employees of the railroads killed 
and 39,643 injured, or for every 399 
men employed one was killed and for 
every 26 men employed one was in- 
jured. In 1909 the total number of 
employees killed was 2,610 and of 
those injured 75,006, or for each 576 
men employed one man was killed and 
for each 20 men employed one was 
injured. 

The total number of passengers 
killed during the year 1900 was 249 
and of those injured 4,128, or for 
every 2,316,591 passengers carried 
one was killed and for every 139,73(> 
carried one was injured. In 1909 
253 passengers were killed and 10,311 
injured, or for every 3,523,606 car- 
ried one was killed and for every 
86,458 carried one was injured. 

The number of other i)erson8 killed 
for the year 1900 was 5,066 and dur- 
ing 1909, 5,859; while those injured 
in 1900 numbered 6,549 and in 1909, 
10,309. The total number of per- 
sons killed during 1900 was 7,865 



and of those injured 50,320, and in 
1909 total of those killed was 8,722 
and of those injured 95,626. 

During the year 1912 there were 
270 passengers killed in railway ac- 
cidents; 3,283 employees, 5.424 tres- 
passers and 1,198 other i>ersons, not 
trespassers, making the total for the 
year 10,185, as compared with 9,957 
in 1911 and 9,682 in 1910. 

During the year 1912 the railroads 
paid to persons on account of injur- 
ies a total amount of $27,640,851, 
or 0.86 per cent of earnings. Of this 
amount, $2,034,485 was paid as a re- 
sult of maintenance of way ; $1,844,- 
039 as maintenance of equipment ; 
$23,762,327 as transportation. 

Another loss of $34,197,285 incurred 
by the railroads was divided as fol- 
lows : Jjoss and damage to freight, 
$24,953,843 ; to baggage, $304,925 ; to 
property, $4,846,165; to live stock, 
etc., $4,092,352. This amount was 
1.13 per cent of the net earnings of 
the railroads. 



SAFETY APPLIANCES. 



In the mater of safety appliances, 
American railroads are far more com- 
pletely equipped than the railways 
of any other country. With^ those 
twin devices for the protection of 

BLOCK 

At the end of the year 1912, 22,236 
miles of track were equipped with 
automatic block signals; 55,719 with 
non-automatic block signals and 276 
miles not classified, thus making a 
total of 78,231 miles having a block 
signal system of some sort. The total 
number of miles having a block signal 
system in 1911 was 76,408, thus mak- 
ing an increase in 1912 of 1,823 miles 
of line. After elaborate investiga- 

TRAIN 

During the year ending March 31, 
1909, the steam railroads of the State 
of. New York ran 650,592 trains or 
an average of 54,216 each month. 
During 1910 they report 703,816 
trains, or 58,651 a month; and dur- 
ing 1911, 758,833, or 63,236 a month. 
For this period of three years an 
average of 83.4 per cent, of the trains 
were on time. For each train the 
average delay was 25.96 minutes. The 
principal causes of delay were : wait- 



trains and employees, train brakes 
and automatic coupler^ their equip- 
ment is practically complete — the pro- 
portion being 98% and 99.7%, re- 
spectively. 

SIGNALS. 

tions, the cost of installing and main- 
taining the block signal system, was 
reported as follows : Cost of installa- 
tion of automatic block signals on 
railway mileage not equipped, $286,- 
492,976; annual cost for maintenance, 
depreciation and interest charge, $73,- 
751,012. The estimated cost of instal- 
lation was $1,232 per mile, and for 
maintenance, $169 per mile of track 
per year. 

SERVICE. 

ing for trains on other divisions, 32.6 
per cent. ; train work at stations, 
14.3 per cent. ; waiting for train con- 
nections with other railroads, 13 per 
cent. ; trains ahead, 7.5 per cent. ; 
engine failures, 7.1 per cent. ; meet- 
ing and passing trains, 6.3 per cent. ; 
and wrecks, 5.7 per cent. 

There are 47 steamships engaged in cable- 
laying and repairing. 



356 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF CASUALTIES TO PERSONS IN RAILWAY ACCIDENTS 
FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1911, AND 1912. 



■ 


1912 


1911 




Killed 


Injured 


Killed 


Injured 


Passengers: 
r^ollimnns . . . . , , 4 


40 
65 


4.184 

3.956 

76 

6,125 


55 

39 


3.176 


Derailments , 


2,374 


Other Accidents to Trains 


90 


Othi^ Causes 


156 


187 


5.753 


Total Passengers 


270 

292 
251 

78 
102 

77 

573 

1,505 


14.291 

3,592 
3,015 
1.716 
3,235 
1.523 
13.874 
24.260 


281 

335 
258 

76 
209 

76 

539 

1,454 


11,393 


Employes on Duty: 
Collisions 


3,567 


Derailments 


2,268 


Other Accidents to Trains 


1.868 


In Coupling Accidents 

Overhead Obstructions 


2,966 
1,510 


Falling from Cars. 


12,989 


Other Causes 


22,740 


Total Employee 


2,968 


61,215 


2,946 


47,281 


Total Passengers and Employes on Duty . . 
Employes not on Duty: 
In Train Accidents 


8.238 
20 


65,506 

156 
2 

12 
312 
477 
959 

277 
4,746 
5,023 

151 
5,536 


3,227 
13 


69,281 
174 


In Coupling Accidents 




Overhead Obstructions 


1 

53 
241 
315 

13 

1,185 
1,198 

91 
5.343 


2 

49 
223 
292 

11 
1,143 
1.154 

81 
5.203 


13 


Falling from Cars 


857 


Other Causes 


410 


Total > 


954 


Other Persons: 
Not Trespassing—' 
In Train Accidents 


175 


Other Causes 


4,898 


Total 


6,073 


In Train Accidents 


141 


Other Causes 


6,473 


Total 

Total Accidents Involving Train Operation . 
Industrial Accidents to Employes: 
Not Involving Train Operation 


5,434 
10,185 

400 


6,687 
77,175 

92,363 


^.284 
9.957 

439 


6,6U 
70,922 

79,337 


Grand Total 


10,585 

9,632 

8.722 

10,188 

11,839 

10,618 

9,703 

10,046 

. 9.840 

8,558 

8,455 

7,865 

7,123 


169,538 

119,507 

95,626 

104,230 

111,016 

97,706 

86.008 

84.155 

76.553 

64,662 

53,339 

50,320 

44.620 


10,396 


150,169 


1910 




1909 






1908 






1907. 






1906 




• 


1905 






1904 






1903 

1902 






1901 






1900 




1899 







SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



257 



DENSITY OF POPULATION. 

Egypt proper is the most densely populated country, having 931 per square mile. Belgium 
comes next with 660, then Holland. The United Kingdom has 373, Japan 336, after which 
come the other European Countries down to Russia with 63.7 and Sweden with 31.8. The 
United States has only 30.9, and the South American Republics all less. Australia contains only 
1.38 persons per square mile. In England there is an average of just about 1 person p>er acre. 



Lord Rayleigh has recently made some 
mteresting experiments to determine the colors 
of the sea and sky. Other experimenters 
such as Davy, Bunsen, and Spring, were all 
satisfied that the color of water was blue, but 
Lord Raj^leigh's experiments have supplied 
only limited confirmation of that view. 



What appears to be the intrinsic color of the 
sea he nnds is often due to the color of the 
sky or is affected by the color of the bottom. 
With carefully distilled water he^got the same 
blue color of water as the water from Capri 
and Suez, while that from Seven Stones Light- 
ship, off the Cornish coast, gave a full green. 



KILLED IN EUROPEAN RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 



Country 


Year 


Pas- 
sengers 


Em- 
ployes 


Other 
Persons 


1 
Total 


Preced- 
ing Yeac 

• 


United Kingdom . ^ ..... 


1911... 
1910... 
1908... 
1909... 
1910. . . 
1910. . . 
1910-11 
1907... 
1904... 


112 
97 

198 
(b) 8 
29 
24 
25 
25 


446 
543 
645 
351 
112 
140 
107 
64 


601 
624 
1,866 
c333 
153 
189 
209 
213 


1,15S 

1,264 

2,709 

692 

294 

353 

341 

302 

55 

97 

16 

26 

152 

32 

85 

104 


1,121 


GermRpy 


1,394 


Russia (a) 


2,950 


France 


625 


Austria 


313 


H"unsr«ry . , ,,,.., 


356 


Italy 


438 


SiMun 


219 


Portugal 


37 


Sweden 


1909... 
1910-11 
1910-11 
1910... 
1909... 
1910... 
1910-11 


6 
1 

1 

11 
3 
7 
7 


32 
7 
9 
71 
20 
32 
28 


59 

S 

16 

70 

9 

46 
69 


91 


Norway 


13 


T)enmRTk (d) 


30 


Belgium 


05 


Holland 


37 


Switxerlaild 


99 


Rn^imftnia 


18 






Total Europe 


1910. . . 
1909. . . 

lUUo. . . 

1907... 
1906 .. 
1905. . . 
1904... 


554 

692 
671 
630 
686 
560 
503 
412 


2,607 

2,689 
2,641 
2,536 
2,575 
2,319 
2,104 
1,920 


4,465 

4,461 
4^322 
3,580 
8,400 
3,553 
3,414 
2,665 


; .626 

7,897 
7,689 
6,803 
6,606 
6,432 
6,021 
4,995 


7,797 


Europe (e) 





























(a) Exclusive of local lines and railways of Finland. 

(b) In train accidents only. 

(c) Excluding suicides, but including passengers killed otherwise than in train accidents. 

(d) State railways only. 

(e) These figures are those compiled for this Bureau each year since its organisation, the detaila 
tor each oountry appearing in the report of the report for the following year. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STATISTICS OF THE PULLMAN COMPANY. 

The report rendered bs the PullmaD Company for the year ended June 
30, 1911, places tbe average mileage (single track) over which operations 
were conducted at 120,871 miles. The cost of the proiiertr and equipment 
required for the service amounted to S116,02(J,015. The operating revenues 
are divided into berth revenue, $31,415,1)13; seat revenue, ?5,585,!i5«; charter 
of cars, $6015408 ; and other miscellaneona revenues to make the total operat- 
ing revenues $35,6!)T,5S2. The conductors employed on the Pnllmao cars, 2,274 
in number, receive an average daily compensation of $2.S2 ; the 6.317 porters 
employed receive (in average daily compensation of $1.04 ; and the S stenog- 
raphers employed by the service receive an average daily compensation of $2.31. 

OPERATTNO STATISTIC3. 

Tot^ number ol revenue pagsengers— berth U,435,«M 

, Total number ol revenue paBaeoeero acat (l,aitl,MS 

Avenge revenue per paasengei— berth tl.53 

Average revenue pec paaseneer— seat W. Al 

Total DOlnberofcw-Dilla a3t,6ae,99e 

.Total number otcer-daya l,fi67,9Ul 

'Average number ol revenue pusenfiers per car per day 14 

< Operating revenuaa per car-Diae(i»nu) S, TOt 

Operating levennes pet oar-dav t22;TS753 

Opei»UngeipenseaperCBr-n]lle(IHIta) 4.1*3 

Operating expenses per car-da; tUklBM 

NetopertttEngrevenue per cflr-mUe (cents) l.US 

Met operating revenue per car-day W. 13813 

Average number ol car-mllcH per cai-dflj 3M 

EQUIPUENT (OWNED OR LEASED) IN SERVICE ON JUNE 30, 1»1. 

Standard sleeping csrs 4,1SS 

Tourist deeping cars. 744 

Parlor can (07 

Dining cars 24 

Compodtecara 141 

Privstecars 36 

KtswIlMieomcttra 4 

Total B,912 

The F^ing Rate ofMorlality in American Railway Travet 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



259 



EXPRESS COMPANIES. 

In its Twenty-sixth Annual Report the Interstate Commerce Commission 
publishes a statement of the income account of express companies as reported 
to it for the years endin;; June 30, 1910, 1911 and 1912, the salient features of 
which are as follows : 



Item 



Number of Companies 

Railway Miles Operated 

Exprera Operations: 

Gross Receipts from Operation 

Les3 Express Privileges 

Operating Revenues 

Operating Expenses , . . . . 

Net Operating Revenue 

Net Revenue from Outside Operations 

• 

Total Net Revenue 

Taxes Accrued 

Operating Income 

Other Income from Investments, etc. . 

Gross Income 

Total Deductions, Interest, etc 

Net Corporate Income 

Dividends Declared 

(a) Deficit. 



1912 



12 
248,618 

$160,121,932 

78,576,274 



$81,545,658 
73,225.682 



$ 8,289,976 
fa) 46.622 



$ 8,243.353 
1,430.809 



$ 6,812,544 
5,369,822 



$ 12.182.366 
1,237.996 



$10,944,370 
4,625,832 



1911 



13 
243,472 

$152,612,880 
73,936.018 



$78,676,862 
67,089.233 



$11,587,629 
13,117 



$11,600,740 
1,315.973 



$10,284,773 
6,315,842 



16,600,615 
1,234,006 



$15,366,609 
5.848,082 



1910 



13 
237,868 

$146,116,315 
69.917,562 



$76,198,753 
61.600.473 



$14,506,280 
10,527 



$14,518,807 
1,126,726 



$13,392,081 
5.633,792 



19,025,873 
1,037,316 



$17,988,567 
5,028.108 



CLASSIFICATION OF MILEAGE COVERED BY OPERATIONS OF 

EXPRESS COMPANIES ON JUNE 30, 1911. 



Name of carrier. 


Total 
mileage. 


Steam-road 
mileage. 


Electric-line 
mileage. 


Steamboat- 
line 
mileage. 




1911 


1911 


1911 


1911 


Total 


270,666.37 


243,721.41 


7,291.94 


18.939 65- 






Adams Express Co 


36,560.52 

56,877.95 

7,230.31 

3,391.80 

2,903.63 

8,803.54 

1,640.25 

7,625.88 

16,980.65 

32,580.60 

32,748.28 

58,471.56 

4,851.40 


32,784.94 

54,344.00 

6,400.31 

3,369.80 

2,903.63 

8,466.15 

1,422.25 

7,310.48 

15.938.11 

31,654.60 

28,836.99 

45.446.75 

4,843.40 


314.58 

590.70 

66.00 

22.00 


3,438.00 


American Express Co 

Canadian Express Co 


1,919.7ft 
737.00 


Canadian Northern Express Co ... 




Globe Express Co 




Great Northern Express Co 

National Express Ci) 

Northern Express Co 


197.39 

70.00 

54.00 

539.20 

80.00 

3,444.59 

1,909.08 

4.00 


140.00 
148.00 
261.00 


Pacific Express Co 


503.34 


Southern Express Co 


846.00 


United States Express Co 

Wells Fargo & Co 


466.70 
10.475.86 


Western Express Co 


4.00 



260 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STREET 



AND ELEVATED RAILWAYS: MILEAGE, NUMBER OF 

CARS, AND CAPITALIZATION BY STATES. 

[Source: The Electric Railway Journal.] 



State. 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Ck)loiudo 

GonnecUcat 

Delaware.... 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky ....« 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland ..; 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

NewMexico 

New York 

North Carolina ->. 

North Dakota 

Ohio........... 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota. 

Tennessee ;. — 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total, 1911 



Number 
of com- 
panies. 


Electric 
railways, 


Number 


Capital stock 


Funded debt 


track 
mileage. 


of cars. 


outstanding. 


outstanding. 








DoUars. 


DoUars. 


11 


299.66 


606 


18,232,000 


16,025,000 


6 


67.50 


41 


2,560,000 


60,000 


9 


106.80 


247 


5,859.600 


6,919,500 


45 


2,250.59 


4,241 


331,642,800 


143,604,600 


16 


449.85 


736 


19,429.400 


29,671,000 


10 


1,264.72 


2,841 


60.137,800 


88,884,000 


6 


56.25 


87 


8,870,000 


4,979,000 


6 


812.04 


1,614 


30,492,800 


98, 618,019 


7 


128.10 


233 


5,266,000 


4,482,600 


12 


410.24 


702 


60,980,600 


26,412,600 


6 


88.00 


64 


4,784,000 


1,418,000 


72 


8,264.08 


8.104 


153,991,500 


266,020,808 


35 


2.215.71 


2,138 


83,216,630 


84,071,650 


27 


761.06 


1,436 


37,256.925 


86.688,600 


15 


258.95 


370 


6,683,220 


6,018,000 


10 


459.36 


968 


22.824,300 


22,819,800 


8 


265.86 


728 


31,880,000 
16.016,600 


84,821,600 


15 


514.50 


781 


14,925.236 


12 


713.68 


2,025 


22,731,660 


70,437,800 


56 


3,449.22 


10,409 


108,^69,900 


76,064,200 


23 


1.494.05 


2,663 


45,410,200 


72,631,000 


10 


605.97 


1,000 


25,689,000 


28,261,000 


11 


116. 10 


186 


6,982,670 


6,441,000 


19 


1.080.59 


2,694 


82,771,480 


114; 696, 700 


7 


154.68 


166 


8,179,616 


1,890.000 


6 


242.50 


660 


12,647.600 


11,449,000 


2 


10.80 


12 


1,042,000 


136.000 


19 


267.10 


368 


4,212,700 


8.782.000 


50 


1,871.14 


2.874 


67,472.390 


92,106,100 


3 


10.60 


11 


•400.000 


160,000 


139 


4,749.83 


17,342 


408,846,674 


646,218,487 


13s 


181.23 


251 


23,483.800 


10,867,400 


3^ 


23.50 


59 


440,000 
204,279,876 


200,000 


95 


4,048.93 


6,909 


128,761,940 


15 


281.86 


281 


10,046,.300 


7,241,000 


7 


399.89 


1,223 


40,740,000 


47,960.000 


245 


4,825.33 


9,359 


'248,705.799 


220.602.646 


12 


4S8.50 


1,269 


22.285.100 


16,191,118 


6 


118.20 


178 


8,379.950 


6,474.000 


8 


20.00 


32 


600.000 


200.000 


IS 


864.88 


868 


21.508,000 


27,297,000 


29 


642.72 


1,048 


82.454.700 


23,483.000 


4 


241.30 


341 


7,877,725 


6,996,000 


9 


101.75 


124 


2,880,800 


2,800,000 


18 


456.27 


893 


28,068,660 


88,906,100 


19 


931.79 


1,947 


61.463.900 


44,096,000 


21 


411.86 


690 


17.740,100 


17,792,700 


24 


720.56 


1,042 


23,729,200 


**'^as 


2 


22.00 


21 


75,000 


1,209 


41,028.49 J 


91,457 


2,433,186,163 


2.424.334.683 



NOTES TO PAGE 261. 

♦The net capital liability of the Canadian railways, exclusive of Government owned roads, 
in 1912 was $1,378,937,726 or $51,593 per mile, which is far below their "capital cost." 

In 1912 the railways of Canada paid $2,200,528 taxes. In Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick they are exempt from taxation. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



261 



RAILWAYS OF CANADA. 

Statistics of the Railways of the Dominion for the Years Ending 

June 30, 1908, 1911 and 1912. 





1908 


1911 


1912 


Miles of Line Operated 


22.966 
1,211 
4.546 


25,400 
1,610 
5.550 


26,727 
1.762 
6.149 


Second Track 


Yard Track and Sidings 




AU Tracks 


28,723 

$607,425,349 
631.869.664 
109,423,104 
166,291.482 


32,560 

$749,207,687 
779,481.514 
119,615,666 
202,179.254 


34,629 

$770,450,351 
818.478,175 
133.306.218 
204,932,573 


Capital Coet* 
Stock 


Funded Debt 


Government Railwasrs 


Subsidies 




Total Capital Coet 


$1,515,009,559 
65,968 

34.044,992 

2,081.960,864 

61 

54 

31,950,349 

6,210,807 

$39,992,503 

1.920 

63.019.900 

12,961,512,519 

20Q 

40,476,370 

278 

$93,746,655 

7.23 

$13,179,155 


$1,850,484,121 
72,854 

87,097.718 

2.605,968.924 

70 

60 

36,985.911 

6.277,468 

$50,566,894 

1.944 

79,884,282 

16.048.478.205 

200 

52.498.806 

305 

$124,743,015 

7.77 

$13,423,585 


$1,926,906,317 
72,129 

41,124,181 

2,910,251,636 

71 

62 

40,440,393 

6,473,882 

$56,543,664 

1.943 

89.444.331 

19,558.190.527 

218 

60,126,023 

325 

$148,030,260 

7.67 

$14,829,819 


Per Mile of Line 


Passenger Traffic 
Passengers Carried 


Passengers Carried 1 Mile 


Average Journey (miles) 


Average Passengers per Train 

Mileage of Passenger Trains 


Mileage of Mixed Trains 


Receipts from Passengers 


Receipts per Passenger Mile (cents). . . 

Freight Traffic 
Tons Carried 


Tons Carried 1 M ile 


Average Haul (miles) 


Freight Train Mileage 


Average Tons per Train 


Receipts from Freight 


Receipts per Ton Mile (mills) 


Miscellaneous Receipts 




Total Receipts 


$146,918,313 

$20,778,610 
20.273,626 


$188,733,493 

$29,245,093 

26.127,638 

4.831,744 

. 66.343,270 

4,487,039 


$219,403,762 

$31,514,093 
29,811.510 

6,293.700 
78,969.543 

5,137,688 


Expenses of Operation 
Way and Structures 


Maintenance of Equipment 


Traffic Expenses 


Conducting Transportation 


62,486,270 
3,765,&36 


General Expenses 




Total Expenses 


$107,304,142 

73.04% 

$39,614,171 

2.61% 

$6,398 

4,672 

106,404 

$60,376,607 

41.10% 

66.27% 

$569 


$131,034,784 

69.44% 

$57,698,709 

3.12% 

$7,430 

6,158 

141,224 

$74,613,738 

39.53% 

56.94% 

$528 


$150,726,539 

b8.7% 

$68,677,213 

4.27% 

$8,209 

6,639 

155,901 
$87,299,639 
39.7995 
57.92«f 
$560 


Ratio to Earnings 


Net Receipts 


Percentage to Capital Cost 


Gross Receipts per Mile 

Gross Expense per Mile 


Number of Employes 


(compensation 


Proportion of Gross Earnings 


Proportion of Operating Expenses 

Average per Employe per Year 



262 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

CANADIAN RAILWAYS. 

ACCIDENTS, ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.— In 1911 the killed numbered 11 passengers, 
8 employees, 83 others; total 102. Injured, 1,784 passengers, 300 employees, 586 others; total 
2,670. 

ACCIDENTS, STEAM RAILWAYS, 1911.— Passengers, 28 killed, 288 injured; employees, 
202 and 1,314; trespassers, 185 and 154; non-trespassers, 48 and 135; postal clerks, 2 and 15; 
total killed 465; injured. 1906. 

CAPITAL INVESTED IN CANADIAN STEAM RAILWAYS.— In 1911 the total capi- 
tal invested in Steam Railways was $1,528,689,201, composed of shares, $749,207,687, and 
funded debt, $779,481,514; in Electric Railways. $111,532,347, including shares $62,251,203. 
and funded debt, $49,281,144. 

EARNINGS OF STEAM RAILWAYS.— Net earnings for aU railways in 1911. $57,698,709; 
operating expenses, $131,034,785. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY STATISTICS.— In 1911, paid-up capital invested, $111,532,347; 
mileage, 1,224; gross earnings, $20,356,951; operating expenses, $12,096,134; net earnings, 
$9,944,153. Passengers carried, 426,296,792. Freight carried, 2,496,072 tons. 

EXPRESS AND TELEGRAPH COMPANIES.— The Dominion Express Co. and the 
C. P. R. Telegraph operate along the lines of the Canadian Pacific Ry. The Canadian Northern 
Express Co. and the Canadian Northern Telegraph Co. along the lines of the Canadian Northern 
Ry., and the Canadian Express Co. (Pres., Chas. M. Hays; Vice-Pres., James Bryce), with the 
Great North-Western Telegraph Co.. operates along the lines of the G. T. Ry. This, the first 
Express Co. in Canada, was founded as the British N. American Co. in 1854. and reorganised 
in 1865. 

GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC— The main line, Moncton, N. B., to Prince Rupert, B. C, 
with 3,560 miles, will be entirely on Canadian soil, forming a link on the proposed All-Red 
Route. The line between Winnipeg and Edson, 923 miles, also between Westfort and Lake 
Superior Junction, 189 miles, is completed. The section between Winnipeg and Lake Superior 
Junction is also nearing completion. This will give a continuous track from Port Arthur and 
Ft. William to Edson, 1,370 miles. Construction easterly from Prince Rup>ert was begun early 
in 1908, and steel has been laid on 100 miles of completed grade, and will be laid a distance of 
140 miles more before the close of 1911. Commercial telegraph service of G. T. P. Tel. Co. 
now in operation between Winnipeg and Edmonton, Alta., 792 miles. Branch lines contem- 
plated aggregate 5,000 miles. The G. T. P. will operate Atlantic, Pacific and Lake fleets of 
steamers. A new daily passenger service was inaugurated between Winnipeg and Edmonton, 
in July, 1910, with standard sleeping cars, parlor-library, cafe car, and modern day coaches. 

HUDSON BAY ROUTE. — From varied expert opinions, optimistic and the reverse, it 
may be fairly concluded that the route is open for navigation from about 15th July to about 
15th October. The Canadian Northern Railway have built a line from Winnipeg to The Pas 
on the Saskatchewan River. From there to Fort Churchill the distance is 465 miles; to Port 
Nelson, 397 miles. This route will effect an average shortening of the distance from the Western 
wheat fields to the Atlantic seaboard of 970 miles. The distance to Liverpool from Churchill 
is 2,946 miles, from Montreal via Belle Isle 2,761, and via Cape Race, 2,927 miles, from New 
York 3,079 miles. The freight upon grain from the wheat belt to Hudson Bay would approxi- 
mate 10 cents a bushel, a saving of 15 cents on carriage to the Atlantic seaboard, or $3,000,000 
annually on an exi^ort trade of 20 million bushels via this route. On cattle shipments from Cal- 
gary there would be effected a saving in freight of 60 cents per 100 lbs., as well as a saving in 
deterioration. The entrance to the harbor at Fort Churchill is about 2,000 ft. wide, with a 
minimum depth of 10 fathoms. More dredging would have to be done at Port Nelson than 
Ft. Churchill, but reports of the Hudson's Bay Co., 1824 to 1894, show that on an average 
Ft. Churchill harbor is open 5 months, and Port Nelson 7 months in the year. 

MILEAGE STEAM RAILWAYS IN OPERATION.— 16 miles in 1836, date of first 
railway; 16 in 1846; 1,414 in 1856; 2,278 in 1866; 5,218 in 1876; 11,793 in 1886; 16,270 in 1896; 
21,353 in 1906; 22,452 in 1907; 22,966 in 1908; 24,104 in 1909; 24,731 in 1910; 26,400 in 1911. 

TRAFFIC STEAM RAILWAYS.— In 1875 there were carried 5,190,416 passengers and 
5,670,837 tons of freight (2,000 lbs.). In 1885, 9,672,599 and 14,659,271; in 1895, 13.987,580 
and 21.524,421; in 1906, 27,989,782 and 57,966,713; in 1907, 32,137,319 and 63,866,135; in 
1908, 34,044,992 and 63,071,167; in 1909, 32.()88,309 and 66.842,258; in 1910, 35,895,575 pas.sen- 
gers and 74,482,866 tons of freight, and in 1911, 37,097,718 passengers and 79,884,282 tons of 
freight. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPERBNCE BOOK. 263 

NATIONAL TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAY.— Under agreementa dated 29th 
luty 1003. aad 18th February, 1804. ratiGed by Parliament the Grand Trunk Pacific Co. agresd 
in respecC of the constciiction of s railway between Monctoa, N. B., and Fort aimpaon, or aome 
other |>ort in B. C— the eastern divisioD. from Winnipen to Moncton, to be ronstrucled by the 

oenl!'oIi'°oBl"of eliQsWii^tm" tb^'fiist™'yeTrBT"tw [reef^e westem^divCeion. [rem Winnipet 
to Prinee Rupert, B. C , to be cnnetruclrJ by the company. The Government to guarantee the 
oompaay's bonds aufficieat to meet coat of conatruction. such not to cireed tlS.OOO per mile on 
the prairie aeetion. The entire hne brtween Winnipeg and Monctoa. I.g04.34 miles, is under 
eontract. The work between Winnipeg and Moncton, N. B , is well under way, and the section 
between Winnipeg and Lake Superior Junction is open for operation. The total eipenditure 
by the Commiaalon up to 31st March. 1911. amounted to 195,40R,aD7.S[. 

QUEBEC BRIDGE.— It is expected that the new bridge on the I. C. R. acroaa the St. 
Lawreo'-e River near Quebec will be ready for traffic in 1015. The contract hag been let to the 
St. Lawrence Bridge Co.. a Canadian concern. Total estimated cost. tl2.IW0.OO0. The length 
of (he central span is to be l.SOO (t.. 90 It. longer than the spaa of the Forth bridge, total lengtb 
' 3,228 ft., width SS ft. The bridge wiU accommodate a double-track railway, and haa a 4 ft. 
fiMtpath on each side. This is the largest cantilever bridge in the world. 

LONG RAILWAY TUNNELS. ^^ ^^^ 

ffimplon, Swiiierland- Italy 12 45S 

Bt. Gothard. Switierland 5*4 

MoptCenia. Italy-Franco 7 1730 

Arlberg. Austria 6 404 

Hoosae. U. S. A... 4 1320 

Bevem. Great Western 4 824 

Totley, Midland. -, 3 8S0 

Trana-Adine. Valparaiao-Buenoa-Ayrea 6 

Standedge. North Western . 3 82 

Woodbead, Great Centrd 3 IT 

Boi. near Bath. Great Western (old) 1 1320 

The Office of Public Roads estimates the total mileage of all public roada in the United 
States in 1609 at 2.196.188 and the milea of road per square mite of area at 0.74 aiilea. The 
' " !r mile of road, basing the road mileage of 1909 on the pooulation of 1910. wai 41. 
ds in the United Statea only 8.66 per cent, were improved in 1606. 

-J estimated eiprnditures tor public roads for the year 191 1 is 1142,144,101. c 

alof 164.63 per mile of public road and of tl.SSpe ' " 

,.-*■ fi 
. tiff. -.^V!, 




NEW GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL, NEW YORK CITT. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



OJL.r""y _ "^~:-i^"^'"~""' ^--*! 


^ 


^Wp"^"^ 




-^ ^^^■"'*'^ 










":- 




" 
'*''. 




r- . 



COMPARISON SHOWING THE HUGE AMOUNT OF EXCAVATION 
FOR COJIPLETED PANAMA CANAL. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



THE PANAMA CANAL. 

Compiled by the Secretary of the Isthmian Canal Com/misnion. 



The entire length of the Panama Canal 
from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water 
in the Pacific is about 50 miles. Its lengtii 
from shore-line to shore-line is about 40 miles. 
In passing through it from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, a vessel will enter the approach 
channel in Limon Bay, which will nave a 
bottom width of 500 feet and extend to Gatun, 
a distance of about seven miles. At Gatun, 
it will enter a series of three locks in flight and 
be lifted 85 feet to the level of Gatun Lake. 
It may steam at full speed through this lake, 
in a channel varying from 1,000 to 600 feet 
in width, for a distance of about 24 miles, to 
Bas Obispo, where it will enter tiie Culebra 
Cut. It will pass through the Cut, a distance 
of about nine mUes, in a channel with a bottom 
width of 300 feet, to Pedro Miguel. There it 
will enter a lock and be lowered 30 H feet to a 
small lake, at an elevation of 54 % feet above 
sea level, and will pass through uiis for about 
Xy^ miles to Miranores. There it will enter 
two locks in series and be lowered to sea 
level, passing out into the Pacific through a 
channel about 8)^ miles in length, wim a 
bottom width of 500 feet. The depth of the 
approach channel on the Atlantic side, where 
the maximimi tidal oscillation is 2>^ feet, 
will_ be 41 feet at mean tide, and on the 
Pacific side, where the maximum oscUlation 
is 21 feet, the depth will be 45 feet at mean 
tide. 

Throughout the first 16 miles from Gatun, 
the width of the Lake channel will be 1,000 feet; 
then for 4 miles it will be 800 feet, and for 4 
miles more to the northern entrance of 
Culbra Cut at Bas Obispo, it will be 500 feet. 
The depth will vary from 85 to 45 feet. The 
water level in the Cut will be tiiat of the Lake, 
the depth 46 feet, and the bottom width of the 
channel 300 feet. 

Three hundred feet is the minimum bottom 
width of the Canal. This width begins about 
half a mile above Pedro Miguel locks and ex- 
tends about 8 miles through Culebra Cut, with 
the exception that at all angles the channel 
is widened sufficiently to allow a tiiousand- 
foot vessel to make the turn. The Cut has 
eight angles, or about one to every mile. 
The 300-foot widths are only on tangents 
between the turning basins at the angles. 
The smallest of these angles is 1° 36' and the 
largest 30°. 

In the whole Canal there are 22 angles, the 
total curvature being 600° 51'. Of this 
curvature,. 281° lO' are measured to the right, 
gomg south, and 319° 41' to the left. The 
sharpest curve occurs at TabeniiUa, and is 
67° 10'. 



GATUN DAM. 

The Gatun Dam, which will form Gatun 
Lake by impounding the waters of the Chagres 
and its tributaries, will be nearly 1]^ miles 
long, measured on its crest, nearly ^ mile 
wide at its base, about 400 feet wide at the 
water surface, about 100 feet wide at the top, 
and its crest as planned, will be at an elevation 
of 115 feet above mean sea level, or 30 feet 
above the normal level of the Lake. . Of the 
total length of the Dam only 500 feet, or 145, 
will be exposed to the maximum water head 
of 85 feet. The interior of the Dam will be 
formed of a natural mixture of sand and clay, 
dredged by hydraulic process from pits above 
and below the Dam, and placed between two 
large masses of rock and miscellaneous 
material obtained from steam shovel ex- 
cavation at various points along the Canal. 
The top and upstream slope will be thoroughly 
riprapped. The entire Dam will contain 
about 21,000,000 cubic yards of material. 

The Spillway is a concrete lined opening, 
1,200 feet long and 300 feet wide, cut through 
a hill of rock nearly in the center of the Dam, 
the bottom of the opening being 10 feet above 
sea level. It will contain about 225,000 
cubic yards of concrete. During the con- 
struction of the Dam, all the water discharged 
from the Chagres and its tributaries flowed 
through this o{>ening. Construction has now 
advanced sufficiently to permit the Lake to 
be formed, and the Spillway has been closed 
with a concrete dam, which is bein^ fitted 
with gates and machinery for regulatmg the 
water level of the Lake. 

WATER SUPPLY OF GATUN LAKE. 

Gatun Lake will impouad the waters of a 
basin comprising 1,320 sq^uare miles. When 
the surface of iJbe water is at 85 feet above 
sea level, the Lake will have an area of about 
164 square miles, and will contain about 206 
billion cubic feet of water. During eight or 
nine months of the year, the lake will be kept 
constantly full by the prevailing rains, and 
consequently a surplus will need to be stored 
for only three or four months of the dry 
season. The smallest run-oflf of water in the 
basin, during the past 21 years, as measured 
at Gatun, was about 146 billion cubic feet. 
In 1910 the run-ofif was 360 billion cubic feet, 
or a sufficient quantity to fill the lake one ana 
a half times. The water surface of the Lake 
will be maintained during the rainy season at 
87 feet above sea level, making the minimum 
channel depth in the Canal 47 feet. As 
navigation can be carried on with about 41 
feet of water, there will be stored for dry 



265 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



B«&Bi>n BUiplus ovel five feet of water. Uak- 
iog due oUowance lor evaporfttiau. seepage, 
leakage at the satee, uid power consumption, 
this would be ample for 41 passages daily 
through the beke. using them at Cull length. 
or about 58 lockages a day when partial 
lena:th la used, as would usually be the coae, 
and when cross Qlling from one lock to the 
other throuKh tho central wall is employed. 
This would be a larger niunber of lockages 
than would be possible in a single dsy. The 
syeraee number of locksgca through the 
SaultBte. Marie, Canal on the American side 

1910, which was. alwuTeight monk's long. 



Hie average nu 
l!4 per Cjcka 



.t the south end hy an earth dam eooneetine 
he locks at Pedro Miguel with the high 
;roui]d to the westward, about 1,400 feet king. 



with the hills to the eaatwai 
wiU rest direcdy on the roi 

cBTt^ ttie surT^e of which i 
level. 

A smaU lake between Ih 
Miguel and Miraflores will_b. 

th^gh^gro 

to the westward will be ( 



The" dam 
■ It 2.700 



yards; will be about 500 feel 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



They will waigh from SflO to 730 toi 
*"-eCr-twa leavsB will b« rHiuired 
ra Cinal, tbe totAl weJibJog eo.W 



lined lift of M H <«t 



width of 110 feet 
ber. witJi walla 



r of c 



feet above 
It the lop. 

face'wiS'^ 



walls will I 

of theflooi, , 

!he floor until they an 
The middle wall wi 
Qximately 



SO fee 



feet hi^p and each 



e the fmifai?e of tJ 



• oftl 



I middle culvert, this wall 
"like ™e™tte' ^U?" 



Till be a tunael divided 



ly^e elect 
I -r^ve ma. 

II. and the t 



For the- wires that will 

-Detailed in the center 
'ill be a paasageway for 




LOOKINO THROUGH ONE OF THE 
' QATUN LOCKS. 



.order 



jxeb throu^. the | 



I and 400 te 



ride the lo^kn in 

long, reflpectivety- Nmecy- 

t. of the ve»iel!i Daviaaiini the h«h 
OSS are Jo« than 600 feet Ions, In the con- 
tmrtioD of the locks, which are now prac- 

laa been used approiimately 4,200,000 cubic 

Lumber ofbamk oTJ^iMift' " * ""^ 
Electricity wiU be used to tow all vessels 
ato and throu^ the locks, and to operate 

by water turbines from the head created by 
Oatun Lake. Vewils wilt not be permitted 
s through the locks under their 
at will be (owed throuah by 
itives nimiinit on oog-raifc laid 

^- - ihc lock walls. There will be 

two lowing tracks for each flight of locks, one 
on the side and ooe on the middle wall. On 
' • lere wiU be one return track 



le diatanee oD ll 
■| end. ^■ 
II vary n 



\ 



26S 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the size of the vessel. The usual number re- 
quired will be four; two ahead, one on each 
wall, imparting motion to the vessel, and two 
astern, one on each wall, to aid in keeping 
the vessel in a central position and to bring it 
to rest sehen entirely within the lock chamber. 
They will be equipped with a slip drum, towing 
windlass and hawser which will permit the 
towing line to be taken in or paid out without 
actualmotion of the locomotive on the track. 

The locks will be filled and emptied through 
a system of culverts. One culvert 254 sg. ft. 
in area of cross section, about the area of the 
Hudson River tunnels of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, extends the entire length of each of 
the middle and side walls and from each of 
these laiige culverts there are several smaller 
culverts, 33 to 44 sq. ft. in area, which extend 
under the floor of the lock and communicate 
with the lock chamber through holes in the 
floor. The large culverts are controlled at 
points near l^e miter gates by large valves 
and each of the small culverts extending from 
the middle wall culvert into iJtie twin chambers 
is controlled by a cj^lindrical valve. The laiige 
culvert in the middle wall feeds in both 
directions through laterals, thus permitting 
the passage of water from one twin lock to 
another, enecting a saving of water. 

To fill a lock the valves at the upper end are 
opened and the lower valves closed. The 
water flows from the upper pool through the 
large, culverts into the small lateral culverta 
and thence through the holes in the floor into 
the lock chamber. To empty a lock ^e 
valves at the upper end are closed and those 
at the lower end are opened and the water 
flows into the lower lock or pool in a similar 
manner. This system distributes the water 
as evenly as possible over the entire horizontal 
area of the lock and reduces the disturbance 
in the chamber when it is being filled or 
emptied. 

The depth of water over the miter sills of 
tiie locks will be 40 feet in salt water and 41 H 
feet in fresh water. 

The average time of filling and emptying a 

By French Companies 

French excavation useful to present Canal. . . . 
By Americans — 

Dry excavation 

Dredges 



lock will be about fifteen minutes, without 
opening the valves so suddenly as to create 
disturbing currents in the locks or approaches. 
The time required to pass a vessel through all 
the locks is- estimated at 3 hours; one hour 
and a half in the three locks at Gatun, and 
about ^e same time in the three locks, on the 
Pacific side. The time of passage of a vessel 
through the entire Canal is estimated as 
ranging from 10 to 12 hours, according to the 
size of the ship, and the rate of speed at which 
it can travel. 

EXCAVATION. 

The total excavation, dry and wet, for the 
Canal, as originally planned, was estimated 
at 103,795,000 cubic yards, in addition to the 
excavation by the French companies. 
Changes in the plan of the Canal, made sub- 
sequently by order of the President, increased 
the amount to 174,666,594 cubic yards. Of 
this amount, 89,794,493 cubic yaras were to 
be taken from the Central Division, which 
includes the Culebra Cut. In July, 1910, 
a further increase of 7,871,172 cubic yards 
was made, of which 7,330,525 cubic yards 
were to allow for slides in Culebra Cut, for 
silting in the Chagres section, and for lowering 
the bottom of the Canal from 40 to 39 feet 
above sea level in the Chagres section. These 
additions increased the estimated total ex- 
cavation to 182,537,766 cubic yards. In 1911, 
a further increase of 12,785,613 cubic yards 
was made, of which 5,257,281 cubic yards 
were for slides in Culebra Cut, and the re- 
mainder for additional excavation and silting 
in the Atlantic and Pacific entrances, raising 
the grand total of estimated excavation to 
195,323,379 cubic yards. In 1912 a still 
further increase of 17,180,621 cubic yards was 
made, of which 3,450,000 cubic yards was for 
slides in Culebra Cut and the remainder for 
dredging excavation at Gatun locks, silting 
in the Atlantic entrance, and for the Balboa 
terminals, bringing the grand total of esti- 
mated excavation to 212,504,000 cubic yards. 
Records of all excavation to May 1, 1911, are 
appended: 

78,146,960 

29,908,000 



May 4 to December 31, 1904 

January 1 to December 31, 1905. 

1 to December 31, 1906. 

1 to December 31, 1907. 

1 to December 31, 1908. 

1 to December 3 1 , 

1 to December 31, 
to December 31, 



January 
January 
January 
January 
January 
January 
January 



1909. 
1910. 
1911, 



1 

1 to December 31, 1912 



116.428,685 
50,976,485 

243,472 

1,799,227 

4,948,497 

15,766,290 

37,116,735 

35,096,166 

31.437,677 

31,603,899 

. 30,269 ,34»> 



188.280,312 



SLIDES AND BREAKS 

There have been in all 26 slides and breaks 
in Culebra Cut; 17 covered areas varying 
from 1 to 75 acres and 9 covered areas of less 
than 1 acre each, making in all a total of 
225 acres. One variety of slide is caused by 
the slipping of the top layer of clay and earth 
on a smooth sloping surface of a harder 
material. The largest slide of this character 
is that known as Cucaracha on the east bank 
of the Canal just south of Gold Hill. This 
gave the French company trouble during the 
final years of its operation. It first gave the 
Americans trouble in 1905, and between that 



date and July 1, 1912, nearly 3,000,000 cubic 
yards of material were removed from the 
Canal because of it. It broke nearly 1,960 
feet back from the axis of the Canal and 
covers an area of 47 acres. Another variety 
of slide, properly called break, is due to the 
steepness of the slopes and the great pressure 
of the superincumbent material upon the 
underlying layers of softer material. The 
largest slide or break of this kind is on the 
west side of the cut at Culebra just north of 
Contractor's Hill, and covers an area of 75 
acres. Over 7,000,000 cubic yards of material 
have been removed from this slide, and it is 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




OOo'oubic yar^s 



the Ume the Canal shall 
jted someChiDE like 10.000,- 



reiuoved. It is estimated th&t the I 
Dunt of maWrial removed Irom the C 

boO.OOO and 22,000,000 o^ic^yards. ' 

Xvel,'^! 

at Hoi a 

Eaeh ei 



oae large and one small. The capacity oC Che 
flat can is 19 cubic yards; that of the large 
dump cara, 17 cubic yards, and tbat of the 



■d of ao ci 



hauling fmm Che cu 

21 cats in hauling liuiu uib cui, m mauwuui. 
The large dump train ifi composed of 27 cars, 
and the small dump train of 35 cats. 

The average load of a train of flat cara, in 
hauling the mined material known as "the 
run of the cut," is 610,7 tons (based on a 20- 
car train); of a tram of lante dump cars, 
737.08 tona, and of a train of small dumpa, 
662.5 toQB. 

The average time consumed m uulooduig 



of fl 



I of la 



e dump « 



Ltes; and 

»" HioS 

Lted by compressed 

..^.»,^ bV t/ ■ . r ^t. . I 

ile thi 
The reconl day' 



furnished by 












t daily record in the 
9 on March 11, 1911, when 
id 2 cranes equipped with 
i excavated an acgresate 
t-ardB, or 127,742 loos. 
13.^ loaded trains and as 



Breakwaters are under construction at the 
ind Pacifio entrances of the Canal. 
imoD Bay, or Colon harbor, eicCends 
ly from Toro Point at an angle of 42 
nd 53 minutes northward from a 
drawn from Toro Pobt to CJolon 
will be 10,500 feet in length, or 



That in 
into the 

Uaht. 



.1.700 feet, including the 
with a width at the top of nrceen leec ana a 
height above mean sea level of ten feet. The 
width at ^e bottom will depend largely on 
the dopdi of water. It will contain ap- 
proximately 2.S40,000 cubic yards of rock, 
tbe core bemg formed of rock quarried on the 
mainland near Toro Point, ara^ored with hard 
rock from Porto Bclio. Work began on the 
breakwater in Auaust, 1910, and on T" ' 
1S12. the trentle and fill were comple 
(ull length, 11.500 feet. On the samt 
about one-seventh, or 1,643 feet ol th 
armour had been placed. The eetimaU 
is t5,aoa.0()0. A second breakwater ha 

proGct hM'^not"t«en"formally acted 

Limon^Bay into a^aafc anchorage, lo j 
shipping in the harbor of Colon, and 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



K of tho vessel. The usual m 

mpnrtinu motioiTS.'the v^l 
, one on each wiill, to aid ii 



They wiJj be equipped v 

towlue lifle to be taken 
actulrmotion.ot Uie lo 



floor. The"large*culverta™re controllSi at 

^d'each™fllie°sSaUciK^orle"iXigfrom 
the middle wall culvert into UietwiQ hambers 
is contnilled by a cylindrical valve The InrEo 
culvert in the middle wall feeds m b- 5i 
directiona through lattraJa, thus perm tUn» 

anolES'^^iiig a sIv^Tif^wa tT"' 

To eii a lock tho valves at the upper end are 
opened and the lower valrp.9 closed The 

lam culverts tato Uie'^LP^lerar^vert^ 
and thcQce throunh the holes in the floor nlo 
the lock chamber. To empty a loek (he 
valves at the upper end sre closed aa I (hose 
at the bwer end are opened and the water 
flows into Ihe lover locb or pool n a aunilar 

area of the Jock and reduces the disturbance 
in the chamber when it is being filled or 



feet in fresh water. 




The average time of fiUine and e> 


By French Companies. . . 








By Americao^^ 








Dredgeaf^". .."'.'.".'.'." - - 




1904 




3 .1905 


January to Deeembe 








Januaiy to Deeembe 






:( ; 1900 


January to Deoembe 


3 . 1910 


Januaiy to Deeembe 




January to Deeembe 


3 ', 1013 



the supping of tho lop layer of clay and eart 

mat^tiar'^he laT^t slide "^ tb s cha tct^r 
is that known as Cucaracha on the east bank 
of the Canal just aauth of Gold Hdl Th s 
gave the French company trouble during the 



« is estimalednt 3 h 



ball in 



about the E 



ciflc aide. 
Jirough the 1 

ifie^of^e^ip, 
t can travel. 

The total ex 









Qsll/ planned. 



by 



ChaORes in the plan of the Canal 
sequently by order of Uie^Preoidei 

this amount SO 704 4 
be taken from the C 
nc udes the Culebra 

was" made "oPS^hch 
were to aJow for sli( 

thelw 
above E 
additio 



.ddition to * 
" lal, made bu 



"^slfl^ 



IKOazlcuboMnu". 




270 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



making the north entrance to the Canal, from ' 
the violent northers that are likely to prevail 
from October to January, and to reduce to a 
minimum the amount of silt that may be 
washed into the dredged channel. 

The breakwater at the Pacific entrance will 
extend from Balboa to Naos Island, a distance 
of about 17,000 feet, or a little more than 
thre6 miles. It will lie from 900 to 2,700 
feet east of and for the greater part of the 
distance nearly parallel to the axis of the 
Canal prism; will vary from 20 to 40 feet in 
height above mean sea level, and will be from 
50 to 3,000 feet wide at the top. It is 
estimated ttn&t it will contain about 18,000,000 
cubic yards of earth and rock, all of which 
will be brought from Culebra Cut. It is con- 
structed for a two-fold purpose; first, to divert 
cross currents that would carry soft material 
from the shallow harbor of Panama into the 
Canal channel; second, to insure a more 
quiet haibor at Balboa. Work was begun 
on it in Mav, 1908, and on November 6, 1912, 
the last piles were driven connecting Naos 
Island with the mainland. On the same date 
about one-half mile of trestle remained to be 
filled. 

CANAL FORCE, QUARTERS AND SUPPLIES. 

The Canal force is recruited and housed by 
the Quartermaster's Departoient which has 
two general branches, labor and quarters, 
and material and supplies. Through the 
labor and quarters branch there have been 
brought to the Isthmus 44,394 laborers, of 
whom 11,797 came from Europe, 19,448 from 
Barbados, tiie balance from other islands in 
the West Indies and from Colombia. No 
recruiting is required at present, the supply 
of labor on the Isthmus being ample. 

On December 1, 1912, the total force of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama 
Railroad Company, actually at work, was 
divided as follows: 



Total 



Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission 

Panama Railroad Com- 
pany 

Panama Railroad Com- 
missary 

Totals 



Gold 


Silver 


4,475 
630 
257 


26.199 

4,256 

923 


5,362 


31.298 



30.594 
4,886 
1.180 

36.660 



In addition to the above there were in the 
employ of contractors on the Isthmus, 454 
-gold and 3,045 silver employees, a total of 
3,499. 

The gold force is made up of the officials, 
clerical force, construction men, and skilled 
artisans of the Isthmian Canal Commission 
and the Panama Railroad Company. Prac- 
tically all of them are Americans. The 
silver force represents the unskilled laborers of 
the Conunission and the Panama Railroad 
Company. Of these, about 4,500 are 
Europeans, mainly Spaniards, with a few 
Italians and other races. The remainder, 
about 25,000, are West Indians, about 5.000 
of whom are employed as artisans receiving 
16, 20, and 25 cents, and a small number, 32 
and 44 cents, an hour, and 7,000 on a monthly 
basis. The standard rate of the West Indian 
laborer is 10 cents an hour, but a few of these 
doing work of an exceptional character are 



paid 16 and 20 cents. The larger part of the 
Spaniards are paid 20 cents an hour, and the 
rest 16 cents an hour. 

The material and supply branch carries in 
eight general storehouses a stock of supplies 
for the Commission and Panama Railroad 
valued approximately at $4,500,000. About 
$12,000,000 worth oi supplies are purchased 
annually, requiring the discharge of one 
steamer erch day. 

FOOD, CLOTHING AND OTHER NECESSARIES. 

The Canal and Panama Railroad forces are 
supplied with food, clothing and other neces- 
saries through the Subsistence Department, 
which is divided into two branches — Com- 
missary and Hotel. It does a business of 
about seven million five hundred thousand 
dollars per annum. The business done by 
the Commissary Department amounts to 
about $6,000,000 per annimi, and that done by 
the hotel branch to about $1,500,000 per 
annum. 

The Commissary system consists of 22 
general stores in as many Canal Zone villages 
and camps along the relocated line of uie 
Panama Railroad. ^ It is estimated tiiat with 
employees and fiieir dependents, there are 
about 65,000 people supplied daily with food, 
clothing, and other necessaries. In addition 
to the retail stores, the following plants are 
operated at Cristobal: cold storage, ice 
making, bakery, coffee roasting, ice cream, 
laundry and packing departoient. 

A supply train of 21 cars leaves Cristobal 
every morning at 4 a. m. It is composed of 
refrigerator cars containing ice, meats and 
other perishable articles, and ten containing 
other supplies. These are delivered at the 
stations along the line and distributed io the 
houses of employees by the Quartermaster's 
Department. 

The hotel branch maintains the Hotel 
Tivoll at Ancon, and also 18 hotels along the 
line for white gold employees at which meals 
are served for thirty cents each. At these 
18 hotels there are served monthly about 
200,000 meals. There are seventeen messes 
for European laborers, who pay 40 cents per 
ration of three meals. There are served at 
these messes about 200,000 meaLsper month. 
There are also operated for the West Indian 
laborers sixteen kitchens, at which they are 
served a ration of three meals for 27 cents per 
ration. There are about 100,000 meals 
served monthly at these kitchens. The 
supplies for one month for the line hotels, 
messes and kitchens cost about $85,000; labor 
and other expenses about $16,500. The 
monthly receipts, exclusive of the revenue 
from the Hotel Tivoli, amount to about 
$105,000. 

VALUE OF THE $40,000,000 FRENCH PURCHASE. 

Excavation, useful to the 

Canal, 29,708,000 cubic 

yards $25,389,240.00 

Panama Railroad Stock 9,644,320.00 

Plant and material, used and 

sold for scrap 2,112,063.00 

Buildings, used 2,054,203.00 

Surveys, plans, maps and 

records 2,000,000.00 

Land 1,000,000.00 

Clearings, roads, etc 100,000.00 

Ship channel in Panama Bay, 

four years' use 500,000.00 

Total $42,799,826.00 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



271 



PANAMA CANAL 

ji T LANT I c/ O C E A^ 

« 

/ 




'^ ^ X F I C O C E ^^ 

<A Q9012346 



Scale Qf MilA 

i 1 — I- 



SUEZ CANAL 

M£J)ITJEIIJIANEAN 
SXA 



OBI SAID 




EfufHsK Miles 



272 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE CANAL ZONE. 

The Canal Zone contains about 436 square 
miles. It begins at a point three marine 
miles from mean low water mark in each 
ocean, and extends for five miles on each side 
of the center line of the ^ route of the Canal. 
It includes the group of islands in the Bay of 
Panama named Perico, Naos, Culebra, and 
Flamenco. The cities of Panama and Colon 
are excluded from the Zone, but the United 
States has the right to enforce sanitary 
ordinances in those cities, and to maintain 
public order in them in case the Republic of 
Panama should not be able, in the judgment 
of the United States, to do so. 

Of the 436 square miles of Zone territory, 
the United States owns about 363, and 73 are 
held in private ownership. Under the treaty 
with Panama, the United States has the right 
to acquire by purchase, or by the exercise of 
the right of eminent domain, any lands, build- 
ings, water rights, or other properties neces- 
Bsry and convenient for the construction, 
maintenance, operation, sanitation, and pro- 
tection of the Canal.and it can, therefore.at any 
time acquire the lands within the Zone bound- 
aries which are owned by private persons. 

RELOCATED PANAMA RAILROAD. 

The new, or relocated line of the Panama 
Railroad is 47.1 miles long, or 739 feet longer 
than the old line. From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 
miles, and^ from Corocal to Panama, 2.83 
miles, the old location is used, but the re- 
maining 40 miles are new road. From Mindi 
to Gatun the railroad runs, in general, parallel 
to the Canal, and ascends from a few feet 
above tide water elevation to nearly 95 feet 
above. At Gatun the road leaves the vicinity 
of the Canal and turns east along Gatun Ridge 
to a point about 4^ miles from the center 
line of the Canal, where it turns southward 
again and crosses the low Gatun Valley to 
Monte Lirio, from which point it skirts the 
east shore of Gatun Lake to the beginning 
of Culebra Cut, at Bas Obispo. In this sec- 
tion there are several lai^e fills, occurring 
where the line crosses the Gatun Valley and 
near the north end of Culebra Cut, where the 
line was located so as to furnish waste dumps 
for the dirt from the Canal. Originally it was 
intended to , carry the railroad through 
Culebra Cut on a 40-foot berm, 10 feet above 
the water level, but the numerous sUdes have 
made this plan impracticable and a line is 
now being constructed around the Cut, 
known locally as the Gold Hill Line. Leaving 
the berm of tiie Canal at Bas Obispo, the Gold 
Hill Line gradually works into the foot hills, 
reaching a distance from the center line of the 
Canal of two miles opposite Culebra: thence 
it runs down the^ Pedro Miguel Valley to 
Paraiso, where it is only 800 feet from the 
center line of the Canal. This section of the 
line is located on maximum grade of 1.25 
per cent, compensated, and has a total length 
of 95^ miles. The sharpest curve on the 
whole line is 7®. From thie south end of 
Culebra Cut to Paraiso, the railroad runs 
practically parallel with tiie Canal to Panama, 
with maximum grade of 0.45 per cent. Where 
the railroad crosses the Gatun River, a 
bascule steel bridge is to be erected, and a 
steel girder bridge, 14 mile lon^, with 200-foot 
through truss channel span, is in use across 
the Chagres River at Gamboa. Small 
streams are crossed on reinforced concrete 



culverts. Near Miraflores, a tannel 736 feet 
long has been built tiirough a hill. Total 
cost of new line has been $8,866,392.02. 

THE EQUIPMENT POR THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
THE CANAL. 

The Equipment consists of the latest and 
most efficient appliances, the quality of 
which has been demonstrated bv the re- 
markable totals of excavation which have 
been recorded during the progress of the 
work. It includes 100 steam shovels, most of 
which are of from 70 to 105 tons weight and 
3 to 5 cubic yards bucket capaci^; 161 
American locomotives of from 106 to 117 tons 
weight; 104 small French locomotives of 20 to 
30 tons; 42 narrow gauge and electric loco- 
motives; 553 drills; 4,572 cars; 79 spreaders, 
track-shifters, unloaders, etc., 20 dredges; 47 
cranes; 11 tugs; 72 barges, scows, etc. and 
24 launches. The Panama Railroad has 62 
locomotives; 57 coaches and 1,434 freight cars. 

CANAL STATISTICS 

Length from deep water to deep 

water (miles) 50 

Length from shore-line to shore- 
line (miles) 40 

Bottom width of channel, maxi- 
mum (feet) 1,000 

Bottom width of channel, mini- 
mum, 9 miles, Culebra Cut (ft.) 300 

Locks, in pairs 12 

Locks, usable length (feet) .... 1,000 

Locks, usable width (feet) 110 

Gatun Lake, area (square miles) 164 

Gatun Lake, channel depth (feet) 85 to 45 

Culebra Cut, channel depth (ft.) 45 

Excavation, Canal Proper, esti- 
mated total (cubic yards) 203,710,000 

Excavation, permanent struc- 
tures, estimated (cubic yards) 8,794,000 

Excavation, grand total, esti- 
mated (cubic yards) 212,504,000 

Excavation, due to slides and 
breaks, estimated (cubic 
yards), about 22,000,000 

Excavation accomplished Janu- 
ary 1, 1913 (cubic yards) 188,280,312 

Excavation, remaining, Canal 
Proper, January 1, 1913 (cubic 
yards) 23,426,713 

Excavation by the French, 

(cubic yards) 78,146,960 

Excavation by French, useful to 

present Canal (cubic yards) . . 29,908,000 

Excavation by French, esti- 
mated value to Canal S25,389,240 

Value of all French property. . . . $42,799,826 

Concrete, total estamated for 

Canal (cubic yards) 5,000,000 

Time of transit through com- 
pleted Canal (hours) 10 to 12 

Time of passage through locks 

(hours) 3 

Relocated Panama Railroad, 

total cost $8,866,392 

Relocated Panama Railroad, 

length (miles) 47.1 

Canal Zone, area (square miles) 436 

Canal and Panama Railroad 

force actually at work (about) 36,000 

Canal and Panama Railroad 

force, Americans (about) 5,000 

Cost of Canal, estimated total . . $375,000,000 

"Work begun by Americans May 4, 1904 

Date of completion Jan. 1, 1916 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



273 




COALING STATIONS OF NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA. 



f 

I 
I 
1 




Ms - tS5t» : : ; : :?i? r5 ; - : i ;gS;|i 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



^ 


i 

i 


J 


^11 


11 


;■.. 



i. n 



vmaum noM atunhq 






f OmltlJnc Till 



a 


1 


1 

3 


i 




f 




i 










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1 


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A j3 I 

j! j! I 



278 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFBRBn^CE BOOK. 



1' 

11'' 
lll|ip|!l:ll!;l|lryil 


^ 




^ 


.^. 


^ 



Coprrlilit laii, MuiiD 4 Co.. too. 

THE NEW MUNICIPAL BUILDING OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 

Thi« building houees many dcpartmsntB of the city KDVernmeot and eaves hundreds ol 
thousBDds ol dolisn suaually in nnt. 



CHAPTER IX. 



TELEGRAPHS AND CABLES. 



THE PREPARATION OF DOMESTIC TELEGRAPH MESSAGES. 



A message to be transmitted by telegraph 
should be written upon the blank provided by 
the Tel^raph Company for that purpose; or 
it should be attached to such blank by the 
sender, or by the one presenting the message 
as the sender's agent, so as to leave the printed 
heading in full view above the written mes- 
sage. 

Write the, whole message, date, address, 
body and signature as clearly as possible. 
Avoid changes, corrections and unusual ab- 
breviations. Figures, counted and chaiged 
for at the rate of one word for each, may be 
used, but words to represent them are less 
liable to cause error. 

Addresses are not charged for, therefore 
th^ should be full and clear and written so as 
to be easily understood. If the person ad- 
dressed is known to be at a considerable dis- 
tance from the office, or in some locahty where 
the services of a special messenger may be 
required to reach him, this fact should be 
made known to the Telegraph Company. 
By such notice a quicker delivery of me 
message may be often effected. 

If the sender's address is not known to the 
Telegraph Company, it should be written on 
the back or at uie bottom of the blank. This 
will enable the Telegraph Company to reach 
him either with a reply, should one be received 
or for any possible question which might arise 
in reference to the transmission or deliveiy 
of his message. 

Rules for counting messages, which will 
completely cover all the usual and unusual 
words, abDieviatiohs and combinations used 
in tele^aph messages, cannot be given here. 
A charge is made for the first ten words or less, 
and a reduced rate for each word over ten. 
The address and signature are not charged for. 

In counting a message " dictionary ' words 
a. e., words taken from one of the following 
languages, namely, English, German, French. 
ItaEan, Dutch, Portuguese. Spanish and 
Latin), initial letters, surnames of persons, 
names of cities, towns, villages, states or terri- 
tories, or names of the Canadian provinces, 
will be counted and charged for each as one 
word. The abbreviations for the names of 
towns, villages, states, territories and prov- 
inces will be counted and charged for the 
same as if written in full. Abbreviations of 
wei^ts and measures in conunon use will be 
counted each as one word. 



Examples: 

Signatorv (English) 

Auf wiedersehen (German) 

A bon march^ (French) 

Erba mala presto cresce (Italian) 



1 word 

2 words 

3 " 

4 " 



M 



M 



El corazdn menda las cames (Spanish) 5word8 

Errare humanum est (Latin) 3 " 

J G M Jones, Jr. 5 « 

Van Dome 

McGregor 

O'Connor 

District of Columbia (or D. C.) 

New York (or N. Y.) 

New York State 

St. Louis 

East St. Louis 

New Mexico (or N. M.) 

Nova Scotia (or N. S.) 

Lbs. 

Hhds. 

Cwt. 

In names of countries or counties all the 
words will be counted and charged for. 



Examples: 

United States of Colombia 
U. S. A. 
North America 
Queen Anne County 



4 words 
3 « 

2 " 

3 " 



u 
u 



All groims of letters, when such groups do 
not form dictionary words, and are not com- 
binations of dictionary words, will be .counted 
at the rate of five letters or fraction of five 
letters to a word. When such groups are 
made up of combinations of dictionaiy words, 
each dictionary word so used will be counted. 

Examples: 

Ukugu (artificial) 1 word 

Babelu (artificial) 2 

Bacyzafyih (artificial) 2 

Abycazfybgk (artificial) 3 

Hhgga (artificial) 1 

Doyou (improperly combined) 2 

Canhe (improperly combined) 2 
Allri^t (or alright) 

(improperly combined) 2 

Housemate (dictionary toord) 1 

Figures, decimal points and bars of division 
will be counted, each separately, as one word. 
In groups consisting of letters and figures, 
each letter and figure will be counted as one 
word. 



M 



Examples: 

Al 

x9n8g 

H 

74 H 

4442 

44. 42 

165 East 22d St. 



2 words 



6 


u 


3 


w 


5 


u 


4 


« 


5 


« 


8 


u 



279 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




Copyright 190B, MUQD A Co. 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF THE IINITED STATES GOVERN- 
MENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1908. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



281 



LAND LINES OF THE WORLD 

Below are given such particulars as we have been able to obtain of the land line 
telegraphs throughout the world, corrected up to December, 1912: 



Countries. 



America (United 

States of) — 

Commercial Cable 

Co 

^Western Union 
Tel. Co 

Argentine Republic. 

Austria 

Belgium. 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British East Africa . . 

British Quiana 

British India 

British North Borneo 

Bulgaria 

Canada— at. N.-W. 

Tel. Co 

Canadian Pacific 

Telegraphs 

Government Tel. 

Service 

WesternUnionTel. 
Co 

Ceylon 

Chili 

China 

Colombia 

Costa Bica 

Cuba 

^Denmark 

Dominican Republic 

East African Pro- 
tectorate 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

France and Corsica. . 

French Guiana 
(Cayenne) 

French Indo-China 
(Cochin-China, 
Cambodgia, An- 
nan. Tonkin and 
Laos) 

French Guinea 

French Ivory Coast . 

French Dahomey . . . 

French Congo and 
Dependencies 

•Germany 

Great Britain and 
Ireland 

Greece 

Carried forward , . 



Length of Lines in Miles. 



Aerial. 



27,921 

207,520 

13,596 

28,872 

4,694 

1,796 

20.241 

a. 039 

350 

72,553 

800 

4,043 

10.818 

.12.255 

8,383 

2,707 

1,830 

7,473 

25,308 

620 

835 

7,119 

3,242 

1,728 

1,016 

3.754 

3.871 

86.214 

195 



8.417 
1.430 
1.584 
1.143 

1,600 
139.450 



56,039* 
5,029 



Under- 
ground. 



183 

446 
20 

184 
19 



14 



193 
"2 



11 
2 



6 



64 



4.315 



8 




Total. 



28.104 

207,966 

13,616 

29,056 

4,713 

1.795 

20.255 

1,039 

350 

72,746 

800 

4,045 

10,818 

12,257 

8,383 

2,718 

1.832 

7,473 

25,314 

620 

835 

7,119 

3.306 

1,728 

1.016 

3.758 

3.871 

90,529 

195 



8,425 
1.430 
1,584 
1,143 

1,600 
143.495 



62,239 
5.029 



Length of Conductors in Miles. 



Aerial. 



202.850 

1,459,160 

32,779 

141,918 

24,451 



Under- 
ground. 



10,031 



Total. 



212.881 



57,178 1,496,338 

80 32.859 

4,265; 146,183 

1.074 25,525 



37,166 

2.284 

2,051 

284,067 

900 

9.436 

52.199 

75,872 

7,900 

13,979; 

4,940 

13,408 

41,805 



94 



3,199 
"67 



886 



44 
50 



102 



37,260 

2.284 

2.051 

287,266 

900 

9,503 

62,199 

76,758 

7,900 

14,023 

4,990 

13,408 

41,907 



Pneu- 
matic 

Tubes. 

(Yards) 



11.066 



95,534 
1.032 



23,731 
50 




12,762, 
329,525' 

195 



14.231 
1,430 
1,684, 
1.143| 

1.600 
401.7161 
/^eleg'ph.V 
I 171,5341 
\ telep 
I 726. 



25,517 



108 



12 762 
355;042 354,987 

195 



I 



14,339 
1.430 
1.584 
1.143 



29,706 

129 743 
\telep'ne.f 1,661 !232 

,028J, 



1.600 

431.422 287,627 

2,688,537| 175,194 



775.484 15,818 791,202 4,087.360 1,923,606, 5.990.966 949.221 



•^Inclusive of 388 miles o^ submarine cable, with 45 conductors. 
'Exclusive of 206 miles of river cables and 526 miles of conductors. 
•Including inter-urban telephone lines. 

*No distinction can be made between telegraph and telephone line mileages, as the 
lines largely carry both telegraph and telephone conductors. 
^Miles of single pipe. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



LAND LINES OF THE WORLD 





Leagm of Lines in Mll«. 


Length ol 




Pneu- 
















Caimtries. 


Aorial. 




Aerial. 




Total. 


aX 


Brouehc forward. 


775.484 


15.818' 791.202 


4 0S7 360 


1,923,606 


5.990.900 


M9,221 






?^r 






















Indo-European Per- 
































































































23,00? 


27 


23,TO* 




1.335 














2,M7 


















































































































































































































PortUEal 












12,56 




















asS:':;;::::: 


















































































































































70,010 


21,808 






*?'T 










































2.78 


16.33 










































S5 






1.01 




























17.21fi 


'■ 




e2,.53i 


546 


























wS'Saw:!. 










































Postal Dept 


















2.59H 


7.022 






Total 


1 251 35U 


87 511 


12CSS'M)| 5,.'>7S,00<j'2,0a4,014 


7.503.258. 959,061 



1>Incluslve of 1 



T cables and 504 miles o 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



283 



TELEGRAPH RATES— NORTH AMERICA 

BETWEEN NEW YORK CITY AND PLACES IN UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. 

Day rbte 40-^, means 40 cents for ten words and 3 cents for each additional word; 
Night rate 30-2, means 30 cents for ten words and 2 cents for each additional word, etc. 
Address and signature are free. Western Union and Postal Rates are uniform. 



^^ 


Rate. 


Places 


Rate. 


Places. 


Day. 


Night. 


Day. 


Night. 


Alabama 


60-4 

3.80-35 
2.60-23 
4.80-45 
4.30-40 
2.40-21 
2.90-26 
3.40-31 
1.00-7 

to 
1.25-8 
1.00-7 
60-4 

1.00-7 

3 . 26-24 

2.75-19 

1.00-7 

75-5 

25-2 

30-2 

30-2 
40-3 
60^ 
60-4 
1.00-7 
50-3 
50-3 
60-4 
60-^ 
50-3 
60-4 
35-2 
40-3 
to 

50-3 
75-5 

30-2 
36-2 
30-2 

to 
40-3 
26-2 

to 
30-2 

40-3 
50-3 

to 
60-4 


50-3 

3.80-35 
2.60-23 
4.80-46 
4.30-40 
2.40-21 
2.90-26 
3.40-31 

75-5 

to 
1.00-7 
1.00-7 

50-3 

1.00-7 

3.25-24 

2.76-19 

1.00-7 

60-4 

25-1 

25-1 

25-1 
30-2 
50-3 
50-3 
1.00-7 
40-3 
40-3 
50-3 
50-3 
40-3 
50-3 
25-1 

) 30-2 

J to 

) 40-3 
QO-A 

25-1 

25-1 

) 25-1 

i 30-2 

(• 26-1 

30-2 
I 40-3 
■{ to 


Missouri: 

St. Louis 


60-3 
60-4 
76-6 
60^ 

1.00-7 
50-3 

1 . 10-9 
30-2 

to 
35-2 
26-2 
75-5 

20-1 
26-2 

to 
35-2 
50-3 
75-5 
50-3 
40-3 
75-6 

40-3 

60-4 

50-3 

to 

1.00-7 

1.00-7 

26-2 

to 
40-3 

75-5 
50-3 
30-2 

1.00-7 
to 

1.25-8 
60^ 
75-5 
50-3 
75-5 
75-6 
30-2 

to 

35-2 

40-3 

. to 

60-3 

1.00-7 
40-3 
50-3 
60-4 
75-5 

4.00-27 




Alaska : 


40-3 


Easle City 


All other olaces . . 


50-3 


Junea" 


Montana 


60-4 


Nome 


Nebraska 


60-3 


St. Michael 


Nevada 


1.00-7 


Sitka 


New Brunswick 


40-3 


Skacrwav 


Newfoundland: St. John's. . 
New Hampshire -< 


1.00-9 


Valdez 


) 


I 


y 26-1 


Albebta ■< 


New Jersey 


26-1 


Arizona 


New Mexico 


60-4 


Arkansas 


New York: 

New York City 




British Columbia : Grand 


20-1 


Forks, Nelson, New West- 
minster, Rossland, Van- 
couver. Victoria 


All other places s 

North Carolina 


- 25-1 


Atlin 


40-3 


Port Simpson 


North Dakota 


60-4 


California 


Nova Scotia 


40-3 


Colorado 


Ohio 


30-2 


Connecticut 


Oklahoma 


60-4 


DSLAWARE 


Ontario: 

Niagara Falls 




District of Columbia: 


30-2 


Washington 


Sault Ste. Marie 


50-3 


All other places 

Florida 


All other places ■< 

Oregon 


40-3 
to 


Georgia 


76-5 


Idaho 


1.00-7 


Illinois 


Pennsylvania -j 

Prince Edward Island: 
Charlottetown 


J 26-1 
) 30-2 


Indiana 


Iowa 


Kansas 




Kentucky 


65-5 


Louisiana 


Quebec 


40-3 


Maine : Portland 


Rhode Island 


26-1 


Other places s 

Manitoba: Winnipeg 

Maryland: Annapons, Bal- 


Saskatchewan -j 

South Carolina 


75-5 
to 
1 . 00-7 
50-3 


South Dakota 


60-4 


timore, Frederick, Ha- 


Tennessee 


40-3 


gerstown 


Texas 


60-4 


Cumberland 


Utah 


60-4 


All other places < 

Massachusetts < 

Michigan : Detroit, Mount 


Vermont -j 

Virginia •< 

Washington 


I 25-1 
i 30-2 

r ^ 

) 40-3 
1.00-7 


Clemens. Port Huron 


West Virginia 


30-2 


All other places •< 


Wisconsin: Milwaukee 

All other places 


40-3 
50-3 


*^ ( 


Wyoming 


60-4 


Minnesota 


60-4 60-3 
60-4 60-3 


Yukon : 

Dawson Citv 




Mississippi 


4.00-27 









284 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NIGHT LETTERS AND DAY LETTERS. 
Table of Tolls for 1 to 200 Words. 



Words 



1 to 

51 « 

61 « 

71 « 

81 « 

91 « 

101 « 

111 « 

121 « 

131 ' 

141 " 

151 

161 

171 

181 

191 



u 
u 
u 
a 



50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 



When Day- 
Message Rate is 
25 and 2 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.25 
.30 
.35 
.40 
.45 
.50 
.55 
.60 
.65 
.70 
.75 
.80 
.85 
.90 
.95 
1.00 



Day 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.38 

.45 

.53 

.60 

.68 

.75 

.83 

.90 

.98 

1.05 

1.13 

1.20 

1.28 

1.35 

1.43 

1.60 



When Day 

Message Rate is 

30 and 2 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.30 

.36 

.42 

.48 

.54 

.60 

.66 

.72 

.78 

.84 

.90 

.96 

1.02 

1.08 

1.14 

1.20 



Day 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.45 

.54 

.63 

.72 

.81 

.90 

.99 

1.08 

1.17 

1.26 

1.35 

1.44 

1.53 

1.62 

1.71 

1.80 



When Day 

Message Rate is 

35 and 2 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.35 

.42 

.49 

.56 

.63 

,70 

.77 

.84 

.91 

.98 

1.05 

1.12 

1.19 

1.26 

1.33 

1.40 



Day 
Letter 
Bate is 



$0.53 

.63 

.74 

.84 

.95 

1.05 

1.16 

1.26 

1.37 

1.47 

1.58 

1.68 

1.79 

1.89 

2.00 

2.10 



When Day 

Message Rate is 

40 and 3 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.40 

.48 

.56 

.64 

.72 

.80 

.88 

.96 

1.04 

1.12 

1.20 

1.28 

1.36 

1.44 

1.52 

1.60 



Day 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.60 
.72 
.84 
.96 
1.08 
1.20 
1.32 
1.44 
1.56 
1.68 
1.80 
1.92 
2.04 
2.16 
2.28 
2.40 



Words 



1 to 

51 ** 

61 « 

71 « 

81 *' 

91 « 

101 « 

111 « 

121 « 

131 « 

141 « 

151 « 

161 

171 

181 

191 



u 
u 
a 



50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 



When Day 

Message Rate is 

50 and 3 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.50 

.60 

.70 

.80 

.90 

1.00 

1.10 

1.20 

1.30 

1.40 

1.50 

1.60 

1.70 

1.80 

1.90 

2.00 



Day 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.75 
.90 
1.05 
1.20 
1.35 
1.50 
1.65 
1.80 
1.95 
2.10 
2.25 
2.40 
2.55 
2.70 
2.85 
3.00 



When Day 

Message Rate is 

60 and 4 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.60 
.72 
.84 
.96 
1.08 
1.20 
1.32 
1.44 
1.56 
1.68 
1.80 
1.92 
2.04 
2.16 
2.28 
2.40 



Day 
Letter 
Rate is 



80.90 
1.08 
1.26 
1.44 
1.62 
1.80 
1.98 
2.16 
2.34 
2.52 
2.70 
2.88 
3.06 
3.24 
3.42 
3.60 



When Day 

Message Rate is 

75 and 5 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$0.75 
.90 
1.05 
1.20 
1.35 
1.50 
1.65 
1.80 
1.95 
2.10 
2.25 
2.40 
2.55 
2.70 
2.85 
3.00 



Day 

Letter 
Rate is 



$1.13 
1.35 
1.58 
1.80 
2.03 
2.25 
2.48 
2.70 
2.93 
3.15 
3.38 
3.60 
3.83 
4.05 
4.28 
4.50 



When Day 

Message Rate is 

100 and 7 



Night 
Letter 
Rate is 



$1.00 
1.20 
1.40 
1.60 
1.80 
2.00 
2.20 
2.40 
2.60 
2.80 
3.00 
3.20 
3.40 
3.60 
3.80 
4.00 



Day 
Letter 
Rate is 



$1.50 
1.80 
2.10 
2.40 
2.70 
3.00 
3.30 
3.60 
3.90 
4.20 
4.50 
4.80 
5.10 
5.40 
6.70 
6.00 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



285 



Night Messages. 

Night messages are accepted at the follow- 
ing rates. 

NIGHT MESSAGE RATES. 

Where the The Night 

Day Rate is Rate is 

20—1 20—1 

25—2 25—1 

30—2 25—1 

36—2 25—1 

40—3 30—2 

50—3 40—3 

60—4 50—3 

65—4 60—3 

75—5 60—3 

75—5 60—4 

75—5 75—5 

85—6 60—4 

85—6 85—6 

90—6 60—4 

1.00—7 75—5 

1.00—7 1.00—7 

1.15—8 1.00—7 

1.25—8 1.00—7 

1.25—8 1.25—8 

Night Letters or "Lettergrams." 

Both of the large telegraph companies have 
inaugurated the night service which has been 
highty useful to the public, and which serves 
to utilize lines at night which would otherwise 
be idle. 

Night letters may be accepted for all offices 
in the United States and Canada, and also 
including many telephone points. 

The charge for mght letters of fifty words 
or less will be the regular day rate for ten 
words, and one-fifth C^) of this rate will be 
charged for each additional ten words or less. 

Night letters must be written in plain 
English. Code or cipher is not permitted. 
Night letters should be written on special 
night letter blanks. Night letters will be 
deuve.red as early as convenient the next 
morning. 

The instructions that night letters must be 
written in "plain English language" do not 
disqualify words* of an artincial character 
representing trade names or terms, trade 
designations of cotton shipments, brands or 

Srades of flour, and other manufactured pro- 
ucts. Trade names and trade designations 
are accepted without question, provided they 
are used in their natural sense, and are not 
used to convey a hidden meaning as code or 
cipher words do. For example, the expression 
"Uneoda" is the name of a product of a 
biscuit company. " XXX " is used to express 
a certain brand or grade of flour. "FHC," 
"AFC," "HLPH," represent cotton shippers' 
brands. 

Day Letters. 

The day letter service, offered only by the 
Western Union Telegraph Co., is similar in all 
respects to the night letter service excet t that 
dehvery is made the same day, subject only 
to such delay as is involved in the subordina- 
tion of the message to full paid traffic, and 
the tariff for fifty words or less is one and one 
half times the regular day rate for ten words. 

The combinea telegraph and telephone 
service is proving very useful. The plan is 



to allow those telephone Bubsoribers whose 
local telegraph oflace is closed for the 
night to cfdl up "Central" and be placed in 
communication with the nearest open tele- 
graph office. If the service of the Western 
Umon Co. is desired it is only necessary to 
say " Western Union." The Postal Telegraph 
Co. must be asked for by name also. This 
arrangement ^ makes every telephone sub- 
scribers' station an always open telegraph 
office. 

Money by Telegraph. 

All telegraph companies accept orders, both 
domestic and foreign, for immediate transfer 
of money by telegraph and cable. It is some- 
times imperative to obtain large or small sums 
at the shortest possible moment, certainly 
within twenty-four hours. Formerly, this 
branch of the business was in the hands of 
bankers, but now the cable companies and 
telegraph companies are able to pay money 
in places all over the world. The organisa- 
tion of telegraph and cable companies is a 
most complicated one, and there are many 
factors which control the rates. 

Reduced charges for the transfer of money 
by telegraph to offices in the United States 
are as follows: 

First: For $25.00 or less 25c 

25.01 up to $50.00 35c 

50.01 ^* " 75.00 60c 

75.01 " "100.00 85c 

For amounts above $100.00 add (to the 
$100.00 rate) 25c per hundred (or any part of 
$100.00) up to $3,000.00. For amounts 
above $3,000.00 add (to the $3,000.00 rate) 
20c per hundred (or any part of $100.00.) 

Second: To the above charges are to be 
added the tolls for a fifteen-word day message 
from the office of deposit to the office of pQiy- 
ment. 

Miscellaneous Service. 

^ Persons who wish to be notified of the ar- 
rival of steamers can make arrangepients with 
the two telegraph companies to notify them 
of the arrival. The companies maintain 
signal stations at Fire Island, The Highlands, 
and Sandy Hook; also at Quarantine, for the 
purpose of reporting and sighting the arrival 
of steamers from foreign ports. To those who 
live in New York, or in nearby towns and 
cities, the notice will be recaved in ample 
time to reach the dock by the time the steamer 
warps in. The service for New York, New 
Jersey and Hoboken is $1.00. Parties in 
other places who are interested in incoming 
steamers can be notified by paying this fee of 
$1.00, plus the usual telegraph tolls for the 
ordinary ten- word message. For places not 
adjacent to New York, the notice conveys the 
intelligence of the near approa,ch of , home-com- 
ing steamers. 



A cable between Syracuse and Tripoli was 
completed in July, 1912. It has a total 
length of 280 nautical miles, and is composed 
of five sections ofdiffereiit diameters. The 
middle portion measures 19 mm., the two 
intermediate lengths 28 mm., and those 
adjacent to the coast 35 mm. 



286 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TOLLS ON MESSAGES OF FROM 10 TO 50 WORDS; 



No. of 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Words. 


20-1 


2&-1 


25-2 


30-2 


35-2 


40-3 


50-3 


60-4 


75-5 


100-7 


10 


20 


25 


25 


30 


35 


40 


50 


60 


75 


100 


11 


21 


26 


27 


32 


37 


43 


53 


64 


80 


107 


12 


22 


27 


29 


34 


39 


46 


56 


68 


85 


114 


13 


23 


28 


31 


36 


41 


49 


59 


72 


90 


121 


14 


24 


29 


33 


38 


43 


52 


62 


76 


95 


128 


15 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


55 


65 


80 


100 


135 


16 


26 


31 


37 


42 


47 


58 


68 


84 


105 


142 


17 


27 


32 


39 


44 


49 


61 


71 


88 


110 


149 


18 


28 


33 


41 


46 


51 


64 


74 


92 


115 


156 


19 


29 


34 


43 


48 


53 


67 


77 


96 


120 


163 


20 


30 


35 


45 


50 


55 


70 


80 


100 


125 


170 


21 


31 


36 


47 


52 


57 


73 


83 


104 


130 


177 


22 


32 


37 


49 


54 


59 


76 


86 


108 


135 


184 


23 


33 


38 


51 


56 


61 


79 


89 


112 


140 


191 


24 


34 


39 


53 


58 


63 


82 


92 


116 


145 


198 


25 


35 


40 


55 


60 


65 


85 


95 


120 


150 


205 


26 


36 


41 


57 


62 


67 


88 


93 


124 


155 


212 


27 


37 


42 


59 


64 


69 


91 


101 


128 


160 


219 


28 


38 


43 


6.1 


66 


71 


94 


104 


132 


165 


226 


29 


39 


44 


63 


68 


73 


97 


107 


136 


170 


233 


30 


40 


45 


65 


70 


75 


100 


110 


140 


175 


240 


31 


41 


46 


67 


72 


77 


103 


113 


144 


180 


247 


32 


42 


47 


69 


74 


79 


106 


116 


148 


185 


254 


33 


43 


48 


71 


76 


81 


109 


119 


152 


190 


261 


34 


44 


49 


73 


78 


83 


112 


122 


156 


195 


268 


35 


45 


50 


75 


80 


85 


115 


125 


160 


200 


275 


36 


46 


51 


77 


82 


87 


118 


128 


104 


205 


282 


37 


47 


52 


79 


84 


89 


121 


131 


168 


210 


289 


38 


48 


53 


81 


86 


91 


124 


134 


172 


215 


296 


39 


49 


54 


83 


8i8 


93 


127 


137 


176 


220 


303 


40 


50 


55 


85 


90 


95 


130 


140 


180 


225 


310 


41 


51 


56 


87 


92 


97 


133 


143 


184 


230 


317 


42 


52 


57 


89 


94 


99 


136 


146 


188 


235 


324 


43 


53 


58 


91 


96 


101 


139 


149 


192 


240 


331 


44 


54 


69 


93 


98 


103 


142 


152 


196 


245 


338 


45 


55 


60 


95 


100 


105 


145 


155 


2d0 


250 


345 


46 


^6 


61 


97 


102 


107 


148 


158 


204 


255 


352 


47 


57 


62 


99 


104 


109 


151 


161 


208 


260 


359 


48 


58 


63 


101 


106 


111 


154 


164 


212 


265 


366 


49 


59 


64 


103 


108 


113 


157 


167 


216 


270 


373 


50 


60 


65 


105 


no 


115 


160 


170 


220 


275 


380 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



287 




288 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUBMARINE CABLES. 
. SUMMARY OP CABLES OWNED BY GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATIONS. 



• 


Number 
of Cables 
with one 

or /more 
cores. 


Length in Nautical Miles. 


Country. 


Of Cables. 


Of 
Conductors. 


Argentine Republic 


22 
83 

1 

41 
30 
8 

157 
1 
61 
2 
3* 
1421 
491 

16 


84.000 

681.300 

211.000 

100.900 

44.441 

23.000 

1,988.652 

0.538 

258.000 

66.000 

955.400 

540.779* 

2,596.070 

8,479.839 

1.078 

2.946.631 

2.720.160 

69.702 

241.543 

9,279.000 

1,431.708 

3.773.765 

357.698 

2,741.900 

73.996 

367.602 

1,376.579 

115.050 

53.510 

177.000 

892.300 

18.151 

54.000 

3.129.813 

196.496 

10.685 

4.600 

4.312 

460.844 

6.614 

8.954 

380.995 

13.550 


240.000 


Austria 


685.000 


Bahamas 


211.000 


Belgium 


462.216 


Brazil 


80.798 


British Oulana 


50.000 


British India. Indo-European Telegraph Depart- 
ment Government Administration 


1.988.652 


Bulgaria (Widdin Cable) 


0.538 


Canada 


258.000 


Ceylon and India (Joint) 


66.000 


China 


955.400 


Denmark (Tel^^raphs and Tdephones) 


1,750.842 


France and Algeria * ' 


2,680.244 


France (Principal International and French 
Colonial Cables) 


8.479.839 


(French) Dahomey and Denendencies 


1.078 


Germany * 


971 

220 H 

13 

32 

6 

59 

120 

6 

17 

239 

35 

8961 

4 

22 


6,201.078 


Great Britain and Ireland 


8.498.809 


Greece 


58.818 


Holland 


780.449 


Inter-Colonial System 


9.279.000 


Italy 


1,585.981 


Japan 


4.495.948 




434.681 


Netherlands (Indies) 


2,741.900 




505.272 


New Zealand 


373.219 


Norway 


2,293.316 


Portugal 


115.050 


Queensland 


66.930 


F ;niiTnan1fi 


189.(XX) 


Russia in Europe, and the Caucasus 


2i 
1 
3 
25 
26 
2 
4 


1.039.260 


Russia in Aeda 


56.800 


South Australia 


54.000 


Spain 


3.129.813 


Sweden 


346.361 


Switzerland 


15.057 




11.5(X) 


Timis 


4.312 


Turkey in Europe and Asia 


24 
2 
5 
3 
3 


479.637 


Union of South Africa 


14.501 




8.954 


Victoria 


380.995 


Western Australia 


23.350 








2.457 >4 


46.927.955 


61.083.598 



. ilncluding half of cables owned jointly with other Administrations. ^Exdusive of 
Iceland, with 13 cables of 17 nautical miles and 28 miles of conductors. *Including 20 
miles of subfluvlal cable. ^Exclusive of several small river cables. 



In 1866 the Western Union Telegraph Co. 
had only 37.380 miles of line, and 75,686 
miles of wire. The same year they had only 
2,250 offices. The next year the number of 
offices had increased to 2,565, and 5,879,282 
messages were transmitted. For the year 
ending June 30, 1912, there were 235,807 



milps of line, 1,532,161.40 nules of wir€ and 
25,392 offices. There were 84,901,657 mes- 
sages sent, not including those over leased 
wires or under railroad contracts. The re- 
ceipts amounted to 942,987,807.15 and the 
expenses were $36,063,836.10. The profits 
were $6,923,971.05. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



2S9 



SUMMARY OF CABLES OWNED BY PRIVATE COMPANIES. 



African Direct Telegraph Company 

Amazon Telegraph Company 

Anglo-American Telegraph Company 

Canadian Pacific Railroad Company 

Central and South American Telegraph Company 

Commercial Cable Company 

Commercial Pacific 

Conmiercial Cable Companv of Cuba 

Compagnie Francaise des Cables T61dgraphiques 

Cuba SubmarineTelegraph Company 

Deutsch Atlantische Telegraphen-OeseUschaf t 

Deutsch-Niederlandlsche TeleKraphen-Gesellschaft 

Deutsch Sudamerikanische TelegrapJien-GeseUschaf t 

Direct Spanish Telegraph Company 

Direct United States Cable Company 

Direct West India Cable Company 

East'Cm Telegraph Company 

Eastern Extension, Australasia and China Telegraph Company 

Eastern and South African Telegraph Company 

Europe and Azores Tel^raph Company , 

Great Northern Telegraph Company , 

Halifax and Bermudas Cable Company 

Indo-European Telegraph Company 

Mexican Telegraph Company 

Osteurop&ische Telegraphen-Gesellschaft 

River Plate Telegraph Company 

South American Gable Company 

United States and Hayti Telegraph and Cable Company 

West African Telegraph Company 

West Coast of America Telegraph Company 

West India and Panama Telegraph Company 

Western Telegraph Company^ .<..... 

Western Union Telegraph Company 

Total 



Number 
of Cables 
with one 

or more 
cores. 



Length, 
of Cables 

in 
Nautical 

MUes. 



9 


3.026 


19 


1.304 


18 


9.548 


10 


10214 


21 


11.793 


15 


17.274 


6 


10.010 


1 


1,285 


24 


11.430 


12 


,1.540 


5 


9.661 


3 


3.416 


3 


5.811 


3 


710 


3 


3.171 


2 


1,276 


137 


43.012 


31 


24.783 


18 


10,617 


2 


1.057 


29 


8,039 


1 


851 


3 


21 


3 


2.188 


1 


185 


4 


220 


5 


3,916 


1 


1.416 


8 


1,471 


7 


1.973 


22 


4,355 


45 


23,837 


9 


10,796 


480 


230,053 M 



A new Western Union cable, 4,200 miles long, was laid in 1911, and is not included 
in above. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 





Number 
of Cables 
with one 

or more 
cores. 


Length 
of Cables 

in 
Nautical 

Miles. 


Govftmrnftnt Adirifnistrfttions , , , , , 


2.457 H 
480 


61,083 H 


Privftt-e Oo^npa^i w . . , , r . 


230,053 >i 




■ Total 






2.937 H 


291,137 









Partly extracted from the Official Documents issued by the Internationa Bureau of i 
Telegraphic Administrations, Berne. — Electrical Trades Directory. 



This table and that showing "Land Lines of the World" are the best obtainable, but f; 
are not believed to be free from error. ' 



290 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



WESrr IKDTE6, 
XEXIOO, CEXt. MtKKir.k 

AND NOffTHEim PMT or 

SOUTH AMEBICA 




O C E A 2/ 



MITMH 
flUliMA 



NORTHWIBST 
TERRITORIES 




BERING 
SEA ' 






^ ly' BRITISH 
-^ >Arj«&l^ COLUMBIA 



IM. 

If Ji T E P A V 1 F I C OCEAN 

TELEQBAPH SYSTEM IN 
ALASKA 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



291 



RULES FOR CABLE MESSAGES. 



1. Every message must be, prepaid, un- 
less otherwise specially authorized, and all 
words in the adaress, text and signature are 
counted and charged for. No charge is made 
for the transmission of the name of the 
oriipnatiiig office. 

ADDRESSES. 

2. In the address of any message, the name 
of tile office of destination, the name of the 
country and the name of the territorial sub- 
division are each counted as one word, no 
matter how many letters are employed. 

3. The address of every message must con- 
sist of at least two words, the first indicating 
the name of the receiver and the second the 
name of the office of destination. 

4. The sender is responsible for an incor- 
rect or insufficient address. Corrections and 
alterations can only be made by a paid service 
message. 

5. no message can be accepted (except at 
"Sender's Risk'^ when addressed to the care 
of a registered address unless the words " care " 
or "care of," or t^eir equivalent, be placed 
between the addressee's name, or destination, 
and the registered address; thus a messaee 
for ** Meyer, Berlin," to be delivered to the 
registered address "Dervish, Berlin," should 
be addressed "Meyer, care (or 'care of) 
Dervish. Berlin." 

6. Ix an indication of any particular route 
be given by ' the sender and considered 
necessary by the company, it will be for- 
warded free; such indication, when given, 
must be transmitted immediately after the 
address: that is, as a part of the address, and 
before the text of the message. 

7. Messages destined for places beyond 
the lines of telegraph must contain in- 
structions as to the name of the place from 
which they are to be posted. Such instruc- 
tions must be inserted as a part of the address, 
and must be paid for. 

PLAIN MESSAGES. 

8. Plain messafl^ (». e., neither Code nor 
Cipher) may be written in any language that 
can be expressed in Roman letters, in such 
messages each word of fifteen letters or less 
is counted as a word, and words of over fifteen 
letters are counted, at the rate of fifteen 
letters or fractions of fifteen letters to a word. 

CODE MESSAGES. 

9. Code messages may contain words 
belonging to one or more of the following 
languages: English, French, German, Italian, 
Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish and Latin. The 
use of words of other languages is not allowed. 
Code messagjes may also contain artificial 
words — that is, groups of letters so combined 
as to be pronounceable in at least one of the 
eight admitted languages. In code messages 
each code word (whether genuine or artificial) 
of ten letters or less is counted as a word, and 
no code word of more than ten letters can be 
accepted. If any words in plain language, 
and of more than ten letters each, are used 
in code messages, they are counted at the 
rate of ten letters or fraction of ten letters 
to a word. 



CIPHER MESSAGES. 

10. In cipher messages, which may be 
composed of groups of figures or of groups 
of letters, the groups are counted at the rate 
of five figures or .letters, or fraction thereof, to 
a word. 

COUNTING OF WORDS, ETC. 

11. Every isolated figure, letter or char- 
acter counts as one woroT 

12. Words joined by a hyphen or separated 
by an apostrophe are counted as so many 
separate words. 

13< Signs of punctuation, hsrphens and 
apostrophes are not counted or sent except 
upon formal demand of the sender, in which 
case they will be .charged for as one word each. 

14. When tiie letters "ch" come together 
in the spelling of a word, they are counted as 
one letter. In artificial words, however, the 
combination is counted as two letters. 

15. Abbreviated and misspelled words 
and illegitimate compound words and words 
combined in a manner contrary to the usages 
of any of the languages authorized by Rule 9, 
also unpronounceable groups of letters (not 
trade-marks or marks of commerce), are in- 
admissible, but if they should accidentally 
appear in a message the unpronounceable 

{groups will be counted at the rate of five 
ettere, or fraction of five letters, as one word, 
and the otiiers in accordance wiUi the number 
of words tiiey actually contain. 

16. Inverted commas, the two signs of ihe 
parentiiesis and each separate figure, letter 
or underline will be counted as one word. 
Groups of figures will be counted and charged 
for at the rate of five figures, or fraction 
thereof, as one word. 

17. Decimal points and commas, used in 
the formation of numbers, also bars of 
division and letters added to figures to form 
ordinal numbers, are to be counted as a figure, 
and charged for at the rate of five figures, or 
fraction thereof, as one word. 

18. The following examples wiU determine 
the interpretation of the rules to be followed 
in counting: 

Alright 2 

Unconstitutional (16 letters) . . 2 

A-t-il 3 

Aujourdbui 1 

Aujourd'hui 2 

Newyork 1 

New York 2 1 

Frankfort Main 2 1 

B^rankfurtmain 1 1 

Starokonstantinow (Town in 

Russia) 2 1 

Emmingen Wurtemberg 2 1 

Van de Brande 3 

Vandebrande 1 

Dubois 1 

Du Bois 2 

Hyde Park 2 

Hydepark (contrary to usage of 

the language) 2 

(Continued on page 293.) 



292 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





tofjMd 






) 






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The general day and night press cable rate 
between^ London and New York is 7 cents a 
word, with the following reduction at certain 
hours: London to New York, 12 midnight to 



6 A. M. (London time), 5 cents a word; New 
York to London, 12 midnight to 6 A. M. and 
IP M. to 4 P. M. (New York time), 5 cents 
a word. 




T l A jr T r C ' C E A M 



WESTERN TERMINALS 
TRAMS-ATLANTIC CABLES 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



293 



(Continued from page 201) 

Saintjames Street 2 

Saint James Street 3 

44% (4 figures and sign) 1 

444,66 (6 figures and sign) 2 

$106 2 

Onehundred dollars 2 

10 f r. 50 3 

llh 30 3 

44 1 

44/2 1 

2% 1 

Two hundred and thirty four.. 5 
Twohundredandthirtyfour (23 

letters) 2 

State of Maryland (name of 

ship) 3 

Stateofmaryland (name of ship) 1 

Emvchf (6 letters) 2 

Ch 23 (trade mark) 1 

ap 

— " 1 

m 

3 

— " 1 

C. H. F. 45 2 

The business is urgent, start at once 

(7 words and 2 underlines) . . "^ 
Send reply (if any) by mail (6 words 

and parentheses) < . . 7 

Explain "reversal" (2 words and 

inverted commas 3 



REPETITIONS. 

19. At the time of filing a message its 
sender may, upon payment of a Quarter rate 
in addition to the ordinary tolls, order it 
repeated, in which case the various rela^ 
offices en route repeat it to each other as it 
passes. The words "repetition paid," or 
the indication "T. C," must be inserted 
immediately after the address; that is, as a 
part of the address and before the text, and 
IS char^^ for. 

The mdication "T. C." counts as one word. 

20. If repetition of a doubtful word or 
words be requested by the addressee of a 
message, the same may be procured by free 
service message to the office at which the 
message reached the lines, or to the Cable 
Department, New York. 

21. Every message exchanged between 
two telegraph offices to rectify a mistake of 
the sender is charged for at full rates. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RECEIPT. 

22. The sender may request that notice of 
the date and time at which his message is 
delivered to the addressee, or, when posted to 
destination, the date and time handed to the 
Post Office, be transmitted to him by telegraph 
or Postal Card. The words "acknowledg- 
ment PAID." or the indication "P. C," if 
notice is to oe given by telegraph , or " P. C. P. , " 
if notice is to be gdven by Postal Card, besides 
being transmitted in the check free, must be 
inserted immediately after the address, and is 
charged for. The indications "P. C." and 
**P» C, P." count each as one word. 



The charge for a telegraphic " aclcnowledg- 
ment of receipt" is equal to that for a message 
of five words to same destination by same 
route. 

PREPAID REPLIES. 

23. The sender of a message may pay for 
a reply thereto, but he must decide as to the 
lenfi^ of the reply paid for. The indications 
"R. P." (meaning Reply Paid), together with 
the number of words prepaid, mUst be in- 
serted immediately before the address, that 
is, as a part of the address, and is ^uirged 
for. The indication "R. P. 6," "R. P. 10," 
"R. P. 14," etc., counts as one word. 

When accepting a message for which a 
reply has been prepaid, the originating office 
vnU collect, in addition to the charges there- 
for, the full charges for the reply as mdicated. 

The sender of such a message should under- 
stand that the toll paid for the reply is not a 
deposit, but is practically a remittance to his 
correspondent, to whom the foreign telegraph 
administrations deliver with the message a 
voucher specifying the amount and number 
of words paid, for, which voucher entitles 
him to send free of charge, within the limits 
of the amount prepaid, a telegram to any 
destination whatever, and from any office 
of the administration whose office issued the 
voucher. 

TABLE OF CABLE WORD RATES. 

Following is a brief list of rates to some of 
the principal countries. The rate, of course, 
varies according to the location of the city or 
town in the United States. Thus, the rate 
from New Yoric City to the Argentine RepubUc 
is 65 cents a word, while the rate from Mexico 
would be 74 cents a word. It is not feasible 
to give the rates from all of the states, as this 
can be readily obtained from the rate books 
of telegraph companies. The following rates 
give the cost per word from New York CXty: 

Argentine Republic $0.65 

Australia and New Zealand 66 

Austria ; 32 

Barbados 91 

Belgium 26 

British Guiana 1.08 

Chili 65 

China, 

Macao 1.27 

Other places 1.22 

Cuba, Havana 15 

Cuba, other cities 20 

Denmark 35 

England 25 

France 25 

Germany 25 

Greece 36 

Holland 25 

Honolulu 47 

Hungary 32 

India 74 

Ireland . ., 25 

Italy 31 

Jamaica 48 

Japan 1.33 

Norway 35 

Panama Republic 40 

Peru 65 

Philippines (Manila) 1.12 

Porto Rico 50 

Portugal .39 



294 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Russia in Europe $0.43 

Scotland 26 

Spain, Prov. of Barcelona, Gerona, 

Lerida and Tarragona 38 

Spain, other offices 40 

Sweden 38 

Switzerland 30 

Turkey in Europe 36 

Uruguay 66 

Wales 26 

The rate from New York City to Great 
Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, Belgium 
and Holland is 26 cents a word. The rate in 
very few cases is increased more than 31 
cents a word from inland places, except such 
states, etc., as Arizona, British Columbia, 
California, Idaho, Nevada,' Oregon, Utah and 
Washington, where the rate is 37 cents per 
word. Arkansas, Colorado, most places in 
Florida, Iowa, E!ansas, Louisiana, Manitoba^ 
Minnesota, Missouri (other than St. Louis and 
a few other places), Montana, Nebraska, New 
Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South 
Dakota, Texas and Wyoming have a rate of 
34 cents a word. The rate from all the other 
states is 31 cents or less. 

There are many places, particularly in 
Eastern, Northern and Southern Africa, 
which are very difficult to reach by cable and 
the rate is very high, amounting in some cases 
to as much as $4.86 per word. Any telegraph 
cable office will be glad to give specific infor- 
mation relative to such rates. The cable 
rates to the West Indies in some cases are very 
high, as for instance, Santo Domingo and 
Curacao to which the rates are $1.32 and 
$1.38 per word respectively from New York. 
The rates to South America are apt to be very 
high, particularly to Peru. The rate to 
Bermuda from New York City is 42 cents per 
word; to Turk's Island, 66 cents per word. 

CABLE LETTERS. 

Cable Letters, accepted at any hour, are 
taken at the low rate of 76 cents for 12 words 
and 6 cents for each additional word plus 
small additional charges beyond the cable 
stations and points of original destination. 
They must be written in plain language of the 
country of origin or destination. They are 
deliverable at the convenience of the company 
within 24 hours of the time of filing. Because 
of the additional charges beyond these places 
all Cable Letters not destined to London or 
Liverpool will be mailed beyond London un- 
less otherwise arranged by sender. 

If destined to points in Great Britain other 
than London or Liverpool the added charge 
for telegraphic delivery will be 12 cents for 
12 words or less, cable count, and 1 cent for 
each additional word. If sent by telegraph 
to France the added charge will be 7M cents 
per word, cable count; to Germany 9 cents 
per word, cable count; to Holland and Bel- 
gium 6 cents per word, cable count, and so on. 

Plain Enghsh, or Anglicized foreign words 
in common use such as Chauffeur, Au revo^r, 
etc., as used in a plain English message, may 
be accepted. No code words except those in 
rerastered addresses will be allowed. 

Figures may be used in their natural sense 
in Cable Letters, and are counted as in regular 
cable messages. 

The indication "R. P." including the num- 
ber of words prepaid is counted and charged 
for as one word. 



The term "deferred rate" should not be 
used in connection with Cable Letters. 

DEFERRED CABLE SERVICE 

Commencing January 1, 1912, a deferred 
cable service was inaugurated subject to all 
the rules and regulations of the regular cable 
service with the following exceptions: 

1. Messages must be in plain language, 
either French or the language of country of 
origin or destination authorized for inter- 
national correspondence. The use of two or 
more languages in the same message is not 
permitted. 

2. All numbers except those used in ad- 
dress must be written in words at full length. 

3. The messages must contain at least one 
text word. 

4. Senders must in every case write before 
the address and pay for as one word iixe 
letters LCF, LCO or LCD, as in the nature 
of a declaration that the communication is in 
the French language or the language of 
country of origin or destination as case may 
be. 

6. Messages are liable to be deferred in 
favor of those paid for at full rates, for a period 
not exceeding 24 hours. If delayed beyond 
that time they take their turn with full paid 
traffic. 

6. Rate charged for deferred cables is one- 
half the rate charged for full paid cables 
between the same terminals except between 
x>ints in Great Britain and Ireland on the one 
land and in the United States and Canada on 
he other, when the deferred rate is 3^ cents 
ess than half the regular rate from Hoboken 
and Jersey City, N. J., New York City and 
Yonkers, N. Y., Eastern Canada and New 
England States 3 cents less than half rate 
from other places. 



Aden, Arabia. 

Algeria. 

Angola. 

Argentine Republic. 

Ascension Island. 

Australia. 

Austria. 

Azores. 

Balearic Islands. 

Bathurst, British W. 

Africa. 
Belgium. 
Belgian Congo. 
Borneo (British). 
Brazil. 
British East Africa 

and Uganda. 
Burmah. 
Canary Islands. 
Cape Colony. 
Cape Verde Island. 
Ceylon. 
Chile. 
China: 

Amoy. 

Chefoo. 

Foochow. 

Hankow. 

Hong Kong. 

Macao. 

Pekin. 

Shanghai. 



Tientsin. 
Tsingtau. 
Weihaiwei. 
Cochin China. 

Cocos Island. 

Cyprus. 

Dahomey. 

Denmark. 

Egypt. 

Fanning Islands. 

Fiji Islands. 

France. 

French Guinea. 

French Indo China. 

French West Africa. 
French Soudan. 
Mauretania. 
Senegal. 

Germany. 

German East Africa 
(except Bismarck- 
burg and Udjidji.) 

Gibraltar. 

Gold Coast, Africa. 

Great Britain and Ire- 
land. 

Greece. 

Guinea Portuguese 

Holland. 

Hungary. 

Iceland. 

India (British). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



295 





EASTEBN ASIA, 
CHINA *N«> JAPAN 



296 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Rhodesis Northern 
(except Abercom, 
Fife, Khodesia and 
Fort Jameson). 

Rhodesia. 
(Southern) . 

Rodrigues Island. 

St. Helena Island. 

St. Thomas Island. 

Senegal. 

Servia. 

Seychelles. 

Sierra Leone. 

Somaliland (British). 

South African Union. 

Spain. 

Straits Settlements 
(Velantan excepted) 
and Malay States. 

Sudan. 

Sweden. 

Switzerland. 

Tasmania. 

Transvaal. 

Tunis. 

Uruguay. 

Zanzibar. 



Indo China. 

Italy. 

Ivory Coast. 

Labuan Island. 

Luxemburg. 

Madagascar. 

Madeira Is. 

Malta. 

Mauritius Island. 

Morocco (except Casa- 
blanca, Mogador 
and Rabat) . 

New Zealand. 

Nigeria. 

Norfolk Island. 

Norway. 

Obok. 

Orange River Colony. 

Paraguay. 

Perim luand. 

Peru. 

Portugal. 

Portuguese East 
Afnca 

Portuguese West 
Africa 

Principe Island. 

Reunion Island. 

WEEK END LETTERS 

Week End Letters filed before midnight 
Saturday are deliverable the following Monday 
morning. The rate is $1.15 for 24 words and 
5 cents for each additional word, plus small 
additional charges between the cable stations 
and points of destination. Week end letters 
must be written in plain language of liie 
country of origin or destination. 

All Week End Letters not destined to 
London or Liverpool will be mailed beyond 
London unless otherwise arranged by sender. 

If destined to points in Great Britain other 
than London or Liverpool the added charge for 
telegraphic delivery will be sus given under 
"Cable Letters," same rules also apply for 
words, etc. 

A nine-word message has been despatched 
from a newspaper office in New York oack to 
the starting point, the lapse of time being 
exactly sixteen and one-half minutes. The 
message traveled via Honolulu, Manila, Hong 
Kong, Singapore, Bombay, Suez, Gibraltar 
and the Azores. 

The first telegraph line in the United 
States was opened for business in 1844; the 
telephone was introduced in 1876 by Prof. 
A. G. Bell. 



THE FIRST ATLANTIC CABLE. 

August 5th of 1908 was the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the Atlantic Cable, that being the 
day of the month in 1858 on which — contrary 
to authoritative opinion — ^the engineer of one 
of the greatest achievements of the nineteenth 
century completed the laying of the submarine 
line between Ireland and Newfoundland, the 
length being over two thousand miles, and 
tiie depth nearly three miles for the greater 

Sart of the distance. The projectors were Mr. 
ohn Watkins Bright, Mr. (afterwards Sir 
Charles) Bright and Mr. Cyrua West Field. 
Mr. Bright was also the engineer-in-chief 
of the undertaking, and he received the honor 
of knighthood in recognition of his services 
to the country in connection therewith, at 
the unprecedented age of 26. 

Electrical theories were, however, mistaken 
at that time, and the electricians applied far 
too much power for the transmission of signals, 
the result being that the insulation suffered 
by degrees, until after three months' useful 
work the cable gradually succumbed. 

After a number of cables had been laid by 
Sir Charles Bright, Mr. H. C. Forde, Sir Wil- 
liam Siemens and others to India, Gibraltar, 
Alexandria, &c., another Atlantic Cable ex- 

[>edition started in 1865. This was the first 
ine that was laid by the manufacturers of the 
cable, these contractors being the Tel^rapb 
Construction and Maintenance Company, wiUi 
Mr. (afterward Sir Samuel) Canni^ for their 
chief engineer, whilst Sir Charles Bright and 
Mr. Latimer Clark acted aa consul tmg en- 
gineers to the proprietors. Notwithstand- 
mg the extra knowledge and experience gained 
in regard to the subject generally, this ex- 

g edition met with as many mishaps as the 
rst- expedition of 1857; but in 1866 — aB 
in 1858 — the same arrangements ultimately 
achieved success, since which the construction, 
laying, and working of submarine telesraphs 
has passed from the pioneer stage to that of 
ordinary routine. 

The engineering methods were similar to 
those adopted eight years previously; but the 
line proved a lasting success, owing to the 
advances made in electrical science and in the 
practical working of cables. (3n the electrica 1 
side, in addition of the late Lord Kelvin, the 
names of Varley and Willoughby Smith must 
always be honorably associated with the 
subject, and the late Sir John Pender did more 
than any man for the commercial develop- 
ment of submarine telegraphy. 



THE CABLE ALPHABET. 




h t J h ^ m n o P 



The cut above shows the Morse CJode as recorded by a syphon recorder. Sjrphon recorders 
are used for receiving cable messages. It will be obsei-ved that the spaces are represented by 
horizontal lines, dots by loops above the space lines, and dashes by loops below the space lines. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



297 





SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE I 




WIRIi;i,KSS ROOM OF U. S. REVEXUE CUTTER "GRESHAM." 



CHAPTER X. 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 



Wireless telegraphy is, in theory, closely 
allied to heliography, or signaling with flashes 
of light. The light used, however, is produced 
electrically and is invisible to the naked eye, 
owing to the fact that it is made up of very 
long waves, called Hertzian waves, which vi- 
brate too slowly to affect the retina. The eye 
can onlv discern waves which make from 
4,000 billions to 7,000 billions vibrations per 
minute. However, the Hertzian ray resem- 
bles light in that it can be reflected by a 
metallic plate and can be refracted by a pnsm 
of pitch, can be brought to a focus with a 
pitch lens, and may be polarized. Owing to 
the great length of the Hertzian waves, almost 
all substances are transparent to them. The 
Hertzian waves were discovered by Professor 
Heinrich Hertz, a young German philosopher, 
during his experiments with the spark dis- 
charge of Leyden jars and of the Ruhmkorff 
coil m 1886 and 1887. 

He found that when a spark leaped the gap 
between the terminals, electric oscillations 
took place in these terminals which set up 
magnetic waves in the surrounding space, 
capable in turn of setting up similar oscilla- 
tions in any adjacent conductor lying at an 
anjgle to them. The waves were detected by 
using a " resonator," which was merely a circle 
or a rectangle of copper wire formed with a 
^ap in one side. When the induction coil was 
in operation and the resonator coil was held 
near the coil, a tiny stream of sparks would 
leap across the resonator gap. To better 
understand this phenomenon take as a crude 
example two vertical rods in a pool of water 
and on each a float free to slide vertically on 
the rod. Now, if one of these floats be moved 
up and down upon its rod, it produces waves 
in the water just as the electric oscillation 
produces waves in the ether. These spread 
out in all directions and on reaching the other 
float cause it to oscillate up and down, just 
as the magnetic waves produce electric oscilla- 
tions in the resonator. 

Without going into a detailed history of 
the development of wireless telegraphy from 
Hertz's experiments, it may be stated that 
the essential difference between the apparatus 
used by Hertz in his experiments and the 
several systems now commonly in use lies in 
the receiver. The transmitter is practically 
the same. A vertical wire called the antenna 
is connected to one terminal of the coil, and 
tbe other terminal is connected with the earth, 
the purpose being to increase the electrical 
capacity of the terminal rods and produce 
larger waves. Instead of producing the oscil- 
lations by means of an induction coil, they 



are now ordinarily produced by a dynamo and 
a step-up transformer except for telegraphing 
over short distances. But even with these 
changes we would not be able to telegraph 
over any appreciable distance if dependent 
upon the Hertz resonator for receiving a mes- 
sage, for, owing to the fact that the waves 
spread out in all directions from the trans- 
mitting antenna, the receiving antenna is 
acted upon by a very small proportion of the 
power expended by the transmitter, and this 
proportion decreases very rapidly as the dis- 
tance between the transmitter and the receiver 
increases. In order then to detect the rays 
at long distances, a very sensitive instrument 
called the "coherer" has been invented. The 
coherer in its usual form consists of a glass 
tube with two metal pistons fitted therein be- 
tween which a quantity of nickel filings is 
placed. The latter forms an imperfect elec- 
trical contact between the pistons, and takes 
the place of the spark gap in the receiving 
antenna. When the oscillations are set up in 
the antenna by the Hertzian waves, due to 
their high pressure or voltage, they break 
through the imperfect contact of the coherer, 
causing the filings therein to cohere or string 
together and thus produce a much better 
electric path through the coherer. The action 
is microscopic and cannot be detectcKi with 
the naked eye. However, the coherer, aside 
from being a part of the antenna circuit, is 
also made a part of a local battery circuit, 
which contains a telegraph receiver, and when- 
ever the electric oscillations open a good path 
through the filings for the local circuit, the 
telegraph instrument will be energized by the 
local battery only. In order to break this 
path after the oscillations have ceased, or, in 
other words, to cause the filings to decohere, 
they are constantly jarred apart by means of 
the "tapper," which is in reality an electric 
bell wi^ tiie gong removed and the clapper 
striking the coherer tube instead. Carbon 
granules may be substituted for metallic fil- 
ings, and in this case no tapper is necessary, 
the coherer being self -restoring. 

In transmitting messages a telegraph key 
in the primary circuit of- the induction coil is 
operated according to the usual Morse code, 
and this causes sparks to leap the spark gap 
at corresponding intervals. These signals will 
then be transmitted by the. Hertzian waves to 
the receiving station, where they will be re- 
corded by the telegraph receiver. The co- 
herer is not by any means the only wave de- 
tector in use. Every wireless telegraph com- 
pany has one or more different types of 
detectors. 



299 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




^ n f; V A rit iAUSTRALIA. > 



MARCONI WIRELESS STATIONS FOR THE IMPERIAL TELEGRAPH SERVICE. 




MARCONI HIGH POWER STATION AT NAVY STATION AT ARLINGTON, VA. 

SOUTH WELLFLEET. MA^S, ObHrveD Clirc will b; sent out iHululr 

(CAPE COD.) franlUBiilatloii. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



301 



WIRELESS STATIONS. 



A complete list of wireless telegraph sta- 
tions of the world, including shore stations, 
merchant vessels, revenue cutters and vessels 
of the United States Navy, is published peri- 
odically by the Bureau of Steam Engineering 
of the Department of the Navy. The edition 
for January 1, 1912, consists of 165 pages. 
Copies of this publication can be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, 
United States Printing Office, Washington, 
D. C, at a cost of 15 cents. The section de- 
voted to wireless telegraphy in this book as 
regards the United States is taken from this 
work and is corrected to June 12, 1912, but 
many who would like to have the call letters, 
etc., of foreign wireless shore stations, also the 
call letters, etc., of vessels of the United States 
Navy, tile United States Army, revenue cut- 
ters, and all steamships which are equipped 
with wireless, should purchase this inexpen- 
sive pamphlet. Space forbade the publica- 
tion of this list in full. 

Wireless communication was an established 
fact for more than ten years before the ships 
••Republic" and "Flonda" collided on Jan- 
uary 23, 1909. The wonderful salvage opera- 
tion which was only rendered possible by the 
prompt action of the vessel summoned by 
wireless called instant attention to the im- 
portance of wireless as a safeguard from the 
dangers of the sea. The "Republic" might 



have gone down to the bottom without news 
of the disaster and with none of the passengers 
and crew saved, except possibly a few of them 
who escaped by life boats, had it not been for 
this most practical invention. It was two 
days after 'La Boureoyne" sank before the 
story of the catastrophe became known. The 
next interesting use of the wireless was per- 
haps the detection and arrest of Dr. Crippen 
for the crime of murder. There is no more 
weird story in the annals of crime than how 
the unseen wireless brought Dr. Crippen to 
the noose. Stations that were practically un- 
known became suddenly vitalized, and to-day 
Cape Sable, Belle Isle, Fame Point and Father 
Pomt are household words. 

On the 14th of April, at 11.46 P. M., ship's 
time, the "Titanic" struck an iceber|[. Within 
fifteen or twenty minutes Hie Captam visited 
the wireless room and instructed the operator 
to get assistance. The two calls "C.Q.D." 
and "S.O.S." began to flash from the aerials, 
and the message of despair from the sinking 
vessel was heara by the * Moimt Temple, " the 
"Frankfurt" and the "Carpathia." The Cap- 
tain of the "Carpathia" immediately turned 
arOund and succeeded in reachine the "Ti- 
tanic" after she sank, and rescued a portion 
of her passengers and crew. Had it not been 
for the wireless the probabilities are that very 
few, if any, survivors would have remained to 
tell the awful tale. 




WIRELESS STATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. 

CENTER OF WIRELESS ACTIVITY. 



A GREAT 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN EBFBEENCB BOOK. 



Name itnd Location 



CharBclCT o[ 



UNITED STATES. 



Eoatport. Me 

Porthnd, Me 

Fort Levitt, Me 

Portsmouth. N. H 

Cambrtdae, Mass 

Fort Am&ewa, Mass 

Braot Bock, Mass. 

CtuthaiD, Mass 

Chelsea, Mafs 

Boston, Mass 

Boacou, Mass 

Boston, Mass 

Cai»e Cod. Mass 

Cape Cod. South WeUBoet' . 

Cape Cod, Mass 

Siasconsett, Mass 

Qulnc;. Mass 

Qulncf . Mass 

Nantucket Shoals LtghtsMp . 

Newport, B.I 

Providence, R. I 

Point Judith, R. I 

Block Island, R.I 

New London, Coon 

Sea Gate, N. Y 

Sagaponack, N. Y 

Fire Island. N, Y 

N. Y. <42 Broadway) 

N, Y. nil Broadway).... 

N. Y. jWanamaker's} 

N. Y, (Herald, Battwy),.. 

N. Y 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

Fort B. G. Wright, N. Y.. 

Fort Totten. N. Y 

Fort Wood. N. Y 

Fort Hancock, N. J 

Atlantic City. N. J 

CapeMay. N. J 

Camden, N. J 

PhlladBlplila. Pa. {Wana- 

mailer s) 

PMladelBlila. Pa. (Bellevue- 

Stratford) 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Cape Henlopen. Del 

■IpaiTO wo Point. Md,... 

,\niiftpi)nFi, Md 

Wasliington, D. C 

Washlntirton, D. C 

Washington, D. O. (Mills 

BuUdLig] 

Washington, D. C. (Bureau 

ol Standards) 

ArllngloiJ, Vb.' 

Fort Monroe. Va. 

Fort Monroe. Va. 

Norfolk, Va 

Norfolk, Va 



n CommerdBl. 

- " ■. (Navj). 



K) Commercial. 



10 Eip«1mental, 
10 Gov. (Navy). 



. Private, 

>0 Conunerdal. 



. EiperimenlaL 
T. (Army). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



303 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPH SHORE STATIONS OP THE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. — Continued. 



Name and Location 
of Station. 



ATLANTIC AND QULF 

COASTS — Continued. 

Beaufort. N. O 

Diamond Shoals 

Cape Hatteras, N. C 

Charleston, S. C 

Frying Pan Shoals 

Savannah, Ga 

Jacksonville, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Jupiter, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Pensacola. Fla 

MobUe, AJa 

Fort Morgan, Ala 

New Orleans, La 

New Orleans, La 

New Orleans, La 

Burrwood, La 

Grand Island, La 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Fort Sam Houston, Tex.» . . 

XNTEBIOB. 

Port Leavenworth, Kans. . . 

Fort Riley, Kans 

Fort Omaha. Neb 

GBEAT LAKES. 

Buffalo. N. Y 

Erie. Pa 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

Detroit, Mich 

Detroit, Mich 

Detroit, Mich 

Detroit, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich 

Mackinac Island, Mich. . . . 

Ludington, Mich 

Harbor Beach, Mich 

Isle Royal, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

Chicago, ni. (Hotel) 

Chicago. Ill 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Manitowoc. Wis 

Waupaca, Wis 

Scandinavia, Wis 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. . . . 

Marquette, Mich 

Frankfort, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Calumet, Mich 

Duluth. Minn 

Grand Marais, Minn 



CaU 
Ijetters. 



Range in 

Nautical 

Miles. 



Q 

i: 

o 

» 
Pi 
< 

o 

» 

Q 

< 

O 

o 
o 

H 
O 

GQ 



OQ 

Pi 



460-1,000 



160-600 
160-300 



600-1.600 



Power 

in 

Kilowatts. 



26 and 2 



100 

300-600 

700 



76 

460-1,000 

200 



200-400 



76 
idO 
150 



100 
160 



100 

100 

160-200 



200 
160 



250 



160 
160 
160 



6 and 



160 



6 
1 
6 
6 
2 
2 
2 
2 
6 
I 
6 
6 
2 
2 
6 
26 
6 

2 
2 



Wave 

length in 

Meters. 



2 
10 



2 
6 
6 
2 
10 
6 
2 



6 
5 
10 
6 
6 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

7H 
6 
2 
2 
1 
6 

7H 
2 
2 
2 
6 
2 



1,000 
400 
600 

1,000 
400 
460 
600 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000-2,000 

600 

1,000 
400 
360 
600 

1.760 

1,000 
260 

1,000 
460 



Character of 
Station. 



460 



Variable. 



600 
Variable. 
1.000 



Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 
760 
860 
760 
600 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable, 

Variable. 
900 

Variable. 

Variable. 



Variable. 

900 
Variable. 
Variable. 
Variable. 
Variable. 
Variable. 



Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Conunerdal. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 
Private. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Private. 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Gov. (Army). 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Experimental. 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Doi. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



^Projected. 



304 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPH SHORE STATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. — Continued. 



Name and Location 
of Station. 



PACIFIC COAST. 

Friday Harbor, Wash 

Seattle, Wash 

Seattle, Wash 

Seattle, Wash 

Roche Harbor, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tatoosh Island, Wash 

North Head, Ilwaco, Wash. 
Fort Worden, Wash 



Astoria, Oreg. 

Marshfleld, Oreg 

Fort Stevens, Oreg 

Cape Blanco, Denmark, Ore 

Eureka, Cal 

Eureka, Cal 

Farallon Islands, Cal 

San Francisco, Cal 

S. F., Cal. (Presidio) 

Yerba Buena Island, S. F. . , 

Mare Island, Cal 

San Luis Obispo, Cal 

Point Arguello, Surf, Cal. . . . 

San Pedro. Cal 

Los Angeles, Cal 

Los Angeles, Cal 

Avalon. Cal 

Avalon, Cal 

San Diego. Cal 



ALASKA. 



Pribilof Islands.. 
Dutch Harbor. . . 
Unalga Island * . . 

Kodiak 

Cordova 

Sitka... 

Circle City 

Fort Egbert 

Fairbanks 

Fort Gibbon 

Fort St. Michael. 

KotUk 

Nome 

Nulato 

Petersburg 

Wrangell 

Ketcmkan 

Juneau 

Karluk 

Kogginung 

Chignik 

Nushagak 

Clarks Point 

NakNek 



CANADA. 

Indian Harbor, Labrador... 
Domino Island, Labrador . . 
American Tickle, Labrador. 
Venison Island, Labrador . . 
Battle Harbor, Labrador. . . 

» Projected. 



CaU 
Letters. 



Q 

H 
H 

o 

Pi 

o 

n 

Q 

o 

< 
a 
o 

o 

H 

H 
O 

» 

PCI 

p 

OQ 

Pi 
< 

m 



Range in 

Nautical 

Miles. 



20C 



Power 

in 

Kilowatts. 



150 



150 
150 



2 
5 
5 
4 
4 
5 
2 
5 

10 
1 
2 
2 
1 
5 
5 
5 
5 

10 
1 
2 
5 
2 
3 
5 
2 
2 
1 
2 
5 



3 

5 

10 

3 

10 

20 

3 

5 

6 

10 

3 

1 

10 

10 

1 

1 

2 

2 

5 

2 

2 

2 

2 

5 



Wave 

Length in 

Meters. 



1,500 
500 



1,000 

400 

1,000 

1,000 



425 



1,000 

425 

1,000 

1,000 

600 



600 

1,000 

100 

1,000 

425 

425 

500 

500 

425 

1,000 



1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



220 



220 
220 



Character of 
Station. 



Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 
Private. 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy;. 
Conmierclal. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Gov. (Army). 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Army). 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy). 



Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Government. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Name and LocatloD 



J A Di — Continued. 



B, NcWoundKnid . . . 

Point KIch, NewtDuodland.. . 
Capf Kai'. NowfoundlQiiti . . . 
Cttijc Race. Newtoundland.... 

UBninKton, Quebec 

HeMh Point. Anilcoati Isd. . 
GrindHtone. Magdalen Isd... . 
Fame Point, Quehec — .... 

Clarke Cky. Quebec 

I'alber Potnt, Quobpc . , , . 
UroBse Islo, tju«t»-r 

(Quebec. Quebef . 

Three RLverv ijinlnc 
MraitrB^ Uiiibn 

Pforeli Sydney 

Cai>e Breton, Glace Bay 

Plctou. Nova Scotia 

Cttinperdown, Nova Scotia, , 
Sable Island. Nova ScQtla. . . 

Cape 8ablo. Nova Scotia 

St. John. Partr1<^ Island. . . 

Port Arthur. Ontario 

St. Thomas. Ontario 

Prince Rupert, B. O 

Dead Tree Point, B. O 

IkedsHead, B, C 

Triangle Jsland. B. C 

CapeLazo. Vancouver, B, C, 
Estevan. Vancouver, B. C. . . 
Point Grey. Vancouver, li.C. 

Pachena. Vane " " 

Victoria. B. C. 



. Government. 



Commerdat. 




„»=W O C E ^ Jf 



306 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



On June 12, 1912, there were 1,677 mer- 
chant ships equipped with wireless telegraph 
installations. The total number of commer- 
cial coast stations was 286. 

Under the Imperial Wireless System all of 
the stations will be fitted with apparatus for 
the automatic transmission and receipt of 
messages, guaranteeing a speed of not less 
than fifty words a minute. Arrangements are 
progressing and the work will be carried out 
as expeditiously as possible for the construc- 
tion of stations placing Great Britain in direct 
communication with New York, instead of 
having the messages pass through Glace Bay; 
also for the construction of stations in San 
Francisco for communication through the 
Hawaiian Islands with the Philippines, China 
and Japan. Arrangements are also being 
made for stations to send messages from 
New York south to Cuba, Panama, and 
subsequently to each South American State. 

The New York Times has made more use 
of the wireless station than perhaps any other 
paper in the world, and nearly all of their 
foreign news in the Sunday edition is trans- 
mitted by wireless. When the new stations 
in London and New York are completed wire- 
less messages will be received in less than, ten 
minutes from the time of their dispatch, inde- 
pendent between these two points. When the 
stations are completed the Marconi Company 
will be independent of land lines and will pro- 
vide a service which will not be surpassed for 
speed and accuracy. The world's rights in 
the wireless compass of Messrs. Bellini and 
Tosi has also been acquired by the Marconi 
Company. This will undoubtedly prove of 
considerable value when worked m conjunc- 
tion with existing wireless installations aboard 
ships, enabling the Captain to define the posi- 
tion of an approaching ship or of the land in 
a dense fog. 

The United States Navy is now planning 
the construction of a chain of wireless stations 
embracing two oceans and a continent within 
the range of this chain, so that naval vessels, 
whether near the African coast or in Chinese 
waters, will be under direct control from 
Washington by aerial communication. Funds 
for this plan were not forthcoming at the last 
session of Congress. The first section is now 
in course of erection at Arlington, Va., and 
will be ready shortly after the publication of 
this book. Each of the stations is to have a 
semi-radius of 3,000 miles or more. 

The Arlington station consists of three steel 
towers in the form of an isosceles-triangle. At 
the apex of the triangle the tower is 650 feet 
high, or 95 feet higher than the tip of the 
Washington monument. At the base are two 
towers, each 450 feet in height. The antennae 
are to be strung from the tallest tower to the 
other two. These immense towers are strik- 
ing features of the landscape as viewed from 
any point of vantage in Washington. It is 
contemplated to move all of our naval vessels 
by the use of these towers. The range of the 
Arlington station will cover practically all of 
the North Atlantic ocean. Guantanamo, Cuba, 
falls easily within the range of this station, 
and regular communication with the station 
to be erected at Panama will be had with 
equal facility 



TRANSATLANTIC MAROONIORAMS. 

Marconigrams for transmission to Great 
Britain and Ireland and to ships at sea are 
accepted at all offices of the Western Union 
Telegraph Co. and the Great North- Western 
Telegraph Co. 

The established rules and regulations 
governing the method of counting and charg- 
mg of Cable Messages are applicable to 
Marconigrams. 

RATES. 



FROM 



TO 



Points; in Maine, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New York City, 
Yonkers, N. Y., Hoboken, Jersey City 
Union Hill, N. J., Points in the Mari- 
time Provinces, New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia and in the Eastern 
Canadian Provinces, Quebec and 
Ontario 



I § 



$0.16 



Delaware, Mar>land, New Jersey, (ex- 
cept Hoboken, Jersey City and Union 
Hill.) New York (except New York 
City and Yonkers), Pennsylvania and 
the District of Columbia 



.18 



Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi, 
North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolma, 
Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia 
and Wisconsin, Pensacola, Fla., 
Burlington, Clinton, Cedar Rapids, 
Davenport, Dubuque, Ft. Madison, 
Keokuk and Muscatine, la.. New 
Orleans, La., Duluth, Hastings, Lake 
City, Minneapolis, Redwing, St. Paul, 
Stillwater, Wabasha and Winona, 
Minn., Hannibal, La., St. Louis, Mo. 



.21 



Arkansas, Colorado, Florida (except 
Pensacola and Key West), Iowa (ex- 
cept Burlington, Clinton, Cedar 
Rapids, Davenport, Dubuque, Ft. 
Madison, Keokuk, and Muscatine), 
Kansas, Louisiana, (except New 
Orleans), Manitoba, Minnesota (ex- 
cept Duluth, Hastings, Lake C^ty, 
Minneapolis, Redwing, St. Paul, 
Stillwater, Wabasha and Winona), 
Missouri (except Hannibal, Louisiana 
and St. Louis), Montana, Nebraska, 
New Mexico, North Dakota, Okla- 
homa, South Dakota, Texas, Wyo- 
ming 



.24 



Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, 
Oregon, Utah and Washington, Key 
West, Fla., Vancouver, Victoria and 
New Westminster, B. (5 



.27 



Deferred messages subject to a maximum 
delay of 24 hours and written in plain English 
language are also accepted at one-half these 
rates. 



SCIBNTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



s 


1 
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1 


1 

1 


i 


1 
1 


£ 


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1 


3 


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1 

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SCIENTIFIC AMBBICAN BBFBHENCB BOOK. 



WIIELEII WON «>tU 


i 

nap 


i 


1 
i 


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fH Cllllniill VHItli 




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1 

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5 

1 
5 


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S 
1 

S 

S 
S 

S 


B 
S 

i 


«'S3 


1 

i 


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1 


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S 
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10 


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1 


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^Wlct o"t Columbli . . . 




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08 


























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s 
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1 
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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



309 



WIKLESS WnO RATES 



F«r TrMS. Ocea* Vessels 



fer Caastwise Vessels 



I 
I 



OS 



07 



OS 



I 
i 

CO 



OS 




To the above wireless rates add land line rate below 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Alberta 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

British Columbia 

California 

Colorado.^. 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. . . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho « 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa.. 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Labrador 

Louisiana ,.. 

Maine 

Manitoba 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

>lississippi.... 

Missoun 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Brunswick 

Newfoundland 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York City 

New York. 

North Carolina , 

North Dakota 

Nova Scotia , 

Ohio 

Oklahoma ; . . . . . 

Ontario. Sec. 1 

Sec. 2,3 

Sec. 4 , 

Oregon 

Philadelphia 

Pennsylvania 

Prince Bdward Island. 

Suebec 
hode Island 

S^^atchewan 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Waahington 

West Yb^la 

Wiscopsln 

Wyoniing i.. .. 

Yukon.. 



08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


42 


42 


40 


42 


42 


42 


43 


42 


42 


42 


35 


10 


10 


08 


00 


00 


00 


10 


10 


10 


10 


06 


10 


10 


10 


10 


to 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


08 


00 


06 


06 


06 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


10 


10 


06 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


05 


10 


10 


06 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


06 


08 


06 


06 


06 


10 


08 


06 


08 


08 


08 


08 


0« 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


04 


04 


02 


04 


10 


0« 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


05 


05 


04 


02 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


04 


04 


04 


02 


10 


08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


05 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


05 


08 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


08 


0« 


06 


06 


06 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


08 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


05 


10 


13 


13 


15 


13 


13 


00 


12 


12 


12 


12 


17 


08 


08 


08 


08 


10 


08 


08 


08 


06 


06 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


04 


02 


03 


03 


05 


10 


06 


06 


05 


06 


04 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


02 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


03 


03 


02 


04 


10 


04 


04 


05 


04 


00 


05 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


05 


05 


04 


05 


08 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


08 


08 


08 


06 


0§ 


10 


08 


06 


06, 
06* 


06 


06 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


08 


08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


06 


06 


a5 


06 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


10 


08 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


06 


aa 


a 


08 


06 


06 


03 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


12 


12 


14 


12 


14 


08 


11 


11 


11 


11 


16 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


04 


03 


02 


03 


04 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


04 


04 


04 


04 


03 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


03 


03 


03 


03 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


04 


04 


04 


04 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


05 


10 


06 


06 


05 


06 


09 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


06 


08 


06 


06 


03 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


04 


10 


08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


05 


05 


06 


05 


06 


03 


05 


05 


05 


05 


10 


06 


06 


05 


03 


05 


06 


08 


08 


08 


08 


10 


00 


00 


08 


05 


03 


06 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


K) 


08 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


on 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


04 


04 


04 


02 


10 


,06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


05 


05 


04 


04 


10 


08 


08 


10 


06 


06 


03 


06 


07 


07 


07 


12 


06 


06 


06 


06 


06 


03 


04 


04 


05 


05 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


05 


04 


04 


02 


04 


10 


10 


10 


08 


00 


08 


00 


10 


10 


10 


10 


09 


08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


05 


10 


06 


06 


05 


06 


00 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


08 


06 


06 


06 


05 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


06 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


04 


03 


02 


03 


04 


10 


06 


06 


06 


06 


10 


06 


05 


05 


05 


03 


10 


10 


10 


08 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


03 


05 


05 


06 


05 


10 


05 


05 


05 


05 


04 


10 


05 


05 


04 


05 


00 


06 


06 


06 


06 


06 


08 


08 


08 


06 


08 


10 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


08 


52 


52 


60 


52 


60 


52 


52 


52 


62 


52 


47 



10 

38 

08 

06 

10 

06 

04 

08 

10 \. 

10 

10 

10 

10 

06 

08 

10 

08 

08 

10 

17 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

08 

10 

08 

08 

08 

05 

10 

16 

10 

10 

08 

10 

10 

10 

08 

10 

10 

08 

10 

10 

10 

05 

10 

10 

12 

10 

10 

10 

10 

08 

10 

08 

05 

10 

10 

06 

10 

08 

06 

48 



X The wireless rate for coastwise vessels of the Booth, Lamport and Holt, Quebec, 
Royal Mail Steam Packet and United Fruit Co. lines, is 14 cents per word from all 
shore stations In the United States. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




AN EARLY WIREI:E88 CHART 
MARCONI TELEGRAPH. 

COMMUNICATION CHART. 








PHENOMENAL INCREASE IN WIRELESS ACTIVITY. 



CHAPTER XI. 



TELEPHONE STATISTICS OF THE 
WORLD. 



There were appro: 
phones and 2S,506,0( 
muwinUiewQridJi 



ciatBly 12,453,000 tele- 



careful 



miles of telephone 



lopboD 



, L, 1912, at about »"l,729 

which IS very nearly the value of all gold 
com and bullion in the IToiled States. The 

may be placed at 22,000,000,000. which Ls 
about five tunes the annual number of pas- 
sengeiB carried by all the railroads of the 
For the puipoee of this compilatbn the 
world's teiepbone statislica ar« generally tabu- 
lat«d in four territorial divisione, as follons: 





w— r-L,« 


-.M..™, 


"^ 


-r- 


," 




-=■ 


,s. 


^:-.:- 


fSS 


5 


H 


^ 


i 


12 


"- 


•"^ 


- 






- 




and wire b shown below; 




■SSt-ETT 


.s;'"" 














~': 


1 




1 


^ "S 


§ 




""^ 


,j,^ 


1°^ 




"■" 



mmercialLy. In Europe lone distance service 
a been greatly exteaded by utiiiiing iwth 
e new loaded cable between GreatBritsin 
d Belgium— by which telephone service in 
pecten to be given betwi^o London and 
:rlin — and the new telephone cable, con- 




Recent pioHTess in the art of eubmarine 
telephone cable manufacture will have far 
reaching conHcquenccs. At the present time 
there are over 400 miles of submarine tele- 
phone cable in use ui the world, and of this 
total about one-half is reprvflented by tlje four 
cables between France and England, and the 
two betwwin Belgium and England. The long- 
La Panne (Belgiu^'J aSd St. Maijaret^a^S^ 
(England), a distance of 55 miles. 



•ning of Ibe 
lO miles, and 



Finally, it 



i been built by the Gorman (iovem- 
ch according to the latest official 

- or toll tetephone wire of Europe. 
, it is wertliy of note that during the 
the great United Stales railway sys- 
«.,.... ua.e made rapid advances toward the 
general use of the telephone for train dispatch- 
ing. Since the introduction of the use of the 
telephone for that purpose, over 200 of the 
United States railroads have adopted that sys- 
tem. In fact, the telephone has supplanted the 
telegraph - - - - ^" ""■ " ' ■'- ' 

of the eoui. .. 
miles of wire 

spondjng qi 



ir20%o(th 



*pl. 



ti^l 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 






100 populstioi 

If the put ten 
id of the period 

United 

StatM Cuuda Europe 

2.3 1.2 0.3 

S.a 4.2 0.7 

: appean that it takes Europe 

telapbone procraoa continues at 

, _ reach Uls preoent development of 

the United Stales (8.8), Europe must gain 8.1, 
which at the rote luD.l ereiy twoyeara would 
requite 1S2 yean. As Bueh i forecset makeB 

due to the use of latee better adapted to the 
.Qcedji of the public and ImportAut advanced 

iDBterially. Oue thiuff, however, ia certain: 
Europe offers yet a vast field for telephone 

Cgreae. becuuae at the hAginning of 1912 it 
reached only the devek>pmen t of the Uoiled 
States Jan. 1, 189S. 



Telephones per 100 Population 

United States, Canada and 

Edropb, 1902 TO 1612. 

It ia worthy of note that the United Stales, 

Jan. 1, 1912, had over one-half the total tele. 

phone wire of the world, and nearly twice the 

total milease of Europe, while the latter at the 

le telephone wire 



e Unit 









T%e combined number of telephone conver- 
■atloDs of the rest of Hie n>orld u bjt one-half 
that of the United SUles. The telegraph traf- 
fic of the United States presenta quite a con- 
traat- Placing the world's telegraph tral^o 
durina IBIO at about 57»,O00,UO(), the United 
atatcB took but 17%of the total, while Europe 
had 02%. In other words. Eui 
the BE ■ ' • 



United States traffic has 
ahnvf. the colo^<Hal total ol 
urease of 6500%, 



I of 2: 






and telesraph tramc ana in luc w 
the world are shown on the chart oi 
eoverini the period 1900-1910. 
represent the percentage increasf 
tra&ic durins 1900 and mileages ai 
the yeuISOO. 



Referring first to the traffic curves, the tele- 

5 hone has gained 277% and the telegraph 
6%. In other words, the percentage increase 
ia telephone traffic is about ei^t timee that 
in telegraph traffic. During the same period 
the inerease in wire plant was 44S% for the 
telephone as comparal with 57% lor tlie tele- 
graph, so that the percentage, iacrease in tele- 

that of telegraph wire. 

The foUowiUE chart chicle ti 



e, for 






proportion 

HLDHOe COtACTWnCNS IF ■ 



rid lor the_yean< 1901 
<e United States. Eu- 

ries, and aliowa the 

total. 



m III pMl unmiiKTi 

1 i i t 



divided accordinit to territ 
Jan. 1st of each ^fear Iroin 1 
eive. During thia period t} 



TELEPHONE INVESTKENUrm 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ment almost quadrupled. LDcreaflmc from 



W82'o6orOOOtoi|j 
of this eDonuous increase 
States, where the annual 
appro nimately 168.000,' — 



re than Uie correepoDduig aver 



OloCheccountiiea" Se7,0( 



E Telephone Development 
IN Vasioub CouNTKina, 
Jam. 1, IQIL 
TELCmONE STATIONS 

COWWtMSTHe UN(reDSTATK>ltIHEU(«« 





Telephones in Use. 

The statistical table shows the (f lephone 
development of the worid January I, 1911. 
At that date the United Htates had 67.4% of 
the total tolephoues. Europe had 28.3%, Can- 
ada 2,.'i%, thus leaving but 3,8% for all other 
cwuntnes. The high pcree 
''Hot Bosnia. Oreec 



lefac 
e table ehon 






the German Empire and Ur^tllriio 

the tcfldera in European telephone dcvelop- 

and Great Britain 2a?^ "t an''Enrnpcan 'leli.- 



lave over 100.000 telephonee ( 

hined number of telephones is 

juiopean Stales — Belgium, i^orway, I'en- 

^ark, Hungary, Italy, and the Netherlands — 

while Chicago has m ' ~ ~ ^ ' 



p York 




countries, the relative positiona have not 
changed during the past year. Denmark still 

1, iSll'. WBsO.7 t«le- 



if the United States at 



lalion. tile develop 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



iS-c 


Eve tdAi€s Hi 


^■^elopn 


Lookinj 


tthatekphon 





to every 28. ami the la 
29 iDhnbitanta. T 
Qraat Britain have 

timea and Austtia e 
per station of Swedt_. 

In actual number of telepboai 
BerliD, LondoD and Paris. wiUi a camDmi 
total of 403.500 telepbanea, are about ev< 
wiUi New York (402,000). The latter appro, 
inatea very nearly the combined telephones ■ 
U European Slates. 



re the population 
1911 



Win 



Mileage. 



Then 



and oharl 



:t BtfltUtioal table 

the telephone developaient i 

point of wire plant January 1, ISIl. At dat« 
the grand total of t^phone wire mileaiie 
nan about 37,000,000. of which the United 
States possessed 61.7%, Europe 32.5%, Can- 
ada Z.8%, South America 0.fi% and all other 
countries 2.7%, Thus the United States has 
almost twice thw total telephone wire of all 
Europe. The German Empire, though poo- 
aessing the largest number of telephones of 
any of the Eurorwan States, haa but one-fifth 
the telephone wire of the I n tod btatea and 
Great Britain ' ' 





The table an the opposite page shotre tl 
riCimstrd tnlal length of telephone and tel 

ui i l^'lephone aod telegraph wi 
Thf »(,i03tic- place the - * 
elephone and telegraph wii 



length of 
,.-,„ the -"'"■' 

34,500,000 miles. ' 



cables) i/yo,«nd railroad t 
. . Again the United States to. 
of the total telephone wire, and 84% 
total telegraph wire (eiciudioK cab) 
railroad telegraph wire). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



A more eompreheiiMve view ot &e relation 
between telephone development and popula- 
tion is gainea from the foUoa-inp chart Tbb 



Stat« and Canada, represei 
both population per squni 
pboneaperlOOpopulation. 1 



on. Theerealcatpopu- 

-.^-. is found in Belgium. 

663 inhabiUnts to the square mile, 
iTgest number ot telephones per 100 
I a found in the United States, whirh 
. 1011, had S.I telephones per 100 




It is evident (rom the chart that Canada 
has by far the lowest density of populatioa; 

while Sweden is about equal tn the United 
Statts, and Itah- to Germany. In telephone 
development Canada ranks next la the United 
" - lark and Sweden, whii^ have 

V one-half the telephone de- 
be United States. 



TELEGRAPH TRAFf IC 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ANNIWU. INCREASES Of 

TELEPHONE WIRE MILEAGE OF THE WORLD 

DIVIDED BV COUrrTRIK 



iMmiiiiummiacmiiita 




Tblephont! Investment 

The atatubcs reCemng to iniesUnent do not 
ftlwaya reprEeent thuactual replacement values 
of the \anoiifl (eleptiaae plants as auch infor 
luation IB not Tecorded by the majority of 
foreign telephone adminiatcationa. The only 
data available in many eaaee are the aggregate 
amounts that have been put info rhe businesa 
since its inception. The world's telephone in- 
vealinent January 1, l^H. ia estimated nt 
11,561,80(1.000, equivalent tfl 1136 Per tele- 
phone. This total inveatmentia thus approxi- 
mately equal to the value of &ie com crop of 
the United States m 1911. 

Of this total mvestment of SI, 501,800,000, 
the United States invested t0fi6,700,000. or 
01.2 per cent, of the total; Canada 138.700.- 
000, or 2.4 per cent, of the totaU Europe 
t51S,400.000, or 33.2 per cent, of the total; 
and all other counliies 150,000.000, or 3.2 
per cent, of the total. 

Figured on the respective number of tele- 
phones on Jan. 1. 1911, the investment per 
telephone is; 

United Stales f 120 

Canada 129 

Europe ; 175 

Total world " i'.'.'.'.'.'.WW'.', 139 

The investment representing "all other 
countriea" includes 116.458.000 for the Com- 
monnealth of Australia and New Zealand, 
S4JU5.000 for tlie Union of South Africa. 
(15,223,000 for Japan, and about t6.6O8.U0U 
for Brazil and Chili together. 

added to the telephone investment of the 



re total of tl .500.800,000 



il cost of lill telephone plantB 

le more detailed investment 
the following page, perhapa 
feature otflie table is llie 



Britain, none of the European States exceeds 
tl00,000.000. and the majority have invested 
less than (20,000.000 apiece. Of the ScaniU- 

yiewing teleiJione investment from a, per 
vealed. A glance at the chart on pace 315 
land leads, and Denmark has advanced lo 

point of total investment, it Ukes Rfth place in 
point of investment per capita. The per capita 
investment of the United 9tBt«s ({10.27) is 
nhnut nine times that of Europe (11.18). Of 
European countiiea shown on the chart. 



the European countr 
Hungary has the lowE 
(lO.Sfl). and Austria 
investment of tl.OO j 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



317 



Investment — Telephone and 
Telegraph. 

It is interesting to compare the telephone 
investment of the world with that of the tele- 
graph (including submarine cables). In the 
absence of anv definite information covering 
the entire world on that subject, only an esti- 
mate can be made. Using the total tel^raph 
wire mileage, January 1, 1911, as a basis, the 
telegraph mvestment may be estimated at 
about $700,000,000. There are also 314,000 
miles of submarine cables representing an esti- 
mated investment of $350,000,000, so that 
the total telegraph investment of the world 
Januarv 1, 1911, may be placed at $1,050,- 
000,000, as compared with a telephone invest- 
ment of $1,561,777,000 at the same date. 

This makes a total investment of $2,619,- 
497,000 for telephone and telegraph (includ- 
ing submarine cables) for the world, January 
1, 1911. Of this total 60 per cent, is invested 
in telephones, 27 per cent, in telegraphs and 
13 per cent, in cables. 



oaoM BAnoMot or nn intmo fTAm, CAllAM^ 

BOaOra AND ALL OTHB* COUmWM 

(Partly bltaMMd) 
YSAII 1990 



OMita 


Eanlac, 


%ioTmiI 
Euali«t 


lacrww 
D«ria|1909 


Avg-Bualag* 
r<rTd«phoac 


■■•■tad SlAttt 


vn^otfita 


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vojtufioo 


9IZJ7 




r*M4a 


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za 


I.WIJOOO 


1IJ7 




Aottik 


1,7MJ90 

2X)(6,740 
IIJSS 
6S.I1S 

2fm.i» 

449^19 
1^161400 

21.II1,1M 

17^049 

IJ919,20S 

2^>«^ 

62497 

1,711700 

l.l»jl64 

240iS16 

2779V 

47JM7} 

9B.17S 

«1I,I2S 

i.996w(» 


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04 

oi 

■ U 

9» 

7JD 

09 
OJ 

cij 

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U 

li 

09 


194ja00 

IS2J00O 
1,900 
7J00O 

211;000 

ijmooo 
i-4o^;» 

1459,000 

lii/m 

149J0OO 

«/D0O 

244^000 

4QI00O 

M/aoo 

ISJOOO 

499,709 

4^ 

lUJOO 
109000 
M9JMI0 


41.41 
307$ 

nso 

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HU 
I19S 
4029 
ISM 
19.40 
36.40 
M» 
42JD 

aoj9 

32.4S 
21 JS 

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2U0 

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27.9S 


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Total ««rM 


919IL7I7,72> 


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COUMfBIBS BOB 



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Ttlvheaa 
Btniiaai 


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2jM0,m 
I,I«I400 

iiji0isa9 

21,111429 

S7J»« 
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92497 

1,751,700 

US9B64 

240519 

xn»o 
mm 

«1I,12S 
a>S976S 
1,996^419 


•1,1«,S7I 

1.191 .4S0 

291 JM 

294410 

499497 
9,101429 

15.980499 

1«,794 

l,491X»9 

1420,511 

l«41> 

JPII/«7$ 
<4247S 
•49462 
S9S,I06 

l2.4fl9,IS9 
12D4Z1 

tsauta 

615.049 
9U46I 


•6497,561 

1,2S«1190 

293479 

1S974S 

2ja4SS 

16461,439 
41.102429 
19JD74.I95 

«1442 

14301294 

6417,415 

79;»5 

2741,175 

1402719 

1400479 

•TIJOSI 

I74I1.ISI 
179499 
2463.547 
4374414 
2409,100 


61» 

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19» 
7916 

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2216 
S216 

1016 
11» 

2916 
9616 
71* 


4616 
1716 
•616 
S216 

1916 
»16 
2116 
4116 

9056 
4516 
6116 
2116 

v% 
ytfh 

7916 
C916 

^16 
6716 
7116 
1416 
2916 




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mM6.424 


$154447411 


S916 


41* 





Earnings for 1909 — Telephone 
AND Telegraph. 

The figures for gross telephone earnings in 
European countries are official, but toose 
quoted for "all oUier countries are mostly 
estimated. The total gross telephone earnings 
of the world for the year 1909 may be placed 
at $329,000,000, of which the United States 
earned $221,471,000 (67.4%). Canada $6,752,- 
000 (2%), Europe $91,331,000 (27.8%), and 
all other countries $9,163,500 (2.8%). 

The adjoined table shows the gross tele- 
phone earnings of the various European coun- 
tries, ranging from $241,000 (Portugal) to 
$32,331,000 (German Empire). The average 
earnings per telephone for total Europe was 
$35.40. 

On account of the almost universal custom 
af European governments of conducting the 
telephone as a branch of the postal ana tele- 
graph services, practically no European gov- 
ernment keeps its accounts in such a manner 
as to reveal the true net financial resiilt of its 
telephone service. 

Traffic — Mail, Telegraph and 
Telephone. 

Instructive as it would be to compare the 
traffic of the other two branches of transmis- 
sion of intelligence — the mail and the tele- 
graph — with the telephone traffic of the world, 
such a comparison would only be speculative 
on account of the lack of statistical material. 
There is, however, sufficient statistical infor- 
mation to permit a comparison of the traffic 
of these three services, both in the United 
States and in Europe, during the year 1G09. 
The result is as follows: 

Out of a total of 20,669,000,000 messages 
transmitted by the three services in Europe, 
15,387,000,000 (74.4 per cent.) were by first 
class mail matter, 345,000,000 (1.7 per cent.) 
by telegrams and 4,937,000,000 (23.9 percent.) 
by telephone. In the United States, out of a 
total of 21,508,000,000 messages, 8.793,000,000 
(40.9 per cent.) were by first class mail matter, 
98,000,000 (0.4 per cent.) by telegrams and 
12^17,000,000 (58.7 per cent.) by telephone. 

The figures show that although Europe has 
about three and a half times the telegraph 
traffic and nearly twice the first-class mail 
traffic, it has only one-third the telephone 
traffic of the United States. 

The first class mail, tele^aph and telephone 
traffic per 1,000 population for Europe and 
the United States during 1908 and 1909 was 
as follows: 

For Europe; 35,533 pieces of first class mail 
matter in 1909, as agamst 34,766 in 1908, an 
increase of 2.2 per cent.; 798 telegrams in 
1909, as against 769 in 1908, an increase of 
3.7 per cent.; 11,400 telephone conversations 
in 1909, as against 10,585 in 1908, an increase 
of 7.7 per cent. For the United States: 
96,090 pieces of first class mail matter in 1909, 
as against 90,062 in 1908, an increase of 6.7 
per cent.; 1,076 telegrams in 1909, as against 
1,039 in 1908, an increase of 3.5 per cent; 
137,882 telephone conversations in 1909, as 
against 134,335 in 1908, an increase of 2S. 
per cent. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



A CoMPAKisON With Other 
Indcstribs. 

The magnitude of the United States tele 
phone inveetment 



! United HtHtea industrieB. Despite 
that the telephone has beea m uae but 
re yesn. the telephone investment per 
. Jouary 1, 1910 is the fourth lB.rwnt 

ig onlv to the Iron and Steel Lnmber 

u and Beatinc induatiiea. 



UNITED STATES INDUSTRIES 





li|ifii 


wmimi 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN BBFBRB3NCB BOOK. 319 



DISPOSITION OF THE GROSS REVE- 
NUE OF THE BELL SYSTEM, 
YEAR 1011. 




■^ 





^^ ^J^^:Ll^\:l2:j^J 





MO SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



P^^, n ) 1 1 




■ 1 . , :., ^, ■ ?.soo 


000 


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fr 


— --^ ^ ^r 


ii 


ss 










= = rj. SUBS 

m * 

- - 4^ JAN. 


DIAGRAM 
CRIBERS' STATIONS 

LTFIFPHONE 
,OMPANIES 

, 1876-JAN. 1, 1913 


























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300 

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^1 

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1 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



S21 



The growth of the Bell System, its broader 
usefuhieas and resulting prosperity, are shown 
in the annual report of the American Tele- 
phone and Tel^raph Company for 1912 by 
the financial statement and other comparative 
statistics. 

At the end of the year 1912 there was a 
total of 7,456,074 subscriber stations, of which 
2,502,627 were operated by connecting com- 
panies. 

The Bell toll lines now reach 70,000 places, 
which b 5,000 more than the number of post 
offices and 10,000 more than the number of 



railroad stations in the United States. The 
total wire mileage has been increased to 
nearly 14,610,813 miles, of which over half is 
underground, and the new 450-mile subway 
between Boston and Washington has been 
completed. 

The traffic over the Bell lines shows a daily 
average of 25,572,345 or at the rate of 
8,950,000,000 connections a year. 

There was spent in plant additions $76,- 
626,900 in the year. There was appUed to 
maintenance and reconstruction during the 
year $66,705,000, making a total provision for 
the last ten years of $409,000,000. 



BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES. 

CONDENSED STATISTICS. 



• 


Dso. 31, 
1886. 


Dec. 31, 
1900. 


Dee. 31, 


Dee. 31, 
1910. 


Dec. 31, 
1911. 


Dec. 31, 
1912. 


"issr- 


MOM of Exchange Pole lines 

Mile«ofToUFdeLin«B. 


26,830 
52,873 


30,451 
101,067 


67,698 
145,535 


120,175 
162,702 


131,379 
168,361 


143,842 
171,161 


12,463 
7310 






Total Biilea of Pole Una 


78,208 


131,638 


213,233 


282,877 


294,730 


315^)03 


20,273 






MOea of Undenaoond Win 


184,615 

2,028 

488,872 


706,209 

4,203 

1,252,329 


2,345,742 

9,373 

3,424,803 


5,992,303 

24,636 

5,625,273 


6,831,667 

26,936 

6,074,012 


7,804,828 

80,801 

6.776,964 


972361 


Miles of Submarine Wire. .]. ]]]]][[. 


3365 


MOes of Aerial Wire .......J 


•701,972 






Total Biiles of Wire 


676,416 


1,961,801 


6,779,918 


11,642,212 


12,932,615 


14,610,813 


1,678,196 


Comprising ToD Wire 


216,687 
469,728 


607,609 
1,354,202 


1,265,236 
4,514,682 


1,063,994 
9,678,218 


2,060,514 
10,872,101 


2,189,163 
12,421,650 


128,649 


Comprising Exchange Wire 


1,549340 


Total 


676,416 


1,961,801 


5,779,918 


11,642,212 


12,932,616 


14,610,813 


1,678,198 






Total Exchange CIrcuite 


237,837 
1,613 


608,262 
2,776 


1,135,449 
4,532 


2,062,960 
4,933 


2,306,360 
bfiU 


2,576,789 
5,182 


270,420 


l^umber of Coitral Offices 


168 






Number of Bell Stations 

Number of BeU Connected Stations* . . 


281,606 
27,807 


800,880 
66,031 


2,241,367 
287,348 


4,030,668 
1,862,051 


4,474,171 
2,158,454 


4,963,447 
2,502,627 


479,376 
344,173 


Total Stations 


300,602 


865,911 


2,528,715 


5,882,719 


6,632,626 


7,456,074 


823,449 






Number of Employees. 


14,517 


87,067 


89,661 


120,311 


128,439 


140,789 


12350 


Number of Connecting Companies, 
Lines and Systems 








17,845 


21,454 


24,013 


2,650 








2,361,420 


5,668,066 


13,543,468 


21,681,471 


23,483,770 


25,572,345 


2.068,575 






Ton Connections Daily 


61,123 . 


148.528 


368,063 


602,539 


644,918 


737,823 


92,905 



'Includes Private Line Stations. 



BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES. 
ALL DUPLICATIONS BETWEEN COMPANIES EXCLUDED. 



COMPARATIVE EARNINGS AT FIVE YEAR INTERVALS, 1885-1012. 






Y6trl885. 


T6trl890. 


Ya«rl886. 


YatrlOOO. 


Year 1906. 


Year 1910. 


Year 1918. 


Qtosi Eamingii 

ISxpttmm, ..... 


310,033,600 
5,124,300 


$16,212,100 
9,067,600 


324,197,200 
15,488,400 


346,385,600 
30,632,400 


$97,500,100 
06,189,400 


$165312,881 
114,618,473 


$199,172,154 
142,285,404 






Net EaminiB 


34,909,300 
27,700 


37,144,500 
278,700 


38,708,800 
655,500 


$15,753,200 
2,389,600 


$31310,700 
5,836,300 


$50,994,408 
11,556,864 


$56,886,690 


Interest.;. 


14,205,365 






Balance ,. 

Dividends 


34,881,600 
3,107,200 


36,865,800 
4,101,300 


$8,053,300 
5,066,900 


$13,363,600 
7,893,500 


$25,474,400 
15,817,600 


$39,437,544 
26,100,786 


$42,681,325 
29,400,215 


Surplus Earmngs 


31,774,400 


32,764.600 


$2,080,400 


$5,470,100 


$0,050,900 


$14,270,758 


$13,221,110 



322 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PRINTERS' MARKS. 



O Poriod. 
f Gonuna. 
• Hyphen. 
8 Colon. 






rrroatLATHtcAh errors 

J. Cs iTSo^ not appear that the carliyfet prinlcw had € 
'I'l*^ ^anx^method^or^orrocUng^orrorB" before*' the form yj 






^ or 
n or 



'9 Semicolon. 
ApoBtrophe. 
. QuotatioiM. 
Em quadrat. 
One^m daah. 
Two-oifi parallel dteh. 
'^ Push down space. 
O Close up. 
t^ \eu space. 
A Caret— left out, insert. 
^ Turn to proper position. 
'rr Insert space. 
J7 Move to left or to right. 
Lj Move up of move down. 
M'. Transpose. 
.....or ^6^i!t: Let it stand: 

^ Dele— take out. 
^ Broken letter. 
^ Paragraph. 
rZcjH No paragraph. 
4tur. ^ ^V^rong font. 
•^•^ or ^^-^ Equalize spacing. 
^B or @A^w«< Capitals. 
jb: or /(i. &. Small capitals. 
JL. £•. Lower-case. 
^*^or -^ Superior or inferior. 
^^^ix/C^tctZ. italic. 
/t/nn^. Roman. 
/^ Brackets. 
^ ) Parentheseo. 



(^ was on the press/ The learned - f WHeafaed- cor- 

^/ rectors of the first two centuries of printing were 

57^ not proo^cadcrs in our sense/ they w/Crc rather 

f O^ what wo should Term office editors. Their labors 









^. 






^n* 



--/^ 









werc^hicfly to see that the proof corresponded to 
the copy, but that the printed page was correct 
in its /atinity / >Jbtf> j jg " wj i ln waj s Ui s u^^ and 
that the scnso vos right. They cared *irt little C7 
about ortbograpby, bad Icttem^ot purely priiiieif^ >/^ 
errors, and when the text seemed to them wrong ' 
they consulted fresh authorities or altered it on 
^ their own responsibility. Good proo(.«y^in the yl 
/rtoC^ modem seoec, were ^possiBle until prof oasion al Z^ 
readcre were employed/ men who [had | lirstl a /^^ 
printer's education, and then spent nuony yeara 
ia the correc^bn of proof. ^The orthography of 
English, which for the past century has under^ 
gon e little change, was very fluctuating until after 
the publication of Johnson's Dictionary, and capi- 
tals, which have been used with considerable reg- 
y-^-^ ulari ly for the pasti^ years,- were previously used 
fTirh- *"* the Jiniss p 5F\hi \} plan. The approach toregu- 
y/ ^ larity, «o far ss we hav^ may be attributed to the 
growth of a class of professional proof readers, and 
it is to them thatwc owe the correctness of mod- 
em printing.^ More er/ors have been found in the 
Bible than in any other one work.,' For many gen^i—A-^ 
cralions it was frequently the case that Bibles^"'^^^' 
wore brought out stealthily, from fear of govern* 
[Jmental interference. y\ They were frequently Oujt^ ^'"'^'^ 
printed from imperfect texts, and were often mod- f 
ificd to meet the views of those who publised '^ 
tbem^^e story is related that a certain woman s I g 
in Germany, whs w as the wife of a jfcnter, and A.c.lu/Kr 
^ I J j had becom e di^ustod with the continual aaser- / 
*7/>//*^Wt« tioi^ <y th e/»up<!n'on'/y^ of man aver woman which 
f V I she had heard, hurried into the composing room 

^ y while her husband, was at supper and altered a 

'**^f'^K)ti\je:Tkce in the" ^ible,*^hicli,he wss4>rinting. so -f ■». 
\fyjM, that it read^ar^instead of^Herr.^thus making {CL^ 

^jj of "/nd he shall be thy/ord." The woid^not. 4^/i^/^ 
'"^ was omitted by Barker, the X«ng'« printer in En- '/ 
~)land inl632,inprintingthcsevcnthcommand|^enty^ Of 



4 



He was fined i&OOO on this account. 



^»— -^I^V-f 




NUMBER OF WORDS AND EMS TO THE SQUARE INCH. 



Sizes of type. 



l4-polnt. 
12-fx>int. 
ll>point. 
10-point. 
8-polnt.« 
6-point.. 
5-point.. 



Number of words. 



Solid. 



11 
14 
17 
21 
32 
47 
69 



Leaded. 



8 
11 
14 
10 
23 
34 
50 



Num- 
berof 
ems. 



26* 

36 

43 

52 

81 

144 

207 



CHAPTER Xn. 



POST OFFICE AFFAIRS.* 



PART I. 

STATISTICAL INFORMATION. 

UNITED STATES POST OFFICE. 

SUMMARY OF ALL CLASSES DOMESTIC MAIL SERVICE IN OPERATION 

JUNE 30. 1912. 

Number of routes 12.208 

Length of routes, miles 2.761.466.751 

Number of miles traveled per annum 493,384.878.76 

Annual rate of expenditure 79,150.763.65 

Average rate of cost per mile of length 286.62 

Average rate of cost per mile traveled, cents 16.04 

Average number of trips per week 17.17 



SOURCE OF REVENUE. . 

Total for 
Sale of postage stamps. fiscal year, 
stamped envelopes, postal 
cards, etc $221,563,619.00 

Second-class postage, paid In 

money 9.399.140.61 

Third and fourth class post- 
age, paid in money 5.444.615.19 

Box rents 4.645,664.04 

Miscellaneous receipts 209.263.76 

Letter postage, paid in^noney 71.700.92 

Fines and penalties 55.201.95 

Dead letters 33.122.39 

Revenue f^om money-order 

business 4.843.364.74 

Unpaid money orders more 

than 1 year old 478,314.28 

Total $246,744,015.88 



EXPENDITURE BY ITEMS FOR YEAR 

1912. 

Service in post offices: 

Salaries of postmasters . . . $28,648,426.33 

Salaries of clerks, etc 42.479.906.91 

City Delivery Service 34.252.952.62 

All other expenditures.. . . 11.216.932.31 

Total $1 16.598,220.17 

Railway Mail Service $20,876,963.37 

Rural Delivery Service 41.900,514.79 

Transportation of domestic 
mail: 

By railroads $51,819,411.82 

By other means of trans- 
portation 13.204.261.75 

Total $65,023,673.57 

Transportation of foreign 

mail $3,716,181.11 

Payments on account of 

invalid money orders 509.387.28 



RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION. 



SERVICE AND EXPENDITURE. 

Number of routes 3.409 

Length of routes, miles 226.071.02 

Annual travel, miles 458.648,623.77 

Annual rate of expenditure $46,336,293.86 
Average rate of cost per mile 

of l^igth 204.96 

Average rate of cost per mile 

traveled, cents 10.10 

Average number of trips per 

week 19.51 



On June 30. 1912. there were in operation ' 

159 full railway i>ost-office lines, manned by , 

1-607 crews of 8.066 clerks (including 161 I 

acting clerks). Of these 159 full lines. 141 had I 



apartment-car service, manned by 1,040 
crews, of 1.598 clerks. There were also 
1,377 apartment railway post-office lines, 
manned by 4.287 crews, of 5,554 clerks; 17 
electric car lines, with 18 crews, of 19 clerks; 
53 steamboat lines, with 86 crews, of 86 clerks; 
a total of 1,606 lines of all kinds, manned by 
15,323 clerks, representing the wcurking 
force of the lines. In addition there were 
32 officials, 129 chief clerks, 622 transfer 
clerks employed in handling the malls at 
important junction points, 521 clerks detailed 
to clerical duty in the various offices of the 
service, and 448 clerks employed in terminal 
railway post offices — an aggregate of 17,075 
employees in Uie swvice* 

( Continued on page 324.) 



*This chapter is divided into two parts: the first gives statistics relative to the Post Office 
Affairs of the United States and the World, the second deals with information relative to rates, 
etc., domestic and foreign and the "Parcel Post." Revised Uurough the courtesy of Post- 
master-General Burleson. 

323 



324 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



(Continued from page 323.) 

Of the 1,388 full railway post-oflQce cars in 
use and in reserve. 545 are all-steel cars, 182 
steel-underframe cars, and 661 wooden cars, 
and of the 4.029 apartment cars in use and in 
reserve, 181 are aliHsteel cars. 221 steel-under- 
frame cars, and 3,627 wooden cars. 

During the fiscal year the department has 
permitted further experimental aeroplane 
mail service. There nave been -31 orders 
issued permitting the mail to be carried 



between certain points by aeroplanes. Such 
service was merely temporary and was not 
intended to be permanent. In each instance 
where the mail has been carried the service 
has been performed by a sworn carrier and 
without cost to the department. Such 
service was authorized in 16 different States. 
Reports received of the performance of the 
service by aeroplanes under the various orders 
issued permitting such service indicate that 
in many instances service was performed in a 
reasonable satisfactory manner. 



MAIL SERVICE IN OPERATION YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1912. 



Service. 



Star routes in Alaska 

Steamboat routes. .^ 

Mail'inesaenger routes 

Pneumatio-tube routes 

Wmoo routes (In cities) 

BaJiroad routes 

Railway post-offioe ears 

Electric and cable car routes. 



Total ^ 

Star routes In Alaska (emergeDoy)-- ^ 

Steamboat routes (pound rate).... i _ 

Railroad transportation, miscellaneous: 

Periodical malls .-..^.^ ,... 

Midi weighings, etc l'...l.*.m.,*l** « 

Freight on mafl bags, postal cards, etc '.'..', 

Bidlway Mail Service (officers and clerks, including acting 

clerks).... 

Mail equipment " 

Misoel&neous.ezpenaes 



Totallnland servioe 

Foreign mails: 

Aggregate cost ....-.; w..... .... 

Less intermediary service to fortign countries. 



Total. 



Number. 



22 

237 

7,eM 

6 

283 

3,400> 



557 



12,206 



17,076 



Aggregate 
length. 



4,248.00 

31,S75.57 

5,183.17 

64.8451 
1; 241. 17 
226,07L02 



Annual rate of 
expenditure-. 



7,472.90 



276.146.6761 



13,704,632.92 
1506,649.65 



1196,896^98 

753,61a 06 

1,620,151.36 

032,366.70 

1,606,236.46 

46,336,293.86 

4,867,029.16 

686,555.77 



n, 600, 140. 20 
1 38,062.00 
•86,671.63 

-^469,612.76 
•244,876.26 
S407,61Lfi3 

> 20. 876,1063. 87 

•^436.309.15 

• 586.68 



79,160,763.06 



d^l96,883.27 



82,346,646.92 



1 Authorisation. 



• Actual expenditures. 



< Estimated actual ocpenditures. 



COMPARISON OP REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30, 1912, WITH THOSE OF THE PRECEDING YEAR. 



Fiscal year. 



Items. 




REVENUES. 

Ordinary postal revenues 

Revenues from money-order business , 

Total revenues from all sources 

EXPENDITURES. 

Expenditures on account of the fiscal year 

Total revenues during the year 

Excess of expenditures over revenues 

Amount of losses by flre, burglary, bad debts, etc 
Deficit in the postal revenues 



$23 '^07.667.29 
^72,266.31 



$237. 79.823.60 



$238,623,350.37 
237.879.823.60 



$743,626.77 

11.778.80 

766.305.57 



$241,422,336.86 
5.321.67902 



$246,744,015.88 



$248,624,940.29 
246,744.015.88 



$1,880,924.41 

4.088.90 

1,885,013.31 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



325 



EXPENDITURES, APPROPRIATIONS AND ESTIMATES FOR ALL 
TRANSPORTATION SERVICES EXCEPT RURAL DELIV- 
ERY AND STAR ROUTE SERVICE. 



Service, etc. 



Star service in Alaslca 

Steamboat service 

Mail-messenger service 

Pneumatic-tube service 

Wagon service (in cities) 

Mau bags, etc 

Labor in mall-bag repair shop 

Subworkshop, Chicago. Ill 

Mail locks and keys 

Labor in mail-lock repair shop 

Railroad transportation 

Tabulating information relative to railroad 

companies 

Freight on mail bags, postal cards, etc 

Railway post-ofDce cars 

Railway mail service 

Electric and cable car service 

Total inland service 

Foreign mail service: 

Transportation 

Assistant superintendent. New York, N.Y. 

Balance due foreign countries 

Delegates to International Postal Union 

at Madrid 

Miscellaneous expenses 



Aggregate. 



Expenditures 

f (M* fiscal year 

ended June 30, 

1912. 



i$232.826.58 

820,470.18 

1.605.514.60 

932,566.36 

1.690.682.04 

284.505.39 

99.003.59 

2.461.97 

11.302.90 

33.991.91 

47.298.087.47 

5.431.99 

424.774.18 

4.521.324.35 

20,876,963.37 

682.544.65 



Appropriation 

for fiscal year 

ending June 30. 

1913. 



79.522.451.53 

3.241.564.72 
2.500.00 
472.116.39 



83.238,632.64 



$250,000.00 

853.700.00 

1.681.900.00 

987.400.00 

1,732,000.00 

282,000.00 

102,000.00 

2,400.00 

12.000.00 

36,500.00 

47.646,000.00 



Estimate 

for fiscal year 

ending June 30. 

1914. 



$508,300.00 

909.900.00 

2.167.300.00 

962.200.00 

2,160.600.00 

355.500.00 

108.300.00 

2,400.00 

15,000.00 

38,000.00 

49.661.000.00 



X648.200.00 

4,707.000.00 

25.209,224.00 

728,000.00 



500.000.00 

5.393.000.00 

26,673.488.00 

847.400.00 



84,878,324.00 

3,748,400.00 

2,500.00 

486,400.00 

5,000.00 
1.000.00 



90.302.388.00 

3.981.900.00 

2,500.00 

475.000.00 



1.000.00 



89.121.624.00 I 94.762.788.00 



1 Star service, except in Alaska, transferred to oflSce of Fourth Assistant Postmaster General. 
< Includes $123,200 made immediately available for deficiency for fiscal year 1912. 



The postal business of all states of the worid. 

0/ deUMnd pkett tf man (OOtmal, MemaMoaal and tnuua) Ai thmuandt (1906/1907). 



America: 14.643.129 




f=urQp#: 25,61 fi.74 thouMnd dellvefg d 



Canada 
322300 



13 !a^ 



Uruouay 
\09fX)6 



I Chite 
' 82,000 

Cuba 

34,630 

Peru 

20,770 

Ecuador 

.ftofla , 



Bry.W.lndim. 

GuatecnaJa 

6,500 

Paraguay 

BoHvta 

bfifO • 

Costa Rica _ 

4,420 • 

Colombia _ 

4,230 • 

Porto Rico . 

3.130 • 

Nicaragua . 

2.620 • 
Salvador 

2,120 • 

Bermudas _ 
2.050 

Frer>ch . 
Guiana 1,968 

Brit. Guiana . 
1060 




^n 9^ '"fljL 


Xrsinp« 


iA*5 



Asia: 




Denmaric 
310,000 






tugaf 
,600 




French West 

Indies 1^90 

Dominic. Rap. 

1,630 

New-Found- 

lar>d 1,168 

Venezuela 

1,000 

Honduras 

1.030 

Surirwun 

896 

Dan. West 

Indies 610 

560 Curacao 

Brit. Honduras 
430 

410 HaTti 

360 St. Pierre 

•nd Miquelon 

Falldand Is. 
87 



SNon»wiv 
171510 

iXI Rumania 
*^ 151,260 



107, 

Serbien 
54.530 

Bulgaria 
54,000 



El 



China 
262.000 



Turico' 
42,72i 



36,600 Korea 

Dutch East 
Ind. 33,980 
Ceylon 
30,^ 



2,677,498 

■ 26,090 Straits- 
Set*" 

' 15,100 Fr. i»»<»o- 
CMnaandoth Poi*. 

* 7«)in Philippine 

3,640 Hongltong 

• 4 firm •*»'* P"** 

• 3.370 
Klau-Ch«u 
2.190 Siam 

~ 2.090 Persia 



1.200 Cyprus 
102 Samoa 
96 



Bnt. 



North Bornoo 

Africa: 367,245 thousand pieces. 




NetherWs. 
509,300 

Switzerld. 
411,020 



Luxemburg 13 Algeria 



3i§s'" 



33,760 

Greece 
33,4M) 

Malta and 

Gibr.iitar 
8,800 



Montenegro 
3,90J 



36,700 
Australia: 705,987 thousand pieces 

Australia a l-lawaii « Fi|i Islands 
7,110 1,650 



V M 69: 



Ith Nrw 
iltnd 

693,000 



French Post. • German Posi. 

3.527 510 



.79,600 

■ Cape Colony 
70,020 

■ Natal 
42.660 

■ Turns 
40,360 

■ T>dr .vaal Col. 
16,770 

■ 6.660 Germ. 
South West Atr, 

■ 5.320 French 
Wt>tAfr.c« 



a 4.860 Brit ■ 
West-Africa 

• 4.700 Medaoat-* 

karand Comoro Is. 

• 3,510 Mauritiu* " 

• 3.140 



• 3,106 

Mozambique 

• 3,100 German • 
Cast ^tnta 

■ 3,090 Bnt East* 

Afr and Sam/bar 
1,980 Port Gum* 
, and C Verde Is. , 
1.940 Rtunion 



1,530 Anaou 

1,030 Oranga 

Piver Colony 

982 Kamerun 

Q«^ Beleian 
*'■'' Cortao 
510 S Thorn* 
and Principe 

360 Togo 

325 Seychel'cs 

78 St Helena 
and Aicansion 

51 Eritrea 



SCIBNTIPIC AMBEICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POSTAL SBRVICB OF 







of' 
Box«. 


ployoes. 
3 


Nmnbei' of Letters. 


\uinber of Poet Cards. 


Coiuttite. 


oKS. 


ISSS. 


pSid, 


Single 


J'U. 




1 

i 


777 

3 : 

5 1 
3 i 

H 

U] 

452 

5 : 


79;a7 

if 

6I210 


233.270* 
71.2B2t 

g!45S 
15:773_ 

233,811 
50.320 
72,008 

■is 


'■S 

i,zii 

1 
1 


780.330 

tS5;230 
7»0.025 

11 

ris)ss4 

SIS 

0831319 


43,3fl2.S40 

10,401,820 

605,221 

4JI 

lo^. Col, ( 
33,80: 

S44'350 

21,329:890 


I.617.230.S30 

3l!837: 30 
527,518,500 

BBB;i42:328 

8g:gi9!a30 

16,736,613 
304,053,527 
0.304,872 
33,943,727 
67,787,757 


Inc. Co!. 8 

11 


BwiHertuid,.. 


131472: 17;462 


266.60: 
258.720 


363.Z1B 
400,891) 








* Includes 
t Includes 


s.ts: s ssssssi.s"-"'""""" "^ 



FOREIGN MAIL SERVICES. 




PRINTING POSTAL CARDS. 
PriDtlnt Omc« at WuUacton. 



COIUNO FOSTAOE STAUPS 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBRBNOB BOOK. 



THE WORLD— Domestic. 





n-pas. 


10 






Honey orders. 


PliDted 


inriudmg 




VBluein 
dollar.. 


1,533, 868, 13C 

l,340,67ii,r5£ 
'72Bil67i90( 

IS 

ill 


■■■ 3,V68,07i 

■54,3b3',2i5 

"6,12°3|4BO 
1B,813,8IX 


87,372,810 
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i;477;836 


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709)002 
780,70C 

11 


174,933.220 

4:083.249 
82.271,483 

18|3S4!oi2 
J, 402, 130 
e32,.'>19 

41,930.308 

8.2a4!3Tei 
s.ogi.ssG 


'310!S3( 

.11 
IP 

35,936 
78:501 


1 

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1 
1 

785 


i 

m 

1 
1 


4R,357,G3S 


598,9*7 













: Prepaymtait of ordinary le 
i IncMea money orders by i 



VALUE OP POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED IN THE UNITED STATES, 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1913 



XdhOfli™ posUgB sWmpi. 


Ordinary. 


Foetage^lM. 


iSS^iSS&iiifev::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:: 


200,6«T,'.i7a 

•'■sa 

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ill 


8,580,S» 






28,ira,M 








Mi;6» 






















, ■ 




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11,1M:378 

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»,M0,Bflg,7S5 


42,308,383 


vi"-" 


I1S1,121,7S2.59 


11,241, 1M.W 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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330 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ESTIMATED TOTAL MAIL DELIVERED AND COLLECTED BY RURAL DELIVERY 
CARRIERS ANNUALLY, BASED ON A COUNT IN MAY, 1911. 



Class of matter. 


Delivered. 


Collected. 


Total. 


Number. 


Weight. 


Number. 


Weight. 


Number. 


Weight. 


First class: 

Letters 


462,346,951 

220,824,766 

1,488,779 


Pounds. 
12,224,392 
2,707,168 
303,453 


260,288,602 

128,116,628 

302,740 


Pounds. 

6,086,496 

1,530,636 

65,276 


722,635,553 

348,941,394 

1,791,519 


Pounds. 
18.310.888 


Postal cards 


4,237,804 


Miscellaneous 


368,729 


Total 


684,660,496 


15,235,013 


388,707,970 


7,682,408 


1,073,368,466 


22,917,421 






Second class: 

Newspapers 


996,710,156 
95,318,801 

169,349,819 
11,606,341 


175,322,207 

29,165,207 

24,557,233 

2,542,016 


1,459,579 
225,608 
124,710 

3,178,762 


333,379 

82,890 

19,286 

600,019 


998,169,735 
95,544,409 

109,474,529 
14,785,103 


175.655,586 


Magazines 


29.248.097 


Free in county 


24.576.519 


Tmnsient ... ... 


3,142,085 






Total 


1,272,985,117 


231,586,663 


4,988,059 


1,035,574 


1,277,973,776 


232.622,237 






Third class: 

Books 


4,033,761 

258,855,886 

34,723,736 


3,304,075 

20,331,815 

7,840,204 


256,209 

0, oU4,aUo 

_ 1,637,869 


175,066 
271,634 
361,915 


4,289,970 

262,660,694 

36,361,505 


3,539,141 


Circulars 


20.603,449 


Miscellaneous 


8,202,119 






Total 


297,613,383 


31,536,094 


5,698,886 


808,615 


303,312,269 


32.344,709 






Fourth, class: 

Merchandise packages. . . 


30,161,408 


14,266,782 


3,255,429 


1,463,269 


• 33,416,837 


15,730,051 


Franked and penalty: 

Franked letters 

Franked documents 

Penalty letters 


4,125,727 

6,450,969 

11,591,630 

3,600,444 


295,126 

1,292,804 

548,580 

487,313 


230,649 

108,277 

1,060,715 

102,139 


10,898 
27,404 
58,511 
18,659 


4,356,376 

6,559,246 

12,652,345 

3,702,583 


306,024 

1,320,208 

607,091 


Penalty documents 


605,972 


Total 


25,708,770 


2,623,823 


1,501,780 


115,472 


27,270,550 


2,739,295 






Foreign: 

Letters 


4,683,176 
2,262,328 


200,392 
374,018 


2,295,487 
305,852 


110, 171 
44,292 


6,978,603 
2,568,180 


310,563 


MisceUaneous 


418,310 






Total..... 


6,945,504 


574,410 


2,601,339 


154,463 


9,546,843 


728,873 


Registered: 

Letters 


1,165,474 
376,651 


119,937 
225,557 


734,593 
129,617 


65,300 
62,718 


1,900,067 
506,268 


185,237 


Miscellaneous 


278,275 


Total 


1,542,125 


345,494 


864,210 


118,018 


2,406,335 


463,512 






Grand total 


2,319,676,803 


290,108,279- 


407,618,273 


11,377,819 


2,727,295,076 


307,546,098 







RURAL DELIVERY. 

On June 30, 1912, service was In operation 
on 42,199 routes served by 42,081 carriers at an 
annual cost of $40,655,740. 

The total mileage of rural routes in opera- 
tion June 30. 1912, was 1,021,492, and the daily 
travel by carriers was 1,012,722 miles, the aver- 
age mileage per route being 24.20. The aver- 
a^ cost per mile traveled waa $0.1307. 

GROWTH OP THE SERVICE. 

There were 42.199 routes in operation on 
June 30, 1912; of these, 699 routes were oper- 
ated tri-weekly, being an increase of 91 over 
the previous year. 

In 1897 there were 82 routes, for which an 
appropriation of $40,000 was made; the ex- 
penditure that year was $14,840. In 1900 there 
were 1,259 rotltes, the appropriation was $450,- 
000, the expenditure $420,433, which was an 
increase of $270,421 over that of the preceding 
year. In 1905 the number of routes was 32,055, 
the appropriation $21,116,600, the expenditure 
$20,864,885, an excess of $8,219,610 over that of 



the year before. In 1912 there were 42,199 
routes, the appropriation was $42,790,000, the 
expenditure $41,859,422, an increase of $4.733,- 
792 over the expenditure of 1911. 

AMOUNT OF MAIL HANDLED. 

In May, 1911, a count was made of the 
amount and weight of mall of all classes de- 
livered and collected by the rural-delivery 
carriers. From this count the estimate crlven 
lu the tabid above has been made of the 
amount and weight of mall handled annually 
on rural routes. 

The first aerial dispatch of United States 
mail occurred in September, 19U, when 48,000 
pieces were carried from Aeroplane Postal Sta- 
tion No. 1 on Nassau Boulevard to Mlneola. 
Long Island. The progress being made in the 
science of aviation encourages the hope that 
ultimately the regular conveyance of mall by 
this means may be practicable. Such a serv- 
ice, if found feasible, might be established in 
many districts where the natural conditions 
preclude other means of rapid transportation. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 331 

PARCELS DISPATCHED TO AND RECEIVED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES DIJR- 

INO THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30. 1912, AND INCREASE 

OVER PREVIOUS YEARS. 





Slvatctwd 


RccdTwl. 


Country. 


Number. 


Pcironit 

IncrcMe. 


W»ijht 


Peteent 
iDcnue. 


Nomtm 


JKS 


w«. 


iS^' 




4,100 
2,2M 
1 |3M 

;72T 

. 78,fl2B 


1«l12 
2a 27 
3a 22 

4.13 

n.M 

73.U 
2S.U 

33.ao 

Is 

13.41 

as 

IS 

t44 


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<7,M4 

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<6!722 
1B,<72B 

'11 

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II 
II 


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11 

32. 3S 

11 

'Is 


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M 

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7 15 

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lis 


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SSa':.:::: 


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18.71 












718,328 




2,m.m 




«ie,4M 




1,997,770 















■ No pBTMli necdTtd during year cadad June 30. 1811. Coaventloa sUntlTS Uiy H, lOlL 

■ NoparBCliraa«lv«ddiiTlngTnrsndHlIiuie30,lSll. CoavtnUonstrcotlTaUijl. tgil. 

■ CoDTeatloD ellHtlTO J*n. I, IVIZ . 



332 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MAILINGS OF SECOND 
Totals of the number of publications 
of the various fk'equencies of issue and 
news agents mailing at the pound rate of 
postage June 30, 1912. 

gatty-i 2,514 

Tri-weekly 59 

Semi-weekly 660 

Weekly 17 217 

Semi-monthly '557 

Monthly ; . . '. 5,277 

Bi-monthly 264 

Quarterly, ; 1,351 

Other periods 265 



Total 28,144 

News agents 3,200 

Publications admitted under the act of 

March 3, 1879 26.657 

Publications admitted under the act of 

July 16, 1894 1,469 

Publications admitted under the act of 

June 6, 1900 18 



Total 28,144 

Stamps were first introduced in America by 
the Bnglish Stamp Act of 1766; this act was 
opposed by the First American CSongress in 
Nov. 1766 and repealed in 1776. 

Number of pounds of second-class matter 
mailed at the cent-a-pound and free-in-county I 



REGISTERED MAIL ITEMS WITH 

TOTAL AMOUNTS FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING JUNE 30. 1912. 

Paid registrations: 

Domestic letters 26,761,638 

Domestic parcels 7,296,130 

Foreign letters 3,924,637 

Foreign parcels 777,762 

Official paid 154,567 

Total paid registrations 37,913,734 

Official free. Inclusive of postal 

sayings system 4,095,987 

Official free, on business of 

postal savings system only . . . 79,566 

Official free (special) 145,723 

Total free registrations 4.321.266 

Total number of letters and 
parcels registered, paid and 

^.free- 42.235.000 

Distribution letters and parcels 
re-registered free 1,385,498 

Aggr^ate number of letters and 

Sarcels registered, paid, of- 
cial free, and distribution 

free 43,620,498 

Total free and distribution re- 
gistered free. . . 5.706,764 

Amount collected for registry 

fees 3.791,373.40 

GROWTH OF THE DOMESTIC MONEY- 
ORDER SYSTEM. 

For the year ending June 30, 1912, the total 
number of money-order offices in operation 
was 52,816; the numb^ of orders issued was 
84.539,212, their value $583,337,003.96; the 
number of orders paid and repaid, 84.686.907 ; 
their value $584,358,032.94; the number of ex- 
cess of payments and repayments over issues. 
147.695. their value $1,021,028.98; the 
amount in fees received, $4,967,746.84; 
average amount of orders. $6.90; average 
amount of fees. $0.0682. 






CLASS PUBLICATIONS. 

rates during the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1912: 

Subscribers' copies: 

Free in county 58,017,631 

At cent-a-pound rate 927.260,451 

Sample copies at cent-a-pound 

_ »ia*«- 1 12.679,904 

Total at cent-a-pound rate 939.940,355 

Total mailings at cent-a-pound 

rate and free-in-county 997,957,986 

Estimated weights of mailings of second- 
class matter at other than the cent-a^pound 
and free-in-county rates during the fiscal year 
1912. based on the special weidbing of mails 
in 1907: 

Pounds. 
At transient second-class rate of 

1 cent for each 4 ounces 29.494,990 

At special rate of 1 cent a copy. . 1,825,482 
At special rate of 2 cents a copy 3,732,097 

Total 35.052.569 

RECAPITULATION. 

Weight of mailings of second- 
class matter at the cent-a- 
pound and free-in-county rates 997,957.986 

Weight of mailings at other rates 36.052,569 

Aggregate weight of mailing of 

second-class matter. . ..... 1,033,010,555 

STAMP BOOKS. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, 
26.736.946 stamp books were issued, having a 
value of $8,146,612.34. 

STAMP COILS. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1912 
469.204 stamp coils were issued for use in 
stamping machines. The total value of the 
stamps which were made up in coils was 
$4,363,273.60. 

POSTAL CARDS. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, 
909,411,046 postal cards were issued, having a 
value of $9,326,562.40. By far the largest 
number of postal cards were the one-cent 
card bearing a portrait of the late President 
McKinley. There were 944.927.198 cards 
issued of this variety in 1911. 

STAMPED ENVELOPES AND NEWS- 
PAPER WRAPPERS. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1912, 
449.248,600 ordinary stamped envelopes and 
wrappers were issued, the value being $158.- 
777.72. while 1.235,375.661 return card 
envelopes were issued, having a value of 
$26,546,037.55, making a total of 1.684,- 
624.161. with a value of $33,704,815.27. 



Fees of 8 cents each on special delivery 
mail were claimed by postmasters last year to 
the total amount of $1,469,177.80. indicating 
that 18.364,722 pieces of mail of this character 
were delivered, being an increase of 1,608,- 
223 pieces over last year, or 9.58 per cent. 
These figures relate to all post oiBces, ir- 
respective- of class. 



IMITATIONS OF STAMPS. 



No adhesive stamps, o^ any form or desigrn 
whatever, other than lawful postage stamps, 
are permitted to be affixed to the address side 
of domestic mail matter, but such adhesive 



stamps, provided they do not in form resem- 
ble lawful postage stamps, and do not bear 
numerals, may be affixed to the reverse side 
of domestic mail matter. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. * 



333 



PART n. 

PRACTICAL POSTAL INFORMATION. 

DOMESTIC MAIL MATTER. 



CLASSIFICATION. 

1. Domestic mall matter Includes matter de- 
posited in the malls for local dellTery, or for 
transmission from one place |o another within 
the United States, or to or from or between 
the possessions of the United States, and is 
divided into four classes: 

First. Written and sealed matter, postal 
cards and private mailing cards. 

Second. Periodical publications. (Rates for 
publishers and news agents only.) 

Third. Miscellaneous printed matter (on 
paper). 

Fourth (Parcel Post). All matter not in- 
cluded in previous classes. 

2. Porto Rico and Hawaii are included in 
the term "United States." The Philippine 
Archipelago, Guam, Tutuila (Including all ad- 
jacent islands of the Samoan group which are 
possessions of the United States), and the 
Canal Zone are included In the term "Posses- 
sions of the United States." The term "Canal 
Zone" Includes all the territory purchased 
from the Republic of Panama, embracing the 
"Canal Zone" proper and the islands in the 
Bay of Panama named Perico, Naos, Culebra 
and Flamenco. 

3. Domestic rates and conditions apply to 
mail matter addressed to officers or members 
of the crew of vessels of war of the United 
States, to matter sent to the United States 
Postal Agency at Shanghai, China, and, with 
certain exceptions, to that sent to Canada, 
Cuba, Mexico and the Republic of Panama. 
The domestic rate applies also to letters, but 
not to other articles, addressed to Great Brit- 
ain, Ireland and Newfoundland, and to letters 
for Germany despatched only by steamers 
which land the mails at German ports. 

4. Pamphlet of General Postal Information. — 
A p&mphlet of general postal information has 
been issued for free distribution to the public 
through postmasters. It contains the classifi- 
cation, conditions and postage rates for do- 
mestic and foreign mail matter. The informa- 
tion given herewith is usually sufficient. A 
new edition of the pamphlet has Just been 
Issued. 

FIRST-CLASS MATTER. 

5. Written matter, namely: Letters, postal 
cards, private mailing cards (post cards), and 
all matter wholly or partly in writing, whether 
sealed or unsealed (except manuscript copy 
accompanying proof sheets or corrected proof 
sheets of the same) and the writing authorized 
by law to be placed upon matter of other 
classes. All matter sealed or otherwise closed 
against inspection is also of the first class. 
Note.*— Typewriting and carbon and letter press 
copies thereof are held to be an equivalent of 
handwriting and are classed as such in all 

DROP LETTERS. 

6. See page 336. 

POSTAL CARDS. 

7. Postal cards issued by the Post Office De- 
partment may bear written, printed, or other 
additions as follows: 

(a) The face of the card may be divided by a 
vertical line placed approximately one-third of 
the distance from the left end of the card; 
the space to the left of the line to be used 



for a message, etc., but the space to the right 
for the address only. 

(b) Addresses upon postal cards . . . may 
be either written, printed or affixed thereto, at 
the option of the sender. 

(c) Very thin sheets of paper may be at- 
tached to the card on condition that they com- 
pletely adhere thereto. Such sheets may bear 
both writing and printing. 

(d) Advertisements, illustrations or writing 
may appear on the back of the card and on 
the left third of the face. 

(e) The addition to a postal card of matter 
other than as above authorized will annul its 
privileges as a postal card and subject it, when 
sent in the mails, to postage according to the 
character of the message — at the letter rate if 
wholly or partly in writing or the third-class 
rate If entirely in print. In either case the 
postage value of the stamp Impressed upon the 
card will not be impaired. 

(f) Postal cards must be treated in all re- 
sipects as sealed letters, except that when un- 
dellverable to the addressee they may not be 
returned to the sender. Undeliverable 
"double" postal cards will be returned to the 
sender if known. 

(g) Postal cards bearing particles of glassy 
metal, mica, sand, tinsel or other similar 
substances are unmailable, except when en- 
closed in envelopes tightly sealed to prevent 
the escape of such particles with proper postage 
attached, or when treated in such manner as 
will prevent the objectionable substances from 
being rubbed off or injuring persons handling 
the mails. 

Note.— Used postal cards which conform to 
the conditions prescribed for post cards may be 
remailed with one cent postage pr^Miid 
thereon. 

8. Double postal cards should be folded be- 
fore mailing. Intact double postal cards should 
be folded before mailing. 

9. Either Half Usable Separately.— Either half 
of a double domestic postal card may be used 
separately, but postmasters will not separate 
them. 

10. Mailing Reply Part With Initial Half At- 
tached.— If the initial half of a double postal 
card be not detached when the reply half is 
mailed for return, the card is subject to post- 
age according to the character of the message. 
The enclosure in a double postal card of un- 
authorized matter annuls Its privileges as a 
postal card. 

11. Reply Postal Cards to and from the Phil- 
ippines. — The reply half of the Philippine 
double postal card of 1-cent denomination, 
overprinted with the word Philippine, shall be 
valid for postage when mailed in the United 
States and addressed to points in the Philip- 
pine Islands. The United States 1-cent double 
postal card may be mailed from the United 
States to the Philippine Islands, and by ar- 
rangement with the Bureau of Posts of the 
Philippines the reply half of the card is valid 
for postage when mailed in the Philippineg 
and addressed to points in this country. 

PRIVATE MAILING CARDS (POST CARDS). 

12. Private mailing cards ("post cards") in 
the domestic mails must conform to the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

(a) A "post card" must be an unfolded pieee 



384 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



of cardboard not exceeding 9 by 14 centi- 
meters (approximately S 9-16 by 6 9-16 inches) 
nor less than 7 by 10 centimeters (approxi- 
mately 2 8-4 by 4 Inches). 

(b) It must in form and In the quality and 
weight of paper be substantially like the Gov- 
ernment postal card. 

(c) It may be of any color not interfering 
with a legible address and postmark. 

(d) It may or may not, at the option of the 
sender, bear near the top of the face the 
words "Post Card." 

(e) The face of the card may be divided by 
a vertical line; the left half to be used for a 
message, etc., but that to the right for the 
address only. 

(f) Very thin sheets of paper may be at- 
tached to the card, and then only on condition 
that they completely adhere thereto. Such 
sheets may bear both writing and printing. 

(g) Advertisements and illustrations may ap- 
pear on the back of the card and on the left 
half of the face. 

(h) Cards, without cover, conforming to the 
foregoing conditions, are transmissible In the 
domestic malls (including the possessions of 
the United States) and to Cuba, Canada, Mex- 
ico, the Republic of Panama, and the United 
States postal agency at Shanghai, China, at the 
postage rate of 1 cent each. 

(1) When post cards are prepared by printers 
and stationers for sale it is desirable that they 
bear in the upper right-hand corner of the face 
an oblong diagram containing the words "Place 
postage stamp here," and at the bottom of 
the space to the right of the vertical dividing 
line the words "This space for the address." 

(J) Cards which do not conform to the condi- 
tions prescribed by these regulations are, when 
sent in the mails, chargeable with postage 
according to the character of the message — at 
the letter rate if wholly or partly in writing, 
or at the third-class rate if entirely in print. 

(k) Cards bearing particles of glass, metal, 
mica, sand, tinsel or other similar substances 
are unmailable, except when enclosed in en- 
velopes tightly sealed to prevent the escape of 
such particles, or when treated in such manner 
as will prevent the objectionable substances 
from being rubbed off or injuring persons han- 
dling; the mails. Cards mailed under cover of 
sealed envelopes (transparent or otherwise) are 
chargeable with postage at the first-class rate; 
If enclosed in unsealed envelopes they are sub- 
ject to postage according to the character of 
the message — ^at the first-class rate if wholly 
or partly In writing, or the third-class rate if 
entirely in print; and the postage stamps 
should be affixed to the envelopes covering the 
same. Postage stamps affixed to matter en- 
closed in envelopes cannot be recognized in 
payment of postage thereon. 



ARTICLES INCLUDED IN FIRST-CLASS 
MATTER. 

13. Assessment notices (printed) with amount 
due written therein. Albums (autograph) con- 
taining written matter. Blank books with 
written entries; bank checks filled out in writ- 
ing, either canceled or uncanceled; legal and 
other blank printed forms signed officially. 
Blank forms, filled out in writing. Cards or 
letters (printed) bearing a written date, where 
the date is not the date of the card, but gives 
information as to when the sender will call 
or deliver something otherwise referred to, or 
is the date when something will occur or is 
acknowledged to have been received. Cards 
(printed)- which by having a signature attached 
are converted into personal communications, 
such as receipts, orders for articles furnished 
by addreaaee, etc. Cards (visiting) bearing 



written name, except single cards enclosed 
with third or fourth class matter, and bearing 
the name of the sender. Certificates, checka, 
receipts, etc., filled out In writing. Communi- 
cations entirely in print, with exception of 
name of sender, sent in identical terms by 
many persons to the same address. Copy 
(manuscript or typewritten) unaccompanied by 
proof sheets thereof. Diplomas, marriage or 
other certificates, filled out in writing. Enve- 
lopes bearing written addresses. Folders made 
of Btitt. paper, the entire inner surface of which 
cannot be examined except at the imminent 
risk of breaking the seal, and those having 
many folds or pages, requiring the use of an 
instrument of any kJbid in order to thoroughly 
examine the inner surfaces are subject to the 
first-class rate of postage. Hand or typewrit- 
ten matter and letter press or manifold (car- 
bon) copies thereof. Imitations or reproduc- 
tions of hand or typewritten matter not mailed 
at the post office window or other depository 
designated by the postmaster in a minimum 
number of twenty identical copies. Legal and 
other blank printed forms signed officially. 
Letters (old or re-mailed) sent singly or in 
bulk. Manuscripts or typewritten copy, when 
not accompanied by proof sheets thereof. Mar- 
riage certificates filled out in writing. Old 
letters sent singly or in bulk. Original type- 
written matter and manifold or letter-press 
copies thereof. Price lists (printed) containing 
written figures changing individual items. Re- 
ceipts (printed) with written signatures. Sealed 
matter of any class, or matter so wrapped as 
not to be easily examined, except original 
packages of proprietary articles of merchandise 
put up so that each package may be examined 
in its simplest mercantile or sample form, and 
seeds and other articles that may be enclosed 
in sealed transparent envelopes. Stenographic 
or shorthand notes. Typewritten matter, orig- 
inal letter-press and manifold copies thereof. 
Unsealed written communications. Visiting 
cards (written), except single cards enclosed 
with third or fourth class matter, and bearing 
the name of the sender. 

SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 

14. Includes newspapers and periodicals bear- 
ing notice of entry as second-class matter. A 
pamphlet containing the laws governing mail- 
able matter of the second class and regulations 
thereunder will be furnished postmasters, in- 
terested publishers and news agents. 

THIRD-CLASS MATTER. 

15. Printed matter under the following condi- 
tions is third-class matter: 

16. Printed Matter Defined.— Printed matter 
is the reproduction upon paper by any process, 
except handwriting and typewriting, not having 
the character of actual personal correspond- 
ence, of words, letters, characters, figures or 
images, or any combination thereof. Matter 
produced by the photographic process (includ- 
ing blueprints) is printed matter. 

17. Circulars. — A circular is defined by law to 
be a printed letter which, according to in- 
ternal evidence, is being sent in identical terms 
to several persons. A circular may bear a 
written, typewritten or hand-stamped date, 
name and address of person addressed and of 
the sender, and corrections of mere typo- 
graphical errors. 

18. Where a name (except that of the ad- 
dressee or sender), date (other than that of 
the circular), figure, or anything else Is writ- 
ten, typewritten or hand stamped in the body 
of the circular for any other reason than to 
correct a genuine typographical error. It !■ 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



335 



subject to postage at the first-class (letter) 
rate, whether sealed or unsealed. 

19. Exception. — If such name, date or other 
matter be hand stamped, and not of a personal 
nature, the character of the circular as such 
is not changed thereby. 

20. Reproductions or imitations of handwrit- 
ing and typewriting obtalaed by means of the 
printing press, neostyle, hectograph, multl- 
graph, or similar process, will be treated as 
third-class matter, provided they are mailed at 
the post oflBce window or other depository 
designated by the postmaster in a minimum 
number of 20 perfectly identical, Ensealed 
copies. If mailed in a less quantity they will 
be subject to the flrst-class rate. 

21. Correspondence of the blind; mailable at 
the third-class rate. 

22. Seeds, bulbs, roots, scions, etc. ; mailable 
at the third-class rate of postage. 

22a. Identical pieces of third-class matter 
mailed without stamps affixed-. 

ARTICLES INCLUDED IN THIRD-CLASS 
MATTER. 

2S. Address tags and labels (printed). Ad- 
Tertisements printed on blotting paper. Al- 
manacs. Architectural designs (printed). As- 
sessment notices, wholly in print. Blank notes 
(printed). Blanks (printed legal) and forms 
of insurance applications, mainly in print. 
Blind, indented or perforated sheets of paper 
containing characters which can be read by 
the blind, except such as are entitled to free 
transmission. Blue prints. Books (printed). 
Bulbs. Calendar pads mainly in print. Cal- 
endars (printed on paper). Canvassing and 
prospectus books with printed sample chapters. 
Cards printed on paper. Cards, printed, 
with perforations for carrying coin. Cards, 
Christmas, Easter, etc., printed on paper. 
Catalogues. Check and receipt books 
(mainly in print). Circulars. Clippings 
(press) with name and date of paper stamped 
or written in. Correspondence of the blind. 
Coupons, printed. Elngravings and wood cuts 
(printed on paper). Grain in its natural con- 
dition (samples of). Imitations of hand or 
typewritten matter, when mailed at the post 
office window or other depository designated 
by the postmaster in a minimum number of 
20 identical copies. Indented or perforated 
sheets of pap^r containing characters which 
can be read by the blind, except such as are 
entitled to free transmission. Insurance applica- 
tions and other blank forms mainly in print. 
Labels and tags bearing printed addresses. 
Legal blanks (printed) and forms of insurance 
applications, mainly In print. Lithographs. 
Maps printed upon paper, with the necessary 
mountings. Memorandum books, mainly in 
print. Music books. Newspaper "headings" 
or clippings. Notes (blank printed). Order 
blanks and report forms, mainly in print. 
Photographs, printed on paper. Plans and 
architectural designs (printed). Plants, Post- 
age stamps (cancelled or uncancelled). Pos- 
tal cards, bearing printed advertisements, 
mailed In bulk. Post cards, bearing on the 
message side illustrations or other printed 
matter, mailed in bulk. Press clippings with 
name and date of paper stamped or written 
in. Price lists, wholly In print. Printed 
blank notes. Printed calendars. Printed labels. 
Printed plans and architectural designs. 
Printed tags and labels. Printed valentines. 
Proof-sheets (printed) with or without manu- 
script. Receipt and check books (mainly in 
print). Reproductions or imitations of hand 
or typewriting, by the neostyle, hectograph. 
mimeograph, electric pen, or similar process, 
▼hen mailed at the post office window or other 



depository designated by the postmaster, In 
a minimum number of twenty identical copies. 
Roots. School copy books containing printed 
instructions. Scions. Seeds. Sheet music. 
Tags and labels, printed. Valentines, printed 
on paper. Visiting cards (printed). Wood 
cuts and engravings (prints). 

24. Permissible additions to third-class mat- 
ter. — 

(a) Such words as "Dear Sir," "'My dear 

friend," "Yours truly," "Sincerely yours," 

"Merry Chrlsfmas." "Happy New Year," 

"With best wishes" and "Do not open until 

Christmas," or words to that effect, written 
upon third class matter are permissible in- 
scriptions. 

(b) Inscriptions in public library books.— 
Public library books, otherwise transmissible 
in the mails at the third-class rate of postage, 
shall not be subjected to a higher postage rate 
because of bearing thereon or therein, in 
writing or by means of hand-stamp, the shelf- 
number, date of donation or acquisition (or 
both), or any mark of designation which may 
be reasonably construed as an "inscription" 
within the meaning of the law in the limited 
sense of a permanent library record, placed 
thereon by the librarian and in that connec- 
tion only. 

(c) A written designation of contents — such 
as "Book," "Printed matter," "Photo"— shall 
be construed as a permissible "inscription" 
upon mail matter of the third class. 

(d) Incidental use of third-class matter as 
receptacles for coin. — ^The rate of postage on 
matter essentially third class (printed matter 
upon paper) is not affected by the fact that 
incidentally it contains a perforation which 
may be used for carrying coin. 

(e) Serial numbers. — Serial numbers written 
or impressed upon, and so inserted in what 
would otherwise be third-class matter, do not 
increase that rating. ^ 

(f) Permissible enclosures. — "There may be 
enclosed with third-class matter, without 
changing the classification thereof, a single 
visiting or business card; a single printed 
order-blank, or a single printed combination 
order-blank and coin-card with envelope bear- 
ing return address; or a single postal card 
bearing return address." 

FOURTH-CLASS (PARCEL POST) MATTER. 

26. Fourth-class matter is all mailable matter 
not included in the three preceding classes 
which is so prepared for mailing as to be easily 
withdrawn from the wrapper and examined, 
except that sealed packages of proprietary arti- 
■cles of merchandise (not in themselves un- 
mailable), such as pills, fancy soaps, tobacco, 
etc., put up in fixed quantities by the manu- 
facturer for sale by himself or others, or for 
samples. In such manner as to properly protect 
the articles, so that each package in its sim- 
plest mercantile or sample form may be ex- 
amined, are mailable as fourth-class matter. 
It embraces merchandise and samples of every 
description, and coin or specie. 

26. Postage must be paid by stamps afllxed, 
unless 2,000 or more identical pieces are 
mailed at one time when the postage at that 
rate may be paid in money. New postage 
must be prepaid for forwarding or returning. 
The affixing of special delivery ten-cent stamps 
in addition to the regular postage entitles 
fourth-class matter to special delivery. 

Articles of this class liable to injure or 
deface the mails, such as glass, sugar, needles, 
nails, pens, etc., must be first wrapped in a 
bag, box, or open envelope and then secured 
in another outside tube or box, made of metal 
or hard wood, without sharp comers or edges, 
and having a sliding clasp or screw lid, thus 



336 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Mcuring the articles in a double package. The 
pabllc should bear in mind that the first 
object of the department Is to transport the 
mails safely, and every other interest is made 
subordinate. 

ARTICLES INCLUDED IN FOURTH-CLASS 

MATTER. 

27. Albums, photograph and autograph 
(blank). Artificial fiowers. Bees (queen) when 
properly packed. Bill heads* Blank address 
tags and labels. Blank books. Blank books 
with printed headings. Blank cards or paper. 
Blank diaries. Blank postal cards in bulk 
packages. Blank post-cards. Blotting paper 
(blank). Botanical specimens, not susceptible 
of being used for propagation. Calendar pads, 
mainly blank. Calendars or other matter 
printed on celluloid. Card coin-holders (not 
printed). C^ards (blank). Cards, printed play- 
ing, of all kinds. Celluloid, printed or un- 
prlnted. Check books, mainly blank. Christ- 
mas and Easter cards printed on other material 
than paper. Cigar bands. Coin. Combination 
calendar and memorandum pads, mainly blank. 
Crayon pictures. Cut fiowers. Cuts (wood or 
metal). Daguerreotypes. Dissected maps and 
pictures. Drawings, framed or unframed. 
Dried fruit. Dried plants. Elaster cards, when 
printed on other material than paper. Electro- 
type plates. Engravings, when framed. En- 
velopes, printed or unprinted, except when ad- 
dressed and enclosed singly with third-class 
matter. Flowers, cut or artificial. Framed 
engravings, pictures and other printed matter. 
Geological specimens. Grain, not intended for 
planting. Letter heads. Maps, printed on 
cloth. Merchandise samples. Memorandum 
books and calendar pads, mainly blank. Mer- 
chandise sealed: Proprietary articles (not in 
themselves unmailable), such as pills, fancy 
soaps, tobacco, etc., put up in fixed quantities 
by the manufacturer for sale by himself or 
others, or for samples, in such manner as to 
properly protect the articles, and so that each 
package in its simplest mercantile or sample 
form may be readily examined. Metals. Min- 
erals. Napkins, paper or cloth, printed or un- 



printed. Oil paintings, framed or unframed. 
Order blanks and report forms, mainly blank 
(spaces covered by ruled lines being regarded 
as blank), are fourth-class matter. However, 
one copy may be enclosed with third-class 
matter without subjecting such matter to post- 
age at the fourth -class rate. Paper bags and 
wrapping paper, printed or unprinted. Paper 
napkins. Patterns, printed or unprinted. Pen 
or pencil drawings. Photograph albums. Pho- 
tographic negatives. Postal cards (blank) in 
bulk packages. Post-cards (blank). Printed 
mattec on other material than paper. Printed 
playing cards of all kinds. Private mailing 
or post-cards (blank). Queen bees, when prop- 
erly packed. Record books, mainly blank. 
Rulers, wooden or metal, bearing printed ad- 
vertisements. Samples of cloth. Samples of 
fiour or other manufactured grain for food 
purposes. Sealed merchandise: Soap wrap- 
pers. Stationery. Tags (blank). Tape meas- 
ures. Tintjrpes. Valentines printed on ma- 
terial other than paper. Wall paper. Water 
color painting. Wooden rulers, bearing printed 
advertisements. Wrapping papet, printed or 
unprinted. 

28. Permissible writing or printing upon or 
with fourth-class matter: 

(a) The written additions permissible upon 
third-class matter may be added to fourth- 
class matter without subjecting the latter to a 
higher than the fourth-class rate of postage. 

(b) The written additions permissible upon 
fourth-class matter may be placed upon the 
matter itself, or upon the wrapper or cover 
thereof, or tag or label accompanying the 
same. 

(c) A written designation of the contents, 
such as "candy," "cigars," "merchandise," 
etc.. Is permissible upon the wrapper of fourth- 
class matter. 

(d) Such inscriptions as "Merry Christmas," 
"Happy New Year," "With best wishes." and 
"Do not open until Christmas." or words to 
that ellect, together with the name and, ad- 
dress of the addressee and of the sender 'may 
be written on mail matter of the fourth class, 
or upon a card enclosed therewith, without 
affecting its classification. 



RATES OF POSTAGE. 



FIRST-CLASS MATTEft. 

Rates of postage on flrst-class matter. 
— (a) On letters and other matter, 
wholly or partly in writing, except the 
writing specially authorized to be placed 
upon matter of other classes, and on 
matter sealed or otherwise closed against 
inspection — 2 cents an ounce or fraction 
thereof. 

(b) On postal cards — 1 cent each, the 
price for which they are sold. 

(c) On private mailing cards (post- 
cards) conforming to the requirements 
of Postal Laws and Regulations — 1 cent 
each. 

(d) On "drop letters," 2 cents an 
ounce or fraction thereof when mailed 
at letter-carrier post oflSces, or at offices 
which are not letter-carrier offices if 
rural free delivery has been established 
and the persons addressed can be served 
by rural carrier ; and 1 cent for each 
ounce or fraction thereof when mailed at 
offices where letter-carrier sevice is not 



established, or at ofBces where the pat- 
rons cannot be served by rural free^e- 
llvery carriers. 

(e) Letters mailed at a post office for 
delivery to patrons thereof by star route 
carrier and those deposited in boxes 
along a star route or rural free deliv- 
ery route are subject to postage at 
the rate of two cents an ounces or frac* 
tion thereof. 

(f) Letters prepaid 1 cent received by 
a postmaster, under cover (through the 
mails), with postage prepaid on the 
bulk package at the letter rate, cannot 
be distributed for local delivery or trans- 
mission in the mails. Each letter mast 
be prepaid at the regular first-class rate. 

(g) A letter which — after a proper ef- 
fort has been made to deliver it — is re- 
turned to the sender, may not be r^ 
mailed without a new prepayment of 
postage, and it should be enclosed in 
a new envelope, to secure prompt trans- 
mission. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



337 



SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 

When mailed by the public. — The rate 
of postage on newspapers and periodical 
publications of the second class, when 
sent by others than the publisher there- 
of, or a news agent, is 1 cent for each 
4 ounces, or fractional part thereof, on 
each separately addressed copy or pack- 
age of unaddressed copies, to be prepaid 
by stamps affixed. 

Note. — There is no such rate of post- 
ago as 4 cents a pound. 

When mailed by publishers or news 
agents. — Copies of publications admitted to 
the second class of mail matter when mailed 
by the publishers thereof to subscribers and 
as sample copies within the limitations of 
section 436 Postal Iaws and Regulations, 
are subject to postage at the rate of 1 cent a 
pound to be prepaid in money on the bulk 
weight of all copies, except as provided by 
section 433, Postal Laws and Regulations. 

THIRD-CLASS MATTER. 

The rate of postage on mail matter of the 
third class is 1 cent for each 2 ounces or 
fraction thereof, on each individually ad- 
dressed piece or parcel, prepaid by stamps 
affixed, except as provided oy section 469, 
Postal Laws and Regulations. 

Note. — There is no such rate of post- 
age as 8 cents a pound. 

FOURTH-CLASS (PARCEL POST) MATTER. 
See Pages 340 and 342. 

MONEY ORDER SYSTEM. 

Fees charged for money orders issued on 
domestic form. — 

TABLE NO. L 
Payable in the United States (which Includes 
Guam, Hawaii, Porto Rico and Tutuila, Samoa) ; 
or payable in Bermuda, British Guiana, 
British Honduras, Canada, Canal Zone (Isth- 
mus of Panama), Cuba, Mexico, Newfound- 
land, at the United States Postal Agency at 
Shanghai (China), in the Philippine Islands, 
or the following Islands in the West In- 
dies: Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica. 
Grenada, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, 
Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, 
Trinidad and Tobago, and Virgin Islands. 

For orders from $ 0.01 to $ 2.50 8 cents 

For orders from | 2.51 to $ 5.00 5 cents 

For orders from $ 5.01 to $10.00 8 cents 

For orders from $10.01 to $20.00 10 cents 

For orders from $20.01 to $30.00 12 cents 

For orders from $30.01 to $40.00 15 cents 

For orders from $40.01 to $50.00 18 cents 

For orders from $50.01 to $60.00 20 cents 

For orders from $60.01 to $75.00 25 cents 

For orders from $75.01 to $100.00 30 cents 

21. Postmasters at domestic money-order of- 
fices must bear in mind that they are not 
author zed to issue money orders for pay- 
ment in any foreign country other than those 
enumerated above. When an intending remit- 
ter applies at a domestic office for a money 
order payable In any other foreign country 
the postmaster should direct him to the near- 
est int'*mational money-order office. 

22. Fees charged for money orders Issued on 
international form.— • 



TABLE NO. 2. 

Payable in Apia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, 
Cape Colony, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, 
Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, Honduras, 
Hongkong, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Liberia, 
Luxemburg. Natal and Zululand, New South 
Wales, New Zealand. Orange River Colony, 
Peru, Portugal, Queensland, Russia, Salvador, 
South Australia, Switzerland, Tasmania, the 
Transvaal, Uruguay and Victoria, Western 
Australia. 

For orders from $ 0.01 to $ 2.60 10 cents 

For orders from $ 2.51 to $ 5.00 15 cents 

For orders from $ 5.01 to $ 7.50 20 cents 

For orders from $ 7.51 to $10.00 25 cents 

For orders from $10.01 to $15.00 30 cents 

VoT orders from $15.01 to $20.00 35 cents 

For orders from $20.01 to $30.00 40 cents 

For orders from $30.01 to $40.00 45 cents 

For orders from $40.01 to $50.00 50 cents 

For orders from $50. 01 to $60. 00 60 cents 

For orders from $60.01 to $70.00 70 cents 

For orders from $70.01 to $80.00 80 cents 

For orders from $80.01 to $90.00 90 cents 

For orders from 490.01 to $100.00 $1.00 

TABLE NO. 3. 

Payable In any foreign country with which 
the United States exchanges money orders not 
enumerated in Tables Nos. 1 and 2 above. 

For orders from $ 0.01 to $ 10.00 10 cents 

For orders from $10.01 to $ 20.00 20 cents 

For orders from $20.01 to $ 30.00 30 cents 

For orders from $30.01 to $ 40.00 40 cents 

For orders from $40.01 to $ 50.00 50 cents 

For orders from $50.01 to $ 60.00 60 cents 

For orders from $60.01 to $ 70.00 70 cents 

For orders from $70.01 to i 80.00 80 cents 

For orders from $80.01 to $ 90.00 90 cents 

For orders from $90.01 to $100. 00.... $1.00 

International orders. — There are now in op- 
eration conventions for the exchange of money 
orders between the United States and sixty- 
two countries named below: 

*Antigua. Liberia. 

Apia, Samoa. Luxemburg. 

Austria. •Martinique. 

•Bahama Islands. *Mexico. 

•Barbados. •Montserrat. 

Belgium. t Natal and Zululand. 

•Bermuda. Netherlands. 

Bolivia. •Nevis. 

•British Guiana. •Newfoundland. 

•British Honduras. New South Wales. 

•Canada. New Zealand. 

•Canal Zone. Norway. 

fCape Colony. fOrange River Colony. 

Chili. Peru. 

Costa Rica. *Phillpplne Islands. 

•Cuba. Portugal. 

Denmark. Queensland. 

•Dominica. Russia. 

Egypt. •St. Kitts. 

France, Algeria and •Saint Lucia. 

Tunis. •Saint Vincent. 

Germany. Salvador. 

Great Britain and South Australia. 

Ireland. Sweden. 

Greece. Switzerland. 

•Grenada. Tasmania. 
Honduras (Republic). tThe Transvaal. 

Hongkong (China). •Trinidad and Tobago. 

Hungary. Uruguay. 

Italy (including San Victoria. 

Marino). •Virgin Islands. 

•Jamaica. Western Australia. 
Japan. 

• Draw orders on domestic money-order form. 



338 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



t Cape Colony, Transvaal, Orange River Col- 
ony and Natal (with Zululand) have been con- 
solidated Into the South African Union, and 
all money-orders tor payment in those coun- 
tries are now certified by the Exchange office 
at New York to the Exchange office at Cape 
Town. Money orders to and from Natal and 
Zululand formerly were reissued at London. 
Payment may now be made on the original 
orders, provided the corresponding advices 
have been duly certified. 

INTERNATIONAL! REPLY-COUPONS. 

International reply-coupons, of the denomi- 
nation of 6 cents each, are issued for the 
purpose of sending to correspondents abroad. 
The foreign correspondent may exchange each 
coupon for postage stamps- of the country in 
which he is located, equal in value to 5 cents 
In United States money, using the stamps for 
reply postage. The countries in which the 
reply-coupon is valid are as follows: 

Argentine Republic. 

Austria and the Austrian post offices in the 
Levant. Chill. 

Belgium. Corea. 

Bosnia-Herzegovina. Costa Rica. 
Brazil. Crete. 

Bulgaria. Cuba. 

Denmark, including Greenland, Iceland and 
the Faroe Islands; the Danish West Indies. 
Egypt. 

France, the French post offices in China, 
Morocco, and Turkey; the French colonies of 
Algeria. Dahomey, Guadeloupe and dependen- 
cies. Guiana (French), Guinea (French), Indo- 
china, Ivory Coast, Martinique, Mauretania, 
New Caledonia, Oceanlca, St. Plerre-Miquelon, 
Senegal, Senegal-Niger; French establishments 
in India. 

Germany, the German protectorates and Ger- 
man post offices in Africa, Asia, Australasia, 

and Turkey. 

• 

Great Britain, British post offices in Morocco 
and Turkey; British colonies of Australia, 
Bahamas, Bechuanaland. Canada. Cape of Good 
Hope, Ceylon, Cook Islands. Dominica, East 
Africa, Gibraltar, Gold Coast, Honduras (Brit- 
ish), Hong Kong and Hong Kong offices in 
China, India, Labuan, Malta, Mauritius Islands. 
Natal, Newfoundland, New Guinea, New Zea- 
land. Papua, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somali- 
land. Southern Nigeria. South Rhodesia, Straits 
Settlements, Tasmania, Transvaal, Trinidad, 
Uganda, Zululand; British Protectorates of the 
Solomon, Gilbert and Ellice Islands. 

Greece. Honduras (Republic of). 

Haiti. Hungary. 

Italy, and Italian colonies of Benadlr and 
Erythrea. 

Japan and Japanese post offices in China and 
Manchuria. Luxemburg. 

Xiberla. Mexico. 

Netherlands, Netherlands Guiana, the Nether- 
lands Indies. 
Norway. 

Portugal, including the Azores and Madeira. 
Roumanla. Sweden. 

Salvador. Switzerland. 

Slam. Tunis. 

Spain. Turkey. 

Persons who buy the reply coupons should 
inform their correspondents abroad that the 
reply coupon is not itself good for postage, 
but must be exchanged at the post office for a 
postage stamp. The postmark of the selling 
post office must be stamped legibly In the 
circle on the left-hand side of all reply cou- 
pons sold to the public. 



DELIVERY AND FORWARDING OF REGIS- 
TERED MAIL 

Either the sender or the addressee of do- 
mestic registered mail may restrict Its deliv- 
ery. Registered mail which is not restricted 
in delivery may be delivered to any responsi- 
ble person who customarily receives the ordi- 
nary mail of the addressee. 

All registered matter, except that which 
has once been properly delivered, may be for- 
warded without additional charge for registry 
fee, upon the written request of any person 
to whom it is deliverable. In cases of emer- 
gency, when the postmaster is satisfied that 
no fraud is Intended, a telegraphic order from 
the addressee may be honored. 

Written orders to forward mall, signed by 
addressees or their agents duly authorized to 
control such matter, must be construed to 
apply to both ordinary and registered mall, 
unless such orders specifically state that regis- 
tered mail shall not be so forwarded, or sep- 
arate and special written orders are furnished 
directing other disposition of registered mail. 

REGISTRY RETURN RECEIPT TO BE FUR- 
NISHED ONLY WHEN REQUESTED 
BY THE SENDER. 

Section 3928 of the Revised Statutes reads u 
follows : 

"Whenever the sender shall so request, a 
receipt shall be taken on the delivery of any 
registered mail matter, showing to whom and 
when the same was delivered, which receipt 
shall be returned to the sender and be re- 
ceived in the courts as prima facie evidence 
of such delivery." 

In accordance with this statute postmasters 
do not prepare receipt cards for return to the 
senders of domestic registered mail which does 
not bear the Indorsement "Receipt desired" or 
words of similar import. When an article 
bearing such indorsement is received for regis- 
tration, the registration receipt issued to the 
sender and the registration record are required 
to be similarly indorsed. 

See page 840 relative to return receipts (or 
Insured domestic parcel post mall. 

REGISTRATION PEES. 

The fee for the registration of mail matter, 
foreign and domestic, is fixed at ten cents (or 
each piece. In addition to postage, and both 
postage and fee must be prepaid at the time 
of registration. 

Fourth -class (domestic parcel poet) matter 
may not be registered, but may be Insured 
against loss In the mails by the prepayment 
of a fee of ten cents in postage stamps, to 
be affixed to each parcel. See page S40. 

The Department has discontinued the issu- 
ance of the special ten-cent registry stamp- 
No further supply of this stamp shall be 
printed. The registry fee may be prepaid by 
means of any stamps which are valid for the 
prepayment of postage. 

INDEMNITY FOR REGISTERED MAIL. 

Indemnity will be paid on account of the 
loss of registered mail in the postal service: 

(a) For the value of domestic registered mail 
of the first class (sealed) up to $60. 

(b) For the value of domestic registered mail 
of the third class, unsealed, up to |26. 

See page 340 in regard to indemnity for lost 
Insured and C. O. D. parcels. 

(c) In any amount claimed, within the limit 
of 50 francs (approximately $9.66). on account 
of the loss, in the international mails, of > 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



339 



registered article of any class, regardless of 
its value, exchanged between the United States 
and any country embraced within the Universal 
Postal Union, except on account of losses 
arising under circumstances beyond control 
("force majeure") and international "Parcels 
Post" registered mail. 

First-class domestic matter must be sealed 
before being registered. 



FOREIGN MAILS. 

POSTAGE RATES ON ARTICLES FOR CAN- 
ADA, CUBA. MEXICO, THE REPUBLIC OF 
PANAMA, THE UNITED STATES POSTAL 
AGENCY AT SHANGHAI AND THE UNITED 
STATES NAVAL HOSPITAL AT YOKO- 
HAMA. JAPAN. 

Articles addressed for delivery In Canada, 
Cuba, Mexico and the Republic of Panama are 
subject to the same postage rates and condi- 
tions which would apply to them if they were 
addressed for delivery in the United States: 
Except that: 

(a) Letters and postal cards must be dis- 
patched to Canada and Mexico if prepaid one 
full rate of postage and to Cuba and Panama 
whether prepaid or not. Other articles for 
Cuba and Panama must be prepaid at least in 
part and for Canada and Mexico in full. 

(b) "Prints," "samfjles" and "commercial 
papers" may be sent subject to the postage 
rates, weight limit and other conditions ap- 
plicable to similar articles in Postal Union 
mails. 

(c) Articles other than letters in their usual 
and ordinary form are excluded from the malls, 
unless they are so wrapped that their contents 
can be easily examined by postmasters and 
customs officers. Any article enclosed in an 
envelope, as the word "envelope" is generally 
used, without regard to its size, is considered 
to be "in the usual and ordinary form" of a 
letter. But unsealed packages may contain, 
in sealed receptacles, articles which cannot be 
safely transmitted in unsealed receptacles, pro- 
vided the contents of the closed receptacles 
are plainly visible or are precisely stated on 
the covers of the closed receptacles and that 
the package is so wrapped that the outer cover 
can be easily opened. 

Packages of fourth-class matter that weigh 
over four ounces and not over four pounds six 
ounces may be sent to Canada, Cuba, Mexico 
and the Republic of Panama, at the eighth 
zone rate of postage (see Page 340). The par- 
cels for Mexico and the Republic of Panama 
must be accompanied by customs declarations. 

Unmailable. — The following articles are un- 
mailable under any condition, viz. : 

All sealed packages which, from their 
form and general appearance, evidently are not 
letters: publications which violate the copy- 
right laws of the country of destination; 
potsoDS, explosive or Inflammable substances; 
Iiv9^ or dead (not dried) animals, insects (ex- 
cept b«eB) and r^tiles; frutta and vegetables 
whloli qotckly decompose, and substances 
which exhale a bad odor; lottery tickets or 
circulars; all obscene or Immoral articles, 
articles which may destroy or damage the 
mails, <Mr injure the persons handling them; 
and to Cuba and the Republic of Panama, 
liquids and fatty substances, except samples 
thereof. 

The domestic postage rates and conditions of 
Canada, Cuba, Mexico and the Republic of 
Panama apply to articles mailed In those coun- 



tries addressed for delivery In the United 
States. Consequently articles (except sealed 
packages which are not letters) mailed in any 
one of those countries which are entitled to 
pass in the domestic mails of that country 
free of postage, are likewise entitled to trans- 
mission freo of postage to the United States. 

Prepayment of postage upon any article 
mailed in the United States, except the reply 
half of a double postal card, can be effected 
only by means of United States postage stamps. 

Postage due: Postage due upon articles ex- 
changed with these countries insufficiently pre- 
paid, is collectible upon delivery at the single 
rate. 



SECOND-CLASS MATTER FOR CANADA. 

The postage rate applicable in the United 
States to "second-class matter" addressed for 
delivery in Canada is 1 cent for each 4 ounces 
or fraction of 4 ounces, calculated on the 
weight of each package and prepaid by means 
of postage stamps affixed; except that the 
postage rate to publishers and news agents 
applicable to legitimate daily newspapers issued 
as frequently as six times a week addressed 
to bona fide subscribers in Canada, is 1 cent a 

For printed matter of all kinds. 1 cent for 
office of mailing as second-class matter. 



RATES OF POSTAGE ON ARTICLES FOR 
FOREIGN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN 
ABOVE. 

Articles for or from foreign countries (except 
Canada,* Cuba, Mexico and the Republic of 
Panama and the United States Postal Agency 
at Shanghai, as indicated above, are not des- 
ignated "First-class matter," "Second-class 
matter," etc.; but are classified as "Letters," 
"Post cards," "Printed matter," "Commer- 
cial papers" and "Samples of merchandise," 
and are subject to the postage rates indi- 
cated below: 

For letters. 5 cents for the first ounce, or 
fraction of an ounce, and 3 cents for each 
additional ounce, or fraction of an ounce. 
Stamps or forms of prepayment, whether cur- 
rent or obsolete, canceled or uncanceled, as 
well as printed articles constituting the repre- 
sentative sign of monetary value, and articles 
in typewriting or imitation of typewriting, are 
subject to postage at the letter rate. Monetary 
value is held by the International Bureau of 
the Universal Postal Union to attach to bonds, 
*bank notes, commercial bills of exchange, etc., 
which have been fully executed by the makers: 

For postal cards, 2 cents each, for single, 
and 4 cents each for double cards, 
each 2 ounces or fraction of 2 ounces. 

For commercial papers, 6 cents for the first 
10 ounces or less, and 1 cent for each addi- 
tional 2 ounces or fraction of 2 ounces. 

For samples, 2 cents for the first 4 ounces 
or less, and 1 cent for each additional 2 
ounces or fraction of 2 ounces. 

Registration fee, in addition to postage, 10 
cents. 

Letters for England. Ireland, Scotland, Wales 
and Newfoundland, 2 cents per ounce, and 
letters for Germany dispatched only by steam- 
ers which land the malls at German ports, 2 
cents per ounce. 



•Newfoundland is not Included in the Do- 
minion of Canada. 



340 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DOMESTIC PARCEL POST. 



The proTisions of the act approved August 
24, 1912, authorizing the establishment of the 
Parcels Post System embodying a zone sys- 
tem of postal rates according to certain pre- 
scribed distances from a given territorial cen- 
ter to take effect Jan. 1, 1913. provides that 
fourth-class mail matter is to embrace all 
other matter, including farm and factory prod- 
ucts, not now embraced by law In either the 
first, second, or third-class, not (exceeding 
twenty pounds in weight when mailed for de- 
livery within the first and second zones, nor) 
exceeding eleven pounds In weight (when for 
delivery in any of the other zones), nor 
greater in size than 72 inches in length and 
girth combined, nor in form or kind likely to 
injure the person of any postal employee or 
damage the mail equipment or other mail mat- 
ter und not of a character perishable within a 
period reasonably required for transportation 
and delivery. 

For parcels post purposes the United States 
and its several Territories and possessions, ex- 
cepting the Philippine Islands, are divided into 
units of area thirty minutes square, identical 
with a quarter of the area formed by the in- 
tersecting parallels of latitude and meridians 
of longitude. 

*^here is a flat rate of one cent per ounce 
up to four ounces regardless of distance. Above 
four ounces, rates are by the pound or fraction 
thereof, and varying with the distance as 
given in the adjoining table and table on 
page 812. 



INSURED AND C. O. D. PARCELS— PEES 
CHARGED AND INDEMNITY PROVIDED— 
RETURN RECEIPTS 

A mailable parcel on which the postage is 
fully prepaid may be insured against loss in 
an amount equivalent to its actual value, but 
not to exceed $25, on payment of a fee of 
five cents, and in an amount equivalent to its 
actual value in excess of $25, but not to ex- 
ceed $50, on payment of a fee of ten cents 
in stamps, such stamps to be affixed. 



First 
Pound. 



300-mtle zone 07 

600-mi4e zone 08 

1,000-mile zone 09 

1,400-mile zone 10 

1,800-mile zone 11 

Over 1,800 miles 12 






Each 
Addit. 
Pound. 

.05 
.06 
.07 
.09 
.10 
.12 



Eleyen 
Pounds. 



.57 

.68 

.79 

1.00 

1.11 

1.32 



The sender of a mailable parcel on which 
the postage is fully prepaid may have the 
price of the article and the charges thereon 
collected from the addressee on payment of a 
fee of ten cents in stamps affixed, provided 
the amount to be collected does not exceed 
$100. Such a parcel will be insured against 

Continued on page 342. 




Copyright 1912, by Munn & Co., Inc. 

RATE ZONES FOR DOMESTIC PARCELS POST. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Anllnik (Leeward ^ 



Ii BtamJ ■'-'■'■'.'. 
« (Wcai India 
ni(3pJn).,.. 



pSSl.'iiSiii:::: 

BUTIIUH (FlBElceJ. . , . 

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far AbbulFcnlanQulfF.Lando 



CrenB(triil8ii)..., 






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OaibenlHin(Si«deii)... 

^luiadk (Spain) ....... 



nnuiTuii 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBRENCB BOOK. 

APPROXIIUTB TIME 



PmatM fr>iiiii)...'.'.'.Su 

PmCBrull) 

Pjj«(p«tii)..V 



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nvnnlBillUiiadb),:! 



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Simuder mpmln 
BaUIUD (CbTle). 
asvanlJii (CMoi 
Se;clHll« Islaad>'{iDdiiui timn) . . '. 

Bliuuhiil IChJu) Berlin! 

RhaiKhil China) Vinuovir. 

Slim Uarm (UIJa) London. 



SjrdneySftirailiVhWiifcii.* ?! 






Whyduli (AWa) 

Zuncb (BwllurlaDd)','.' 



DOMESTIC PARCELS POST— ContinuBd 






The pound 


nteso 


BMUg 


Intbefl 


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFEEENCE BOOK." 



343 



INTERNATIONAL PARCEL POST. 



COUNTRIES TO WHICH PARCELS MAY BE SENT ; MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT, VALUB 
AND RATES OF POSTAGE APPLICABLE TO PARCELS: AND EXCHANGE POST OFFICES 
WHICH DISPATCH AND RECEIVE PARCEL POST MAILS. 

Parcel-post packages may also be mailed in Hawaii, Porto Rioo, The PfaiUppines, Gnam, Tutolla 
and the Canal Zone, to the* following countries and colonies wlfli which the United States hare 
parcel-post conyehtibns, subject to the roles and regulations as are herein prescribed. 



Awtnlla. 



. indiidhig tte Austrisa 

offlev fn the Ot(oaia» BmpirB at 
Abnadretta, Bqnoot, Cub 
Gudla • Canea, CSavaOa. Chioi, 
Dudmaleak tMea^TBdnssOb 
bebofi Jala, Janina, Jen- 
ftden, Keraflsonda, Menba. 
fl^Ukne, Frereaa. EetlDOb Rhodes. 
Bahniea, Samsoun,. Sao .Gkyvanni 
dl Madnai &uitl Quaianta, 
Seotail d'Albanie Snnna. Tn- 
biaond. TrIpoU .Cijffld, Yakoa, 
Vattl (Samoa). 



•Baifcadoa. 
Bddiim... 
Benroda.. 
Bolivia. . . . 



Bradt. 



BrfttahOuiaaa. 



ChOo 

ColoBibia. 



CoataRica 

*Ciineao (mchdiin Araba. Boaage. 

Saba, 81 Ewtatma and tte Dutch 

part of St. Martina). 
Baniih Waat Indiai (St Gkolz. St 

JofaaandStThoouM). 

Dwmusfc (Jndndiiig Vwoe lalaadi 
aadlodand). 



"Dutch Chdaaa 

^Btaaee (axdndtag AJgola and Oondea) 

Gcnnany uaahicnng Caoiflraon, 
Toflo, Cmaaa Bart Aftjoa. Oar- 
laaa Soutl^wwt A&ml Vto^ 
taetorata of Sondiov and Otttain 
Gannan' poat oAoaa in ■Cflina)^ 



•Otaat Britain. taMlodliig Inhad. 



(hiaisBHte. 



Chiadrfcwpe (innlndlne'MarieCMaa-' 
ta, Desoada^ LeaSahl 



sA^ St. 

thiolomew and the ftoiflh 

tionofStMarfiMO 

HalU ;4--...... 

noodvai (BrfUnO**** 



StBai^ 
por- 



AUowAbla dli 

and ivdgbt of pareda. 



BoadoM CBflfww oO« 



31 



81 



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8 
8 
8 
3 

8i 



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31 
8} 

3» 

3» 
3} 
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3} 



3} 



3» 



31 

li 

3i 




rt. 



6 
6 

6 

6 
6 
6 
6 



A 



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Xte. 
U 



11 



11 
11 
11 
11 
11 

11 



11 

11 
11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

a 

n 

11 
11 

11 



11 



11 



11 

11 
11 

11 



i 
i 

3 

I 
n 

3 

I 

9 
& 



I 



Nooe. 



Nona. 



None. 
None. 
None. 
None 
None. 

None. 



None. 

None. 
None. 

Nooe. 

77006. 



None. 

None. 

None. 

$50 

None. 
None. 

None. 



EzBumga post offlott. 



VaHadStafii; 



None. 



None. 



Nooe. 

None. 
None. 

Nooeu 



' San Fhuiclpoo. 
LHonolatu..... 



NewTork. 
.Chicago... 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



New York and San Fran- 

ctooo. 
New York 



Fonlpb 



Sydney, 
bane, i 
Hobart. 



IMmI. 



Naanu. 

B ridgrto wa. 

Antwerp. 

Hamfltoo. 

una. 

Bahia,. VatLt BBCoaak* 
buoOkRio de Jaaaire 
and Sao FboIo. 
AD offieaa autbortaed to ezohango maila betWaah flit 

two countriee. 
NewYoik.SanFVaQelaoo| Valpai^BOu 
All offioea authoriied to exchange maila betWMB tfie 
two couDtriea. 
Do. 

NewToik 



Do. 

fNewYork.... 

{ Boston 

IChicagp 

NewTork.... 
f New York.... 
I New Orleana. . 
iSannandioo. 

New York.... 

New York.... 

New York.... 

CUeago...... 

Boatoo ...... 

StLoda 

FhiladelpUa.. 

Bahimore.... 

New York.,.. 

Chicago 

Boaton 

Philadelphia.. 

StLoida 

Baltimore.... 

San IVandaoo. 

New York.... 

New Orleana.. 

San EVaneisco. 



/New York 

\ San Joan, P. R.. 



New York.... 
NewOrlaaas.. 

fNawYocfc.... 
{NewOrlans.. 
tSanRsnaiwo. 



WOheoMtad. 



Santo Domingo. 

GtiayaquIL 

Paramaribo. 
Cherbourg and Httte. 



Hamburg. 
Bremen. 






Londoia. 

LlverpooL 

Dublin. 



Guatonala Ctty. 
Retalhuleu and Fwrto 
BaiTloa. 



XVvt au Pclnoa. 

Tegndolpa. 
Puerto CortH. 

Amattala. 



• PartDelg Mumot bg regfatared. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COtMTBlBS TO WHICH 



DIMENSIONS, WBIdHT. VAtOH 



BawKoM- SmmUh mbdn,. 



lUll.QuliiUacRqi cla^ 












All nffiai lulluiriKd U 






POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



345 



INTERNATIONAL PARCELS POST. 



Parcel Post Conventions with Argentine Re* 
public, Cuba, Portugal, Russia, Spain and the 
French Colony of St. Pierre and Miquelon are 
pending, with prospect of an early and suc- 
cessful conclusion of the negotiations. 

A very Important modification of the service 
was reached by agreement with the Treasury 
Department to the eftect that the value limit 
for the contents of parcels might be elimin- 
ated. Negotiations were at once underaken, 
with the result that there is now no value 
limit, except as regards Ecuador. 

We now have conventions with forty-eight 
foreign countries. The following are the es- 
sential characteristics of the service: 

Postage rate, uniform at 12 cents per pound. 

Limit of weight, uniform at 11 pounds. 

Limit of value, uniformly none, with the 
single exception of Ecuador, $50. 

Limit of size, uniform at 3 feet 6 inches 
greatest length; 6 feet greatest combined 
length and girth, except to Mexico and Co- 



lumbia— 2 feet greatest length and 4 feet 
greatest girth. 

The weight of the parcel post mails dis- 
patched from the United States during the 
year was 2,270,215 pounds, an' increase of 446,- 
692 pounds, or 24.4 per cent. The number of 
parcels dispatched was 718,828, of an average 
weight of 3.16 pounds, an increase in number 
of 103,668, or 16.8 per cent The weight of 
the parcel post mails received was 1,967,779 
pounds, an increase of 287,056 pounds, or 17 
per cent. The number of parcels received was 
406,456, of an average weight of 4.84 pounds, 
an increase in number of 47,237, or 13.1 per 
cent. 

The fact that the percentages of increase in 
the number of parcels and in total weights 
are greater as regards the parcels sent than as 
regards those received from abroad is again 
gratifying, and indicates the steady and con- 
tinuous growth of the service as an advanta- 
geous means of increasing the country's ex- 
ports. 



INFORMATION FOR SHIPPERS. 



Admissible Articles.— Any article absolutely 
prohibited admission to the regular mails for 
any country is also inadmissible to Parcel Post 
mails for that country; except that no article 
is excluded from Parcel Post mails solely be- 
cause it is dutiable in the country of destina- 
tion. 

How to Mail Parcels. — ^A parcel must not 
be posted in a letter-box, but must be handed 
to the postmaster or other official in charge 
of the post office. 

Address, etc. — Every parcel must bear a com- 
plete and legible address,- not written in pen- 
cil, and marked conspicuously "Parcel Post." 

Packing. — Every parcel must be securely and 
substantially packed ; but in such a way that 
it can be opened without damaging its cover, 
in order that its contents may be easily exam- 
ined by postmasters and customs officials. 

Postage. — Postage on every parcel must be 
fully prepaid at the rate applicable thereto as 
Indicated in the tables on pages 343-344. 

Letters Must Not Accompany Parcels. — ^A 
communication of the nature of personal cor- 
respondence must not accompany or be writ- 
ten on any parcel (but an open bill or invoice 
may be included). If such written matter be 
found it will be placed in the mails if sep- 
arable, and if inseparable the entire parcel 
must be rejected. 

Separately Addressed Packages.— Parcels must 
not contain packages addressed to persons 
other than the person named on the outside 
address of the parcel itself. If such enclosed 
packages be detected they must be sent for- 



ward singly charged with new and distinct 
parcel post rates. 

No Responsibility for Loss.— The Department 
Is not responsible for the loss of or damage 
to any parcel. 

Registration. — The sender of a parcel ad- 
dressed to any of the places Indicated in the 
foregoing table, except Barbados, Dutch 
Ouiana, France, Great Britain, Guadeloupe, 
Martinique, The Netherlands and Uruguay may 
have the parcel registered by paying a regis- 
tration fee of 10 cents, and will receive the 
"return receipt" without additional charge 
therefor, provided he demands a return receipt 
when he mails the parcel. 

Undeliverable Parcels Returned to United 
States. — ^An undeliverable parcel returned to 
the United States, upon which the return 
postage has not been prepaid, Is subject on 
delivery to the sender to a postage charge 
equal to the amount of postage originally pre- 
paid on the parcel; which amount should be 
marked on the parcel by the United States 
exchange post office which receives it back 
from abroad, and collected by the post office 
which delivers it to the sender. 

Customs Declarations.— A "customs declara- 
tion" properly filled out must be securely at- 
tached to every parcel. The contents must 
be accurately described. General terms such 
as "merchandise" and "samples" will not 
answer. 

Customs Duties.— Customs duties cannot be 
prepaid; they will be collected of addressees 
when the parcels are delivered. 



POSTAL SAVINGS SYSTEM. 



The Third Assistant Postmaster General, as 
the official of the Post Oftice Department 
charged with the general supervision of the 
financial operations of the postal service, 
supervises the conduct of postal savings busi- 
ness at post oftices. As the representative of 
the Board of Trustees of the Postal Savings 



System, he transacts all business involving 
securities and the investment of funds. He 
conducts all correspondence of the Postal Sav- 
ings System and examines the accounts of 
postmasters, banks and other financial agents 
receiving and disbursing funds. 



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THE WOOL WORTH BUILDING. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



PATENTS, TRADE-MARKS, AND 

COPYRIGHTS.* 

Revised by Loyd H. Sutton, of the United States Patent Office. 



GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING PATENTS. 



What is a Patent? — The term 
patent or letters patent is derived from 
litterae patentes, signifying that which 
is open or disclosed, in contradistinc- 
tion to lettre de cachet^ that which 
is sealed or secret. This term is the 
keynote of the whole principle upon 
which the patent system is built up, 
namely, disclosure. The disclosure 
must be honest, absolute and unre- 
served. The penalty for mental crook- 
edness or for ignorance in giving out 
fully and freely the nature of the in- 
vention is severe and direct, and i9 
nothing less than forfeiture of the pat- 
ent itself. The reason for this is per- 
fectly logical and arises from the very 
meaning, spirit and nature of the re- 
lationship existing between the pat- 
entee and the government. The term 
of a patent is 17 years. During this 
term of 17 years the patentee obtains 
a monopoly under which he' secures ex- 
clusive right of manufacture, use and 
sale. The patent itself, however, is in 
the nature of a contract between the 
patentee and the government, presum- 
ably for their mutual benefit. The 
government grants to the inventor the 
exclusive right of manufacture and 
sale for 17 years on condition that the 
inventor shall disclose fully the nature 
of his invention or discovery, and shall 
allow the public the unrestricted use 
of the invention after this term has 
expired. If he fail in making full dis- 
closure, he has not lived up to the 
terms of the implied contract and the 
patent thereby becomes null and void. 
It sometimes happens that an inventor 
discloses freely part of the invention, 
but cunningly conceals some essential 
step in the process, but if the case is 
tested within the courts and the real 
facts are brought to light, the patent 
will be declared invalid. At the end 
of the term of 17 years the patent be- 



comes public property, and the article 
may be freely manufactured by any 
one. It can never 'thereafter, as in so 
many cases in the Middle Ages, be- 
come a lost art. 

Who May Obtain a Patent? — In 
order to secure a valid patent, the ap- 
plicant must dedare upon oath that he 
believes himself to be the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of the art, 
machine, manufacture, composition or 
improvement for which he solicits a 
patent; that he does not know and 
does not believe that the same was 
ever before known or used ; that the 
invention has not been in public use or 
on sale in the United States for more 
than two years before the application 
was filed, and not described in any 
printed publication or patent in this 
or any foreign country for more than 
two years prior to the filing of his 
application ; and that the invention 
has not been patented to himself or 
to others with his knowledge or con- 
sent in this or any foreign country 
for more than two years prior to his 
application, or on an application for 
a patent filed in any foreign country 
by himself or his legal representatives 
or assigns more than twelve months 
prior to his application. Any one 
who can subscribe to the above condi- 
tions may apply for a patent, irre- 
spective of race, color, age or nation- 
ality. Minors and women and even 
convicts may apply for patents under 
our law. The rights even of a dead 
man in an invention are not lost, for 
an application may be filed in his 
name by his executor or administrator, 
and the rights of his heirs thereby 
safeguarded. The patent in this case 
would issue to the executor or ad- 
ministrator and would become subject 
to the administration of the estate like 
any other property left by the de- 



* Compiled originally for Munn & Co., Patent Attorneys. 

351 



352 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ceased. Even the rights of an insane 
person may not be lost, as the appli- 
cation may be filed by his legal guar- 
dian. If foreign patents for the same 
invention have been previously issued, 
having been filed more than twelve 
months before the filing of the United 
States application, the patent will be 
refused. The applicant must state his 
nationality. It often happens that two 
or more individuals have jointly 
worked upon the invention, and in this 
case the several inventors should joint- 
ly apply for the patent. Should they 
not so apply, the patent when issued 
will be invalid. If they are merely 
partners, however, and not co-invent- 
ors, they should not apply jointly for 
a patent, as the inventor alone is en- 
titled to file the application. He may, 
however, assign a share in the patent 
to his partner, coupled with the re- 
quest that the patent should issue to 
them jointly. It is of the greatest im- 
portance that these distinctions should 
be clearly understood ; otherwise, the 
patent may be rendered invalid. 

What May be Patented? — ^Any 
new and useful art, machine, manufac- 
ture or composition of matter, or any 
new and useful improvements thereon. 
The thing invented must be new and 
useful. These are conditions precedent 
to the granting of a patent. Of these 
two conditions by far the more impor- 
tant is the former, and it is concerning 
the interpretation of this word "neto" 
and its bearing upon the invention 
that the principal work and labor in- 
volved in passing an application safely 
through the Patent Office is involved. 
When the invention has been worked 
out by the inventor and he is pre- 
pared to file his application, he or his 
attorney prepares the necessary papers 
as provided for by law, namely : An 
Oath, a Petition, a Specification con- 
sisting of a description of the inven- 
tion and concludng with claims which 
specifically set forth what the inventor 
claims to be the novel features of the 
invention, and drawings which are pre- 
pared and filed with the case, and in 
due course the application is ready 
for examination in the Patent Office. 
The question of whether the invention 
is new is then considered. The exam- 
ination consists in searching through 
the files of the Patent OflBce among 
the patents that have been already 
issued, and through such literature as 
may bear upon the subject. The ques- 
tion of whether an invention is new is 



one of fact, and one of the greatest 
importance, and upon the showing that 
the inventor is able to make during 
the prosecution of the case, depends 
largely the future success of the pat- 
ent. The evidence adduced in proving 
that the invention is not new must be 
tangible and accessible. A patent 
would not be refused or overturned on 
a mere mental concept. There must 
be some evidence of a substantial char- 
acter that serves to show that the 
earlier idea was reduced to practice 
or at least that there was such a de- 
scription or drawing made as would 
be sufficient for one skilled in the art 
to reduce the invention to practice. 
If it has not been actually reduced to 
practice, it must be a concrete, not an 
abstract, idea. 

It is essential that the application 
for a patent should be filed before the 
invention has been in public use or on 
sale for a period of two years. If the 
inventor has publicly used or sold his 
invention for a period of two years it 
becomes public property and he cannot 
regain the right to obtain a patent. 
He may, however, make models and 
experiment with his invention for a 
much longer period, provided he does 
not disclose his invention to the public 
or put it into actual use or on, sale 
for a period of two years. The word 
."useful" is not one which usually 
gives either the Patent Office or the 
inventor a great deal of trouble, as 
any degree of utility, however insignifi- 
cant, will serve to entitle the inventor 
to a patent. It has often happened 
that an invention which appears, at 
the time the patent is applied for, to 
have no special utility, in later years, 
owing to new discoveries or improve- 
ments in the arts, is found to possess 
the greatest merit and value. Unless 
an invention is positively meretricious, 
therefore, it is difficult to assume that 
it either has no utility or never will 
have any. Patents are granted for 
"any new and useful art, machine, 
manufacture or composition of matter, 
or any improvement thereon." It is 
seen from the terms of the statute 
that almost any creature of the inven- 
tive faculty of man becomes a proper 
subject for a patent. The exceptions 
are very few. Patents wiU not be 
granted, for example, for any inven- 
tion that offends the law of nature. 
Under this category may be mentioned 
perpetual motion machines. Inven- 
tions of an immoral nature will not be 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



353 



considered. Medicines and specifics 
are not now proper subjects for letters 
patent, unless some important new dis- 
covery is involved. 

Abandoned Applications. — While 
abandonment may arise in different 
ways, its most frequent occurrence re- 
sults from a failure to properly pros- 
ecute the application. An applicant 
is given one year by the statute in 
which to respond to an action on his 
application by the Patent Office. This 
period of one year runs from the day 
on which the letter from the Office is 
dated. If the last day of the year 
falls on Sunday the applicant's response 
must be in the Patent Office on the 
preceding day, i. e., Saturday. Where 
an applicant waits until the close of 
the year before acting on his case he 
does so at considerable risk, and if his 
response fails to arrive at the Office 
by the last day of the year little 
leniency will be shown him in re- 
viving the case except upon a showing 
of good and sufficient cause. Not only 
must the applicant's response come 
within the year, but it must be fully 
re8i)onsive to the last action by the Of- 
fice. In other words, his action on the 
application must be all that the state 
of the case requires as shown by the 
last Office letter. An abandoned appli- 
cation may be revived upon petition to 
the Commissioner if the applicant can 
show that the delay in the prosecution 
of the case was unavoidable. 

Appeals. — If an application for a 
patent has been twice rejected, the ap- 
plicant may appear from the Primary 
Examiner to the Board of Examiners- 
in-Chief. He may further carry the 
appeal to the Commissioner of Patents 
and in case he is not satisfied with the 
latter's decision he may carry the ap- 
peal finally to the Court of Appeals of 
the District of Columbia. 

Interference. — If two or more in- 
dividuals have made inventions which 
can be expressed by the same claim or 
claims, which must be patentable, in- 
terference proceedings may be insti- 
tuted to determine which applicant is 
the original or first inventor. Inter- 
ference proceedings are instituted be- 
tween applicants whose applications 
are pending or between a pending ap- 
plication and a patent already issued, 
provided the latter patent has not been 
issued for more than two years prior 
to the filing of the conflicting applica- 
tion. The proceedings are conducted 
before the Examiner of Interferences. 



Appeal may be taken from the Exam- 
iner of Interferences to the Board of 
Examiners-in-Chief, and from the 
Board of Examiners-in-Chief to the 
Commissioner, and thence to the Court 
of Appeals of the District of Colum- 
bia. Not all the claims for a patent 
are necessarily involved, but only such 
as cover the particular feature of the 
invention which is declared to be in 
interference. The unsuccessful appli- 
cant by eliminating the claim or 
claims in controversy and all other 
claims readable upon the disclosure of 
the successful applicant, may procure 
allowance of other claims in his appli- 
cation. The disclosure of the success- 
ful party virtually becomes a part of 
the prior art and in the further pros- 
ecution of the case it will be so treat- 
ed. In determining the question of 
priority of invention witnesses are ex- 
amined and the proceedings are con- 
ducted much in the same manner as 
in a suit at law. The first step in the 
proceeding consists in filing with the 
Commissioner a preliminary state- 
ment made under oath, giving the date 
at which the invention was first con- 
ceived and reduced to some tangible 
form, such as the making of drawings, 
the construction- of a model, or the 
disclosing of the invention to another. 
The object of the subsequent examina- 
tion and cross-examination is to sub- 
stantiate the date of invention as 
claimed by the applicants respectively, 
and to establish the priority of inven- 
tion. 

Reissues. — ^A reissue is granted to 
the original patentee, his legal repre- 
sentative or the assignees of the entire 
interest, when the original patent is 
inoperative or invalid by reason of a 
defective or insufficient specification, 
or by reason of the patentee claiming 
as his invention or discovery more 
than he had a right to claim as new, 
provided the error has arisen through 
inadvertence, accident or mistake, and 
without any fraudulent or deceptive 
intehtion. The reissue application 
must be made and the specification 
sworn to by the inventor or inventors 
if he or they be living. What is in- 
advertence, accident or mistake has 
been the subject of much litigation and 
as a general rule the courts require 
a clear showing of such. No new 
matter can be introduced into the re- 
issue application, but its subject mat- 
ter must be capable of being found 
within the four corners of the original 



854 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



application. As two years' publication 
of the subject matter of an invention 
is a bar to the issue of a patent, the 
courts as a general rule will not sus- 
tain a reissue patent the claims of 
which are broader than those of the 
original patent where the reissue ap- 
plication is filed more than two years 
after the grant of the original patent. 
The original patent must be surren- 
dered when a reissue application is 
made. The reissue patent is good 
only for the unexpired term of the 
original patent. 

Patented Abticles Must be 
Masked. — Articles manufactured and 
sold under a patent must be so marked 
that the public shall have notice that 
the article is a patented one. This 
notice consists of the word "Patented," 
together with the date when the patent 
was issued. Damages cannot be re- 
covered in an infringement suit unless 
the patented articles are so marked or 
it be shown that the defendant was 
duly notified of his infringement, but 
continued after such notice to in- 
fringe. 

Infringement. — In case of an ac- 
tion for the infringement of a patent, 
the importance of the question of nov- 
elty appears from the special pleadings 
which the defendant may enter, which 
are as follows : 

1. That for the purpose of deceiving 
the public the description and specifi- 
cation filed by the patentee in the Pat- 
ent Oflice was made to contain less 
than the whole truth relative to his 
invention or discovery, or more than is 
necessary to produce the desired ef- 
fect; or, 

2. That he had surreptitiously or 
unjustly obtained the patent for that 
which was in fact invented by another, 
who was using reasonable diligence in 
adapting and perfecting the same ; or, 

3. That it had been patented or de- 
scribed in some printed publication 
prior to his supposed invention or dis- 
covery thereof; or, 

4. That he was not the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of any 
material and substantial part of the 
thing patented ; or, 

5. That it has been in public use or 
on sale in this country for more than 
two years before his application for 
a patent, or had been abandoned to 
the public. 

Damages for infringement of a pat- 
ent may be recovered at law by action 
on the case, or in equity by bill, in 



the name of the patentee or his as- 
signee. The courts having jurisdic- 
tion over such cases have the power 
(1) to grant injunctions against the 
violation of any right secured by the 
patent; (2) to allow the recovery of 
damages sustained by the complainant 
through such infringement, or the 
profits obtained by the infringer aris- 
ing from such infringement. The de- 
fendant may be compelled to furnish 
an accounting showing the amount of 
the articles manufactured and sold and 
the profits, derived from such sale. 

Design Patents. — Design patents 
are issued for any new or original de- 
sign, whether it be a work of art, 
statue, bas-relief, design for prints or 
fabrics, or for any new design or 
shape or ornament in any article of 
manufacture. The scope of the de- 
sign patent was formerly very broad, 
but recent decisions and enactments 
have greatly restricted its availability 
and a design patent cannot now be ob- 
tained unless it possesses some inher- 
ent artistic quality. Mere utility is 
not sufficient to entitle a new design 
to letters patent. The terms of design 
patents are 3%, 7 or 14 years. 

Assignments. — A patent or any in- 
terest therein may be sold or assigned 
like any other piece of property. An 
inventor may sell or assign his in- 
terest or a part interest in his inven- 
tion, either before the application is 
filed or while the application is still 
pending. Under these circumstances 
the patent may be issued to the as- 
signee or to the inventor and assignee 
jointly. The patent, if already issued, 
may be assigned by the owner whether 
he be the inventor or assignee. The 
conveyance is effected by an instru- 
ment in writing stating the conditions 
under which the patent is assigned, 
and the assignment should be recorded 
in the Patent Office to protect the as- 
signee, as the assignment is void as 
against any subsequent purchase or 
mortgagee for a valuable consideration 
unless it is recorded in the Patent 
Office within three months from the 
date thereof. 

(Note: The provisions of the Pat- 
ent Statutes relating to the filing of 
caveats were repealed by Act of July 
1, 1910.) 

The stamp "Patent Applied For" or 
"Patent Pending" simply means that an 
application for patent has been filed in the 
Patent Office. Action against infringen can- 
not be taken until the patent actually issues. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



355 



MATERIAL FOR FIGURES SHOWING TOTAL NUMBER OF PATENTS 

TO DECEMBER 31, 1911. 



1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 1.759 

1865 1,892 

1856 2,315 

1857 2,686 



Issued 
During 
Year. 
109 
436 
515 
.. 404 
468 
490 
488 
494 
478 
475 
666 
495 
684 
988 
884 
757 
890 
846 



1868. 
1869. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 



3,467 

4,165 

4,363 

3,040 

3,221 

3.781 

4,638 

1865 6, 099 

1866 8.874 

1867 12,301 

1868 12, 544 

1869 12,967 

1870 12,167 

1871 11,687 

1872 12,200 

1873 11,616 

1874 12,230 

1875 13,291 

1876 14, 172 

1877 12,920 

1878 12,345 

1879 12,133 

1880 12,926 

1881 15,548 

1882 18,135 



Issued 

During 

Year. 

1883 21. 196 

1884 ! 19,147 

1885 23,331 

1886 21, 797 

1887 20,429 

1888 19.585 

1889 ; 23,360 

1890 25,322 

1891 22,328 

1892 22,661 

1893 22.768 

1894 19,876 

1895 20,883 

1896 21,867 

1897 22.098 

1898 20,404 

1899 23,296 

1900 24,660 

1901 25,568 

1902 27,136 

1903 31,046 

1 904 30, 267 

1906 29, 784 

1906 31,181 

1907 35,880 

1908 32,757 

1909 36.674 

1910 35,168 

1911 32.917 

United States 1,023,051 

France 466,644 

Great Britain 443,036 

Germany 259,634 

Belgium 248,200 

Canada 141,406 

Italy and Sardinia 106,902 



Austria-Hungary 

Austria 

Switzerland 
Hungary . . 

Spain 

Sweden 

Russia 

Norway, 

Denmark . . 
Japan 



82,933 
70,463 
63,449 
50.474 
46,915 
36,326 
26,917 
23,866 
23,023 
21,191 



THE UNITED STATES PATENT SYSTEM. 



The fundamental principles upon 
which the present commercial suprem- 
acy of the United States is based can 
be found in three provisions of the 
Constitution : First, the granting of 
free speech ; second, the offer of re- 
muneration for the use of the prod- 
ucts of the brain by providing a lim- 
ited period during which a man shall 
enjoys the fruits of his efforts ; and 
third, the protection of personal prop- 
erty by the provision that no person 
shall be deprived of his property with- 
out due process of law. 

The Constitutional provision men- 
tioned as second is as follows: "The 
Congress shall have power * * * to 
promote the progress of Science and 
Useful Arts by securing for limited 



Times to Authors and Inventors, the 
exclusive Right to their respective 
Writings and Discoveries." 

Upon this foundation stands the 
United States Patent Office, established 
for the purpose of carrying out the in- 
tentions of the framers of the Consti- 
tution and developed far beyond their 
fondest dreams, by American ingenuity 
and perseverance. 

The value of our patent system is 
eloquently outlined by Senator Piatt, 
of Connecticut. In speaking on a bill 
for the reorganization of the Patent 
Office, he said : 

"To my mind, the passage of the act of 
1836 creating the Patent Office marks the 
most important epoch in the history of our 
development — I tnink the most important 



S56 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



event in the history of our Government from 
the Constitution until the Civil War. The es- 
tablishment of the Patent Office marked tiie 
commencement of that marvelous develop 
ment of the resources of the oountiy which is 
the admiration and wonder of the world, a 
development which challenges all history for 
a parallel; and it is not too much to say that 
this unexampled progress has been not only 
dependent upon, but has been coincident with, 
the growth and develo^nent of the pat^it 
system of this country. Words fail in attempt- 
ing to portray the advancement of this country 
for the last fifty years. We have had fifty 
years of progress, nf ty years of inventions ap- 
plied to me eveiy-day wants of life, fifty years 
of patent encouragement, and fifty years 
of a development in wealth, resources, grand- 
eur, culture, power, which is little short of 
miraculous. Population, production, business, 
wealth, comfort, culture, power, grandeur, 
these have all kept step with the expansion of 
the inventive genius oi the country; and this 
progress has been made possible only by the 
mventions of its citizens. All history confirms 
us in the conclusion that it is the development 
by the mechanical arts of ihe industries of a 
country which brings to it greatness and power 
and glory. No purely agricultural, pastoral 
people ever achieved any high standing among 
the nations of the earth, it is only wen the 
brain evolves and the cunning hand fashions 
labor-saying machines that a nation begins to 
throb with new ener^ and life and expands 
with a new growth. It is only when thought 
wrings from nature her untold secret treasures 
that solid wealth and strength are accimiu- 
lated by a people." 

When the Japanese Government was con- 
sidering the establishment of a patent system, 
thev sent a commissioner to the United States 
and he spent several months in Washington, 
every facility being given him by the Commis- 
sioner of Patents. One of the examiners said: 
"I would like to know why it is that the 
people of Japan desire to have a patent 
system." 

"I will teU you," said Mr. Takahashi. 
" You know it is only since Commodore Perry, 
in 1854, opened the ports of Japan to foreign 
commerce that the Japanese have been trying 
to become a great nation, like other nations 
of the earth, and we have looked about us to 
see what nations are the greatest, so that we 
could be like them; and we said, 'There is the 
United States, not much more than a hundred 
years old, and America was not discovered by 
Colimibus yet four hundred years ago'; and 
we said, 'What is it that makes the United 
States such a great nation?' And we investi- 

fated and foiuid it was patents, and we will 
ave patents." 

The examiner, in reporting this interview, 
added: "Not in all history is there an instance 
of such tmbiased testimony to the value and 
worth of the patent system as practiced in the 
United States." 

The demonstration thus given the commer- 
cial world durinc; the last mree-quarters of a 
century of the effect of beneficent pat^it laws 
has led to their modification in all the chief 
industrial countries, and the salient feature of 
our system — a preliminary examination as to 
novelty and patentability prior to the grant 
of a patent — -has in late years been incorpor- 
ated mto the patent systems of many foreign 
countries. 



The theory of patents is essentially 
based on the principle of monopoly. 
Hence we have the nature and scope 
of patents changing through the cen- 
turies with the change in the concep- 
tion of the rights of the people. In 
its origin the patent was a royal ^ant 
of special privilege to a favored sub- 
ject in the form of a private monopoly. 
Political evolution has restricted it to 
a grant for a limited number of years 
of an exclusive right to make, use and 
vend that which is the product of the 
inventor's brain. The discoverer of 
new products in the arts, and the in- 
ventor of new processes or machines or 
improvements in machines, adds to 
the public wealth and is entitled to 
a protection in their enjoyment as a 
recompense. The knowledge of this 
protection acts also as a stimalus to 
endeavor. Therefore all civilized na- 
tions to-day recognize and protect the 
inventor's rights. 

A few patents for inventions were 
granted by the provincial govemmenls 
of the American colonies and by the 
legislatures of the States, prior to the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution. 
On the 5th of September, 1787, it was 
proposed to incorporate in a consti- 
tution a patent and copyright clause. 
The germinating principle of this 
clause of the Constitution has vitalized 
the nation, expanded its powers be- 
yond the wildest dreams of its fathers, 
and from it more than from any other 
cause, has grown the magnificent man- 
ufacturing and industrial development 
which we to-day present to the world. 

President Washington realized the 
importance of formulating a law to 
stimulate inventions, and in his first 
annual message to Congress, in 179(), 
said : 

"I can not forbear intimating to 
you the expediency of giving effectual 
encouragement as well to the intro- 
duction of new and useful inventions 
from abroad as to the exertion of skill 
and genius in producing them at 
home." 

Congress was quick to act, and on 
April 10, 1790, the first law upon the 
subject was enacted. It constituted 
the Secretary of State, the Secretary 
of War, and the Attorney-General a 
board to consider all applications for 
patents. Owing to the fires that have 
destroyed the early records of the 
Patent OflSce, some question has arisen 
as to the number of patents issued 
under this act ; but from the best in- 
formation obtainable, the number is 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



357 



placed at fifty-seven. The first patent 
issued was to Samuel Hopkins, July 
31, 1790, for making pot and pearl 
ashes. 

The archives of the department show 
that the issuance of a patent in those 
days was a state occasion. The Presi- 
dent and cabinet met in solemn con- 
clave and, after having deliberated 
upon whether it was proper for the 
inventor to have the sole right to the 
manufacture of the child of his brain, 
presented him with the papers be- 
stowing this privilege upon him. Hop- 
kins was warmly congratulated by 
President Washington and the event 
was recorded in all the diaries of those 
present. 

At this period the clerical part of the work 
preparatory to the issuance of a patent was 
performed in the State Department. It would 
be interesting to see Thomas Jefferson, the 
Secretary of War, and the Attorney-General, 
critically examining the application and scru- 
tinizing each point carefiiljy and rigorously. 
The first year the majority of the applications 
failed to pass the ordeal, and only tnree pat- 
ents were granted. In those days every step 
in the issuing of a patent was taken with great 
care and caution. Mr. Jefferson always seeking 
to impress upon the minds of his officers and 
the public that the granting of a patent was a 
matter of no ordinary importance. 

The act of 1793 superseded the act of 1790, 
and remained in force as amended from time 
to time until the act of 1836 was passed. The 
act of 1793 was the only act ever passed in 
this country which provided for the issuance 
of Letters Patent without the requirement of 
an examination into the novelty and utility of 
the invention for which the patent was sought. 

The act of 1836. with modifications, re- 
mained in force until the revision of the patent 
laws in 1870. This revision was laigely a con- 
solidation of the statutes liien in force. 

Under the revision of the statutes of the 
United States in 1874 the act of 1870 was 
ref>ealed; but the revision substantially re- 
enacted the provisions of the act of 1870. 

Under the acts of 1790 and 1793 Letters 
Patent were granted for a term of fourteen 
years. There was no provision for extension; 
but while the act of 1793 was in force Congress 
extended some thirteen patents. 

The act of 1836 provided that Letters Pat- 
ent should be grsmted for a term of fourteen 
years, and provision was made for an exten- 
sion for a term of seven years upon due appli- 
cation and upon a proper showing. Until 1848 
petitions for extensions were passed upon by 
a board consisting of the Secretary of State, 
the Commissioner of Patents, and the Solicitor 
of the Treasury. After that time power was 
vested solely in the Commissioner of Patents. 

The patent act of March 2, 1861 (section 16). 
provided that all patents thereafter granted 
should remain in force for a term of seventeen 
years from the date of issue, and the extension 
of such patents was prohibited. 

The consolidated patent act of 1870, while 
providing that patents should be granted for 
a term ot seventeen years, also provided that 



patents granted prior to March 2, 1861. mi^t, 
upon due application and a proper snowmg, 
be -extended by the Commissioner of Patents 
for a term of seven years from the expiration 
of the first term. 

By the revision of the patent laws in 1874 
the prohibition against the extension of pat- 
ents was dropped, and since that time Con- 
fress has had the power to extend Letters 
'atent. Congress extended five patents grant- 
ed under the act of 1836, and in nine instances 
authorized patentees to apply to liie Commis- 
sioner of Patents for extension of their patents. 
So far as one has been able to discover, no 

E atent granted for a term of seventeen years 
as been extended by Congress. 
It was not until 1842 that the statute was 
passed authorizing the grant of patents for 
designs. Under that act design pat^its were 
granted for seven years. Subsequently provi- 
sions were made for granting liiem for terms of 
three and one-half, seven, and fourteen 
years, at the election of the applicant. 

By the act of March 2, 1861, the Board of 
Examiners-in-Chief was established. Prior to 
that time, and during the incumbency of Com- 
missioner Holt, temporaiy boards of examin- 
ers to decide appeals had. been appointed by 
him, and later on he created a permanent 
board of three examiners who were to decide 
on appeal rejected cases and submit their de- 
cisions to him for approval. 

The act of 1870 made the first provision for 
an Assistant Commissioner and an Examiner 
of Interferences. Another provision in that act 
was the power given liie Commissioner, sub- 

i'ect to the approval of the Secretary of the 
Interior, to establish regulations for the con- 
duct of proceedings in the Office. 

On January 1, 1898, an act passed March 3, 
1897, went into force. Some of the provisions 
of this act were' that applications for patents 
should be completed and prepared for exami- 
nation within one year after the filing of the 
appUcation and that the applicant should 
prosecute the same within one year after an 
action thereon or it should be regarded as 
abandoned (prior to that tune two years was 
the limit) ; that an inventor should be debarred 
from receiving a patent if his invention had 
been first patented by him or his legal repre- 
sentatives or assigns in a foreign country, pro- 
vided the application for the foreign patent 
had been filed more than seven months (made 
twelve montiis by Act of March 3, 1897), prior 
to the filing of the application in this country; 
and that II the invention for which a patent 
was applied for had been patented or de- 
scribed m any printed publication in this or 
any foreign country for more than two years 
prior to the application a patent could not 
issue. 

The first provision for affording accommo- 
dations for the Patent Office was in 1810, when 
Coneress authorized the purchase of a building 
for uie General Poslroffice and for the office of 
the Keeper of Patents. The building purchased 
was known as "Blodgett's Hotel, and stood 
on the site now occupied by the south front 
of the building until recently occupied by the 
Post-office Department, and now used by sev- 
eral bureaus of the Interior Department. The 
east end of this building was used for the rec- 
ords, models, etc., of the Patent Office. This 
building was destroyed by fire December 13, 
1836. On July 4, 1836, an act was passed ap- 



S58 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



proprialin^ S108,000 for the erection of a suit- 
able building for the accommodation of the 
Patent CM£ce, and within that month the 
erection of the building was begun. 

It was the present south front of the Patent 
Office, excluding the south ends of the east 
and west wings. The basement (which is 
now the first or ground floor) was to be used 
for storage and analogous purposes, the first 
or portico floor for office rooms, and the second 
floor was to be one lai^e hall with galleries on 
either side, and to have a vaulted roof. This 
hall was to be used for exhibition purposes, 
for the display of models of patented and un- 
patented mventions, and also as a national 
gallery o^ ^e industrial arts and manufactures. 

During the erection of the Patent Office 
building, temporary quarters were provided 
in the City Hall. In the spring of 1840, the 
building was completed and the Office moved 
into it. The sum of $422,011.65 was ex- 
pended on this building. The patented models 
were then classified and exhibited in suitable 
glass cases, while the national gallery was ar- 
ranged for exhibition of models and specimens. 

By the act of March 3, 1849, the Interior 
Department was established and the Patent 
Office attached thereto. This same act ap- 
propriated $50,000 out of the patent fund to 
begm the east or Seventh street wing, which 
was completed in 1852 at a cost of ^00,000, 
$250,000 of which was taken from the revenue 
of the Patent Office. In 1852 the plans for 
the entire building, as it now stands, were 
prepared. The west wingwas completed in 
1856 and cost $750,000. Work on tiie north 
or G street wii^ was begun the same year. 
In 1867 this wing was finished at a cost of 
$575,000. The entire building cost $2,347,- 
011.65. 

In May, 1802, President Jefferson ap- 
pointed Dr. William Thornton as a clerk at 
$1,400 per year, to have charge of the issuance 
of patents. He took the title of Superintend- 
ent, and continued to act in that capacity 
until his death, March 28, 1828. He was 
succeeded by Dr. William P. Jones, who 
acted until his removal in the early part of 
President Jackson's administration. John D. 
Craig followed Dr. Jones, and in 1834 he was 
succeeded by B. F. Pickett, who served but a 
brief period. The last Superintendent was 
Henry L. Ellsworth, who became the first 
Conmiissioner under the act of 1836, and 
served until 1845. The other Commissioners 
under that act were: 
Edmund Burke, May 4, 1845. 
Thomas Ewbank, May 9, 1849. 
Silas H. Hodges, November 8, 1852. 
Charles Mason, May 16, 1853. 
Joseph Holt, September 10, 1857. 
WiUiam D. Bishop, May 27, 1859. 
Philip F. Thomas, February 16, 1860. 

D. P. Holloway, March 28, 1861. 
T. C. Theaker, August 17, 1865. 
Elisha Foote, July 29, 1868. 
Samuel S. Fisher, April 26, 1869. 

Commissioner Fisher continued as Com- 
missioner for a short time imder the act of 
1870. Other Commissioners imder that act 
have been: 

M. D. Leggett, January 16, 1871. 
John M. Thacher, November 4, 1874. 
R. H. DueU, October 1, 1875. 
Ellis Spear, January 30, 1877. 
H. E. Paine, November 1, 1878. 

E. M. Marble, May 7, 1880. 



Benjamin Butterworth, November 1, 1883. 
M. V. Montgomery, Man;h 23, 1885. 

B. J. HiJl, April 12, 1887. 

C. E. Mitchell, April 1, 1889. 
William E. Simonds, August 1, 1891. 
John S. Seymour, March 31, 1893. 
Benjamin ButterwortJi, April 7, 1897. 
Charles H. DueU. February 3, 1898. 
F. I. Allen, April 11, 1901. 

E. B. Moore, June 1, 1907. 

Conmiissioner Fisher was the first to 
publish his decisions and to have the copies of 
the specifications and drawings made by 
photo-lithography. He also instituted the 
practice ot requiring competitive examina- 
tions for entrance to and promotions in the 
examining force of the office. 

B^pnnmg in 1843 and annually thereafter 
the Patent Office reports were published, 
which, until 1853, contained merely an 
alphabetical index of the names of the in- 
ventors, a list of the expired patents, and the 
claims of the patents granted during the week. 
In 1853 and afterwards small engraved copies 
of a portion of the drawings were added to 
the reports to explain the claims. 

The act of 1870 authorized the Commis- 
sioner to print copies of the claims of the 
current issues of patents and of such laws, 
decisions, and rules as were necessary for the 
information of the public. In conformity 
with this provision there was published weekly 
a list giving tiie numbers, titles, and claims of 
the patents issued during tiie week im- 
mediately preceding, together with the names 
and residences of tiie patentees. This list 
was first published under the name of The 
Official Gazette of the United States Patent 
Office, on January 3, 1872. In Juhr, 1872, 
portions of the drawings were introduced to 
illustrate the claims in the patented cases. 
The Official Gazette has now become one of 
the most valuable and important of Govern- 
ment publications. Each Senator and 
Representative is authorized to designate 
eight public libraries to receive this publica- 
tion free. One copy is also furnished free to 
each member of Congress. It is also sent all 
over the world in exchange for similar pubhca- 
tions by other Governments, and its paid 
subscription list is constantly increasing. 

Industrial demand and invention go hand 
Lq hand. They act and react, being inter- 
dependent. Any change in industrial con- 
ditions creating a new demand is at once met 
by the invention of the means for supplying 
it, and throui^ new inventions new industrial 
demands are every year being created. Thus 
through the process of evolution the industnal 
field is steadily expanding, and a study of the 
inventions for any decade will point out the 
lines of industrial growth for tne sucoeedmg 
deeade. 

The one millionth patent was issued 
August 8, 1911, to Frank H. Helton 
of Akron, Ohio, on an improvement 
in inflated automobile tires. Patent 
number one had been issued in 183C 
to John Ruggles for a locomotive en- 
gine. Patent number 500,000 was is- 
sued June 20, 1893. It therefore took 
57 years to reach the half million 
number but only 18 years more to 
reach the whole million number. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



359 



The following fig^ires will give an idea of the 
relative development of American inventions, 
beginning with 1850. remembering that 
9,957 patents were issued up to July 28, 1836, 
when the present series of patents was com- 
menced, and that 6,980 patents were issued 

from July 28. 1836 to December 31, 1849 

NUMBER OP PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS ISSUED 

DURING EACH CALENDAR YEAR. AND 
NUMBER OF LIVE PATENTS AT THE BB- 
QINNINO OF BACH CALENDAR YEAR. 

Number 
of Patents 

Issued Dur- Number 

ing the of Live 

Year. Year. Patents. 

1850 884 6,987 

1851 767 7,769 

1852 890 8,099 

1853 846 8,474 

1854 1.759 8,928 

1855 1.892 10,261 

1856 2,315 11,673 

1857 2,686 13,518 

1858 3.467 15,714 

1859 4,166 18,714 

I860 : 4,368 22,435 

1861 3,040 26,252 

1862 3,221 28,795 

1863 3,781 81.428 

1864 4,638 34,244 

1865 6,099 38,034 

1866 8,874 43,415 

1867 12,301 51,433 

1868 12,544 62,929 

1869 12,957 73,824 

1870 12,15T 86,005 

1871 11,687 94,910 

1872 12,200 104,022 

1873 11,616 112,937 

1874 12,230 120i551 

1875 13,291 128,547 

1876 14,172 141,157 

1877 12,920 156.200 

1878 12,345 168,011 

1879 12,133 177,737 

1880 12,926 186.408 

1881 15,548 195,326 

1882 18,135 206,043 

1883 21,196 218,041 

1884 19,147 230,360 

1885 23,331 237,204 

1886 21,797 247,991 

1887 20,429 256,831 

1888 19,586 265,103 

1889 23,360 273,001 

1890 25.322 284,161 

1891 22,328 297,867 

1892., 22.661 307,965 

1893 22,768 317,335 

1894 19,875 325,931 

1895 20,883 332.886 

1896 21,867 341,424 

1897 22,098 351,158 

1898 20,404 360,330 

1899 23,296 365.186 

1900 24.660 370,347 

1901 25,658 373,811 

1902 27.136 380,222 

1903 31,046 384,027 

1904 30,267 393,276 

1905 29,784 403.114 

1906 31,181 413,313 

1907 35.880 421,134 

1908 32,757 431.692 

1909 36,574 442,121 

1910 35,168 456,034 

1911 32,917 468,434 

1912 88^ 496,824 



The marked growth in the number 
of patents to aliens to be noted in 
recent years is explained by the very 
liberal features of our patent system. 
Foreigners stand here on an equal foot- 
ing with citizens of this country, and 
they are neither subjected to restric- 
tions in the matter of annuities or 
taxes payable after the grant of a pat- 
ent, nor required to work an inven- 
tion in this country to maintain it in 
force, as is the case in most foreign 
countries. 

Moreover, the thorough examination 
made by our Patent Office as to the 
novelty of an invention prior to the 
allowance of an application for a pat- 
ent — an examination that includes not 
only the patents and literature of our 
own country bearing on the art or in- 
dustry to which the invention relates, 
but the patents of all patent-granting 
countries and the technical literature 
of the world — and the care exercised 
in criticising the framing of the claims 
have come to be recognized as of great 
value in the case of inventions of 
merit, and hence the majority of for- 
eign inventors patenting in this coun- 
try take advantage of this feature of 
our patent system, and secure the ac- 
tion of the Patent Office on an appli- 
cation for a patent before perfecting 
their patents in their own and other 
foreign countries, taking due precau- 
tion to have their patents in the dif- 
ferent countries so issued as to se- 
cure the maximum term in each, so far 
as possible. 

In 1911, 4,058 patents were granted 
to citizens of foreign countries. The 
relative distribution is as follows : 

Germany 1,320 

England 935 

Canada 664 

France 847 

Austria-Hungary , 140 

Switzerland 108 

Other Buropean countries 406 

All other countries 248 

The working of an invention has 
never been required under our patent 
laws, though in most foreign countries 
an invention must be put into com- 
mercial use in the country within a 
specified period or the patent may be 
declared void. In the case of patents 
for fine chemicals and like products, 
which require a high order of tech- 
nical knowledge and ability for their 
inception, and skilled workmen for 
their manufacture, the effect of this 
requirement, that the industry must 
be established within the country, has 



360 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



been most salutary in building up 
chemical industries within the home 
country, to some extent at the ex- 
pense of other countries where the 
working of a patent is not obligatory. 
This shows most strongly in the case 
of carbon dyes and in the patents for 
chemicals of the class known as car- 
bon compounds, which includes nu- 
merous pharmaceutical and medicinal 
compounds of recent origin, aldehydes, 
alcohols, phenols, ethers, etc., and 
many synthetic compounds, as vanil- 
lin, artificial musk, etc. 

Late years have shown a greatly 
increased number of patent applica- 
tions filed by women. With the in- 
crease in number there has been a 
corresponding broadening of the field 
of their endeavors. When the 1910 
census came to the question of patents 
it listed 944,525 patents granted to 
men in this country since the beginning 
of the patent system, but 8,596 patents 
were credited to Women, nine- tenths of 
one per cent, of the total issue. But 
the percentage of patents granted to 
woman increases yearly. Thus, from 
1790 until 1888 there were 2,455 pat- 
ents granted women, and from 1888 to 
1895, 2,526, in seven years more than 
doubling the total that had been ac- 
cruing for the previous ninety-eight 
years. And from 1895 until 1910 there 
were 3,615 patents more, bringing the 
total number up to 8,596, as stated. 

In the presence of much discussion 
of the relative protection which the 
several sections of the United States 
receive under our patent system, it 
will be instructive to consider the 
distribution of patents granted during 
a normal year. The table below shows 
the states and territories arranged in 
an order showing the ratio of patents 
granted in 1911 to the population of 
the several states and territories. 

Attention is now directed to how a 
patent is obtained under the system 
in the United States. We will .sup- 
pose a new form of door hinge has 
been invented. What is the procedure 
that the inventor should resort to? 

In the first place it is highly de- 
sirable to employ a competent attorney, 
one skilled in the patent law and 
practice. The inventor may prepare 
and prosecute his own application and 
his case will receive the same careful 
attention in the Patent Ofiice as if 
he had employed an attorney. But 
it should not be forgotten that Patent 
practice is technical. The change of 



Patents 
and One to 
States and Territories. Designs, every— 

1. Connecticut 846 1,319 

2. District of Columbia 239 1,3S6 

3. California 1,575 1.516 

4. Colorado 477 1,675 

5. Rhode Island 315 1,723 

6. Illinois 3,172 1,778 

7. Massachusetts 1,842 1,828 

8. New Jersey 1,360 1,866 

9. New York 4,777 1,908 

10. Nevada 39 2.099 

11. Ohio 2,233 2.135 

12. Pennsylvania 2.919 2,626 

13. Michigan 1,035 2.715 

14. Oregon 246 2,735 

15. Washington 410 2,785 

16. Idaho 105 3,101 

17. Wisconsin 703 3.320 

18. Montana 112 3.357 

19. Missouri 945 3,486 

20. Delaware 56 3,613 

21. Utah 103 3,624 

22. Indiana •. 726 3.720 

23. Nebraska 318 3,749 

24. Iowa 583 3,816 

25. Minnesota 475 4,370 

26. North Dakota 132 4,372 

27. Kansas 382 4,427 

28. Maryland 272 4,762 

29. Arizona 41 4,984 

30. Maine 142 6,228 

31. New Hampshire 81 5,316 

32. South Dakota 109 6,357 

33. Wyoming 26 6.614 

34. Vermont 61 5,835 

35. West Virginia 196 6,230 

36. New Mexico 50 6,546 

37. Texas 591 6,693 

38. Oklahoma 235 7,052 

39. Florida 104 7,237 

40. Virginia 226 9,122 

41. Kentucky 240 9,641 

42. Louisiana 165 10,039 

43. North Carolina 191 11.651 

44. Georgia 224 11,647 

45. Arkansas 135 11,663 

46. Tennessee 175 12.484 

47. Alaska 5 12,871 

48. Alabama 163 13,117 

49. Mississippi 113 15,904 

50. South Carolina 65 . 23.314 

a word here and there may make the 
difference between protection and no 
protection. If the invention is worth 
patenting it is worth as good a patent 
as is obtainable, and the inventor 
should not forget that the patent may 
have to go through the mill of tech- 
nical construction in the courts at 
great expense. 

Then a preliminary search should 
be made. The applicant can make 
such at the Patent OflSce or his at- 
torney will have such made. This 
search is made for the purpose of 
determining if the device is old. Again 
it should be remembered that many 
patents are never used as a basis for 
manufacture for one reason or an- 
other, so that, while the inventor may 
never have seen a device like that 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



361 



which he has devised and may have 
produced it from wholly original 
thought and experiment, yet someone 
else may have reached the same re- 
sult before, patented it, and then done 
nothing more with it. 

Assuming that the preliminary 
search brings forth no device like the 
hinge under discussion the next thing 
is to prepare the application papers. 
These include a petition, an oath, a 
drawing, a specification and claims. 

The petition is addressed to the 
Commissioner of Patents setting forth 
applicant's residence and other formal 
matters and prays the grant of letters 
patent. The oath states that appli- 
cant believes himself to be the original, 
first and sole inventor and the other 
statutory prerequisites. Forms for 
both are given in a publication entitled 
"Rules of Practice in the United States 
Patent Office," which may be obtained 
from the Patent Office or these forms 
will be prepared for execution by the 
attorney. 

The drawing must be of a prescribed 
size and clearly illustrate the construc- 
tion of the device. 

The specification is a detailed de- 
scription of the device referring to let- 
tered or numbered parts of the draw- 
ing, for amplification. The descrip- 
tion and drawing must contain a dis- 
closure of the construction, nature and 
use of the device so full, clear and 
complete as to enable others skilled 
in the art to make and use the same, 
for the public must be informed that 
they may make and use the device 
after the patent has expired. 

The claims are short statements, 
drawn in technical form, setting forth 
the elements of the machine or im- 
provement or the steps of the process 
that applicant believes he has invented. 
These should be as broad as the state 
of the art warrants, and should be 
drawn with very great care to be of 
any value. Only one skilled in patent 
practise should undertake the prepara- 
tion of claims. Too much emphasis 
cannot be laid on this point. 

These application papers, together 
with $15 for a filing fee, are now to 
be sent to the Patent Office. Here 
they are received by the Application 
Division and duly recorded in books 
kept for that purpose, and each ap- 
plication is given its serial number. 
The application is then sent to that 
division in the office where devices of 
that nature are examined and given to 



an examiner skilled in the art to which 
the device appertains. Then begins 
the prosecution of the case. The first 
step is to make an examination of the 
case. 

The American patent system is 
known as the examination system be- 
cause of the careful examination given 
each application to determine the 
validity of the claims presented for 
patenting. The examination system is 
the ideal system, provided the exam- 
ination can be made with sufficient 
care to minimize the likelihood of the 
issue of patents for inventions not of 
a patentable nature. The field of 
search, however, yearly increases, and 
it becomes more and more difficult 
through lack of time to make a perfect 
examination. Something more than 
three million domestic and foreign pat- 
ents have been issued, while the num- 
ber of scientific publications has enor- 
mously increased. It is only by means 
of a perfect classification that this 
great mass of matter can be so divided 
as to be conveniently accessible for use 
in the examination of any individual 
case. 

The claims are compared with the 
disclosures of these United States and 
foreign patents to see if they are met 
in terms by devices old in the art. If 
so they are rejected, and the applicant 
is so informed, and the patents or 
publications, together with the reasons 
if they are not .self-evident, are enu- 
merated in a letter written from the 
office. 

Applicant has then one year in 
which to take action on his case. He 
may amend his claims to avoid the 
references cited or he may ask for re- 
consideration. The application is then 
taken up for further examination. 

During the prosecution of the case 
questions of interference, appeal, peti- 
tion, etc., may arise. The procedure 
in such events is more or less techni- 
cal and unless applicant has employed 
an attorney he should study carefully 
the "Rules of Practice," before he- 
ferred to, for instructions. The nature 
of this section will not admit of fur- 
ther detail in meeting the very great 
number of different situations that may 
arise. 

Assuming, however, that the claims 
are found to be patentable and the 
specification and claims unobjection- 
able in form, the application is passed 
to issue. The application is sent to 
the Issue and Gazette Division and 



362 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the applicant is informed that the pat- 
ent will issue upon the receipt of the 
final fee of $20. He has six months 
in which to pay this fee. * When paid 
the application is given its patent num- 
ber, the specification and claims are 
printed, the drawing is photolitho- 
graphed and the printed copy and the 
drawing, together with a copy of the 
form of patent grant with seal affixed, 
is sent to the Commissioner for his 
signature. The patent has then issued 
aMd is sent to the inventor. 

The country is enriched by inven- 
tions and offers for them a small pre- 
mium ; this premium is a seventeen 
years' monopoly of their fruit — no 
more, no less. Having purchased the 
invention for this insignificant price, 
the purchase is consummated by the 
publication in the patent records of 
the details of the invention so that he 
who runs may read. The whole thing 
is a strictly business transaction, and 
this character is emphasized by the 
fact that the inventor is required to 
pay for the clerical and expert labor 
required to put his invention into 
shape for issuing. His patent fees are 
designed to cover this expense, and do 
so, with a considerable margin to 
spare. Thus the people of the United 
States are perpetually being enriched 
by the work of inventors, at absolutely 
no cost to themselves. 

The inventor does not work for love 
nor for glory alone, but in the hopes 
of a return for his labor. Glory and 
love of his species are elements actuat- 
ing his work, and in many cases he 
invents because he cannot help himself 
— because his genius is a hard task 
master and keeps him at work. But 
none the less, the great incitement to 



invention is the hope of obtaining a 
valuable patent, and without this in- 
ducement inventions would be few and 
far between, and America would, with- 
out the patent system, be far in ar- 
rears of the rest of the world, instead 
of leading it, as it does to-day. The 
few pregnant sentences of the patent 
statutes — sentences the force of whose 
every word has been laboriously ad- 
judicated by our highest tribunal, the 
Supreme Court of the United States- 
are responsible for America's most 
characteristic element of prosperity, 
the work of her inventors, to whom be- 
longs the credit. 

It should continue to be the policy 
of the government of a nation whose 
inventors have given to the world the 
cotton gin and the reaper, the sewing 
machine and the typewriter, the elec- 
tric telegraph and telephone, the ro- 
tary web perfecting printing press and 
the linotype, the incandescent lamp 
and the phonograph, and thousands of 
other inventions that have revolution- 
ized every industrial art, to encourage 
invention in every lawful way and to 
provide that, so far as may be neces- 
sary, the money paid to the Govern- 
ment by inventors be used for their 
benefit. The wisdom of the policy has 
been demonstrated. 

The world owes as much to invent- 
ors as to statesmen or warriors. To 
them the United States is the> greatest 
debtor, so much have they advanced 
American manufactures. Their labor- 
saving machinery does work that it 
would take millions of men using hand 
implements to perform. In this cen- 
tury the debt will be piled still higher, 
for inventors never rest. 



DISTINGUISHED AMERICAN INVENTORS. 



Benjamin Franklin; b. Boston. 1706; d. 
1790; at 12, printer's apprentice, fond of use- 
ful reading; 27 to 40, teaches himself Latin, 
etc., makes various useful improvements; at 
40, studies electricity; 1752, brings electricity 
from clouds by kite, and invents the lightning 
rod. 

EH Whitney, inventor of the cotton-gin; b. 
Westborough, Mass., 1765; d. 1825; went to 
Georgia 1792 as teacher; 1793, invents the cot- 
ton-gin, prior to which a full day's work of 
one person was to clean by hand one pound of 
cotton; one machine performs the labor of 
five thousand persons; 1800, founds Whitney- 
viUe, makes firearms, by the interchangeable 
system for the parts. 

Robert Pulton; b. Little Britain, Pa., 1765; 
d. 1825; artist painter; invents steamboat 1793; 
invents submarine torpedoes 1797 to 1801; 



builds steamboat in France 1808; launches 
passenger boat Clermont at N. T. 1807, and 
steams to Albany; 1812, builds steam ferry- 
boats; 1814, builds first steam war vessel. 

Jethro Wood, inventor of the modem cast- 
iron plough; b. White Creek, N. Y., 1774; d. 
1834; patented the plough 1814; previously the 
plough was a stick of wood plated with iron; 
lawsuits against infringers consumed his 
means; Secretary Seward said: "No man has 
benefited the country pecuniarily more than 
Jethro Wood, and no man has been as in- 
adequately rewarded." 

Thomas Blanchard; b. 1788, Sutton. Mass.: 
d. 1864; invented tack machine 1806; builds 
successful steam carriage 1826; builds the 
stern-wheel boat for shallow waters, now in 
common use on Western rivers; 1848, patents 
the lathe for turning irregular forms, now In 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



363 



common use all over the world for turning 
lasts, spokes, axe-handles, gun-stocks, hat- 
blocks, tackle-blocks, etc. 

Ross Winans, of Baltimore; b. 1798, N. J.; 
d. 1877; author of many inventions relating to 
railways; first patent, 1828; he designed and 
patented the pivoted, double truck, long pas- 
senger cars now in common use. His genius 
also assisted the development of railways In 
Russia. 

Cyrus H. McCormick, inventor of harvesting 
machines; b. Walnut Grove, Va., 1809; d. 
1884; in 1851 he exhibited his invention at 
the World's Fair, London, with practical suc- 
cess. The mowing of one acre was one man's 
day's work; a boy with a mowing machine 
now cuts 10 acres a day. Mr. McCormick' s 
patents made him a millix>naire. 

Charles Goodyear, inventor and patentee of 
the simple mixture of rubber and sulphur, the 
basis of the present great rubber industries 
throughout the world; b. New Haven, Conn., 
1800; d. 1860; in 1839, by the accidental mix- 
ture of a bit of rubber and sulphur on a red- 
hot stove he discovered the process of vul- 
canization. The Goodyear patents proved im- 
mensely profitable. 

Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor and patentee 
of electric telegraph; b. Charlestown, Mass.. 
1791; d. 1872; artist painter; exhibited first 
drawings of telegraph 1832; half-mile wire in 
operation 1835; caveat 1837; Congress appro- 
priated $30,000 and in 1884 first telegraph line 
from Washington to Baltimore was opened; 
after long contests the courts sustained his 
patents and he realized from them a large 
fortune. 

Elias Howe, inventor of the modem sewing 
'machine; b. Spencer, Mass., 1819; d. 1867; 
machinist; sewing machine patented 1846; 
from that time to 1854 his priority was con- 
tested and he suffered from poverty, when a 
decision of the courts in his favor brought 
him large royalties and he realized several 
millions from his patent. 

James B. Eads; b. 1820; d. 1887; author and 
constructor of the great steel bridge over the 
Mississippi at St. Louis, 1867, and the jetties 
below New Orleans, 1876. His remarkable 
energy was shown in 1861 when he built and 
delivered complete to the Government, all 
within sixty-five days, seven iron-plated 
steamers, 600 tons each; subsequently other 
steamers. Some of the most brilliant suc- 
cesses of the Union arms were due to his 
extraordinary rapidity in constructing these 
vessels. 

Prof. Joseph Henry; b. Albany, N. Y., 1799; 
d. 1878; in 1828 invented the present form of 
the electro-magnet which laid the foundation 
for practically the entire electrical art and is 
probably the most important single contribu- 
tion thereto. In 1831 he demonstrated the 
practicability of the electric current to effect 
mechanical movements and operate signals at 
a distant point, which was the beginning of 
the electro-magnetic telegraph; he devised a 
system of circuits and batteries, which con- 
tained the principle of the relay and local 
circuit, and also invented one of the earliest 
electro-magnetic engines. He made many sci- 
entific researches In electricity and general 
physics and left many valuable papers there- 
on. In 1826 he was a professor in the Albany 
Academy; was Professor of Natural Philosophy 
at the College of New Jersey in 1832, and in 
1846 was chosen secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington, where he remained 
until his death. Prof. Henry was probably the 
greatest of American physicists. 



Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor 
of the telephpne; b. 1847 at Edinburgh. Scot- 
land, moved to Canada 1872 and afterwards to 
Boston; here he became widely known as an 
instructor in phonetics and as an authority in 
teaching the deaf and dumb; in 1873 he began 
the study of the transmission of musical tones 
by telegraph; in 1876 he invented and patented 
the speaking telephone, which has become 
one of the marvels of the nineteenth century 
and one of the greatest commercial enterprises 
of the world; in 1880 the French Government 
awarded him the Volta prize of $10,000 and he 
has subsequently received the ribbon of the 
Legion of Honor from France and many honor- 
ary degrees, both at home and abroad; Dr. 
Bell still continues his scientific work at his 
home in Washington and has made valuable 
contributions to the phonograph and aerial 
navigation. 

Samuel Colt; b. Hartford, Conn., 1814; d. 
1862; he studied chemistry and became a lec- 
turer on that subject; in 1835 he secured pat- 
ents on a revolving pistol, a model of which 
he had made while a boy when at sea; he 
built and maintained a large armory in Hart- 
ford, Conn; in 1847 he contracted to make 
1,000 weapons for General Taylor; in 1843 he 
laid and successfully tested the first sub- 
marine telegraph cable. 

Thomas A. Bdison; b. 1847, at Milan, Ohio; 
from a poor boy in a country village, with a 
limited education, he has become the most 
fertile inventor the world has ever known; his 
most important inventions are the phonograph 
in 1877, the incandescent electric lamp, 1878; 
the quadruplex telegraph, 1874-1878; the elec- 
tric pen, 1876; magnetic ore separator, 1880; 
and the three-wire electric circuit, 1883; his 
first patent was an electric vote-recording ma- 
chine, taken in 1869; early in life Edison 
started to run a newspaper, but his genius 
lay in the field of electricity, where as an 
expert telegrapher he began his great repu- 
tation; his numerous inventions have brought 
him great wealth; a fine villa in Llewellyn 
Park, at Orange, N. J., is his home, and his 
extensive laboratory near by is still the scene 
of his constant work; he is the world's most 
persevering inventor, and there are few fields 
of work into which his inventive genius has 
not entered; in late years he has done much 
work in connection with the preparation of 
detachable molds for cement houses. 

Captain John Ericsson; b. 1803 in Sweden; 
d. in New York, 1889; at 10 years of age, 
designed a sawmill and a pumping engine; 
made and patented many inventions in England 
in early life; in 1829 entered a locomotive in 
competition with Stephenson's Rocket; in 1836 
patented in England his double-screw propeller 
and shortly after came to the United States 
and incorporated it in a steamer; in 1861, 
built for the United States Government the 
turret ironclad Monitor; was the inventor of 
the hot-air engine which bears his name; also 
a torpedo boat which was designed to dis- 
charge a torpedo by means of compressed air 
beneath the water; he was an indefatigable 
worker and made many other inventions; his 
diary, kept daily for 40 years, comprehended 
14,000 pages. 

Charles F. Brush; b. near Cleveland, Ohio, 
1849; prominently identified with the develop- 
ment of the dynamo, the arc light and the 
storage battery, in which fields he made many 
important inventions; in 1880 the Brush Com- 
pany put its electric lights into New York 
City and has since extended Its installations 
into most of the cities and towns of the United 



364 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



states; in 1881, at the Paris Electrical Expo- 
sition, he received the ribbon of the Legion 
of Honor. 

George Westinghouse, Jr. ; b. at Central 
Bridge, N. Y., 1846; while still a boy he 
modeled and built a steam engine; his first 
profitable invention was a railroad frog; his 
most notable inventions, however, were in 
railroad airbrakes, the first patents for which 
were taken out in 1872; the system now known 
by his name has grown to almost universal 
adoption and constitutes a great labor saving 
and life saving adjunct to railroad transporta- 
tion; Mr. YV^estinghouse, whose home is at 
Pittsburg, was one of the earliest to develop 
and use natural gas from deep wells; in late 
years he has made and patented many inven- 
tions in electrical machinery for the develop- 
ment of power and light, and has commer- 
cially developed the same on a large scale. 

Ottmar Mergenthaler ; b. 1854, at Wurtem- 
berg, (Germany; d. 1899; inventor of the lino- 
t3i>e machine; his early training as a watch 
and clock maker well fitted him for the pains- 
taking and complicated work of his life, which 
was to make a machine which would mold the 
t]rpe and set it up in one operation; in 1872 
Mergenthaler came to Baltimore and entered a 
machine shop, in which he subsequently be- 
came a partner; the first linotype machine was 
built in 1886 and put to use in the composing 
room of the New York Tribune; to-day all 
large newspapers and publishing houses are 
equipped with great batteries of these ma- 
chines, costing over $3,000 each, and each 
performing the work of five compositors. 

Nicola Tesla; b. in the border country of 



Austria-Hungary, 1857; his first invention, 
made at Budapest, Hungary, in 1881, was a 
telephone repeater; he came to the United 
States in 1884 and later became a naturalized 
citizen; his work has been largely in elec- 
trical fields, but of late he has done much 
work in the direction of developing steam 
turbines. 

Emile Berliner; b. in Hanover, Germany. 
May 20, 1851; he invented the loose contact 
telephone transmitter and many other impor- 
tant improvements in telephone; in 1887 h0 
invented the gramophone, the talking machine 
well known as the Victor type; he was 
awarded the John Scott medal by the Franklin 
Institute. 

Wilbur Wright; b. In Henry County. Ind., 
April 16. 1867; d. May 30, 1912; Orville Wright; 
b. Aug. 19. 1871; the Wright brothers became 
interested in mechanical fiight in 1896; at the 
suggestion of Prof. S. P. LAiigley, Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, they went to 
the sand hills of KlUdevil, N. C, in 1900. to 
carry out a series of field experiments; they 
developed a motor far in advance of those 
before used in connection with mechanical 
fiight and by 1906 they had a fiying machine 
in which they fiew nearly 35 miles at Dayton, 
Ohio; the first public exhibition of importance 
was given in this country at Fort Myer in 
1908 by Orville Wright; Wilbur Wright at 
this time was making record filghts at Le 
Mans, France; from then until Wilbur's death 
the two were constantly associated in develop- 
ing their heavier than air machines; they be- 
came the world's best known aviators. 



ABSTRACTS OF DECISIONS. 



Where an inventor has completed his in- 
vention, if he neither applies for a patent nor 
puts it to practical use. a subsequent inventor 
who promptly applies is entitled to the patent, 
and the first one is deemed to have abandoned 
his rights. Pattee v. Russell, 3 O. G., 181; 
Ex parte Carre, 5 O. G., 30: Johnson v. Root, 
1 Fisher, 351. 

As between two rival inventors, the test of 
priority is the diligence of the one first to 
conceive it. If he nas been diligent in per- 
fecting it, he is entitled to receive the patent. 
If he has been negligent, the patent is awarded 
to his opponent. Itobmson on Patents, Sec. 
375. 

The construction and use for two years in 
public of a working machine, whether the in- 
ventor has or has not abandoned it, excludes 
the grant of a patent to a subsequent in- 
ventor. An abandonment in such case inures 
to the benefit of the public and not to the 
benefit of a subsequent inventor. Yoimg v. 
Van Duser, 16 O. G., 95. ^ 

Just where the line of invention lies in an 
accomplished result is frequently difficult for 
the courts to determine. That it must ex- 
tend beyond the merely novel and useful and 
into the domain of original thought has been 
determined. The extent of the mental 
process, however, is immaterial. The result 
may come out of long consideration or it may 
be the revelation of a flash of thought. 
Snyder v. Fisher, 78 O. G., 485. 

A function result or principle is not 
patentable, but a party is entitled to claim 
his invention as Droadly as the prior art 
permits. Ex parte FiskoiJlS ; Gourick, 85-15. 



It is well settled law that a patent can not 
issue for a result sought to be accomplished by 
the inventor of a machine but only for the 
mechanical means or instrumentalities by 
which that result is obtauied. One cannot 
describe a machine which will perform a 
certoin function and then claim the function 
itself and all other machines that may be 
invented by others to peifonn the ' same 
function. In re Gardner, 140 O. G., 258. 

A mere aggregation or combination of old 
devices is not patentable when the elements 
are unchanged in function and effect. They 
are patentable when, "by the action of the 
elements upon each other, or by their Joint 
action on their common object, they perfoim 
additional functions and accompush addi- 
tional effects." Robinson on Patents, Sec. 
154. 

A change of shape enabling an instrument 
to perform new functions is sometimes m- 
vention. Wilson v. Coo, 18 Blatch, 532; 
Collar Co. v. White, 7 O. G., 690, 877. 

A patent which is simply for a method oi 
transacting business or keeping accounts is 
not vahd. U. S. Credit System Co. v. 
American Indemnity Co., 63 O. G., 318. 

The mere combination of articles discloaed 
in two former patents will not constitute in- 
vention, unless it results in producing a new 
and useful article not applied by those 
familiar with the state of the art. In ^ 
Faber, 136 O. G., 229. 




the elements with the result thatdefects due 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



365 



to the presence of those elements are done 
away wilii. Brown v. Huntington Piano Co., 
134 Fed., 735. 

It involves no invention to omit a part 
together with its function. £z parte 
McElroy, 161 O. G., 753. 

Where the claims are distinguishable over 
the prior art by mere arbitraxy variations 
whicn amount only to changes of mechanical 
design and which accomplish no new result, 
held that such claims are unpatentable. 
Exparte Hill, 117 O. G., 2365. 

The substitution of one material for another 
involves invention where tiie substituted 
material is used in a relation in which it had 
not before been used and in which it ac- 
complished new and very beneficial results 
which were long sought by those skilled in the 
art. George Frost Co. et al v. Cohn et al, 
119 Fed., 505. 

There is no invention apparently involved 
in putting some other mechanism well known 
in the art and well adapted for such use in the 

§lace of previously used mechanism in an old 
evice operating in an old way when such 
substitution does not involve any material 
rearrangement. New Departure Bell Co. v. 
Bevin Bros. Manufacturing Co. 75 O. G.,2196. 

Mere change of proportion is not sufficient 
to avoid a char^^e of infringement and is not, 
therefore, sufficient to establish difference oi 
invention. Thompson-Houston Electric Co. 
V. Western Electric Co. et al. 75 O. G., 347. 

In claiming a patent for the discovery of a 
useful result in any art, machine, manu- 
facture or composition of matter by the use 
of certain means, the applicant must specify 
the means he uses in a manner so full and 
exact that any one skilled in the science to 
which it appertains can by usin^; the means 
he specifies without any addition or sub- 
traction from them produce precisely the 
result he describe, in re Blackmore, 140 
O. G., 1209. 

A patentee is bound by the limitations 
imposed on his patent, whether they are 
voluntary or enforced by the Patent Office, 
and if he accepts claims not covering his entire 



invention he abandons the remainder* 
Toepfer v. Goetz, 41 O. G., 933. 

claims should be construed, if possible, to 
sustain the patentee's right to all he has 
invented. Ransom v. Mayor of N. Y. (1856), 
Fisher, 252. 

I'he law requires that manufacturers of 
patented articles give notice to the public 
that ihe goods are patented by marking 
thereon the date of the patent or giving 
equivalent notice. When this law is not 
complied .with, only nominal dame^es can be 
recovered. Wilson v. Singer Mfg. Co., 4 
Bann. & A. 637; McCourt v. Brodie, 5 Fisher, 
384. 

To prevent fraudulent impositions on the 
public it is forbidden that unpatented articles 
be stamped "Patented," and where this is 
dohe with intention to deceive, a penalty of 
one hundred dollars and costs for each article 
so stamped is provided. Any person may 
bring action against such offenders. Walker 
V. Hawxhurst, 5 Blatch. 494; Tompkins v. 
Butterfield, 25 Fed. Rep 556. 

The assignor of a patented invention is 
estopped from denying the validity of his own 
patent or his own title to the interest trans- 
ferred. He cannot become the owner of ea^ 
older patent and hold it against his assignee. 
Robinson on Patents, Sec. 787, and notes. 

Any assignment wnich does not convey to 
the assignee^ the entire and unquahfied 
monoply which the patentee holds in the 
territory specified, or an undivided interest 
in the entire monoply, is a mere license. 
Sanford v. Messer, 2 O. G., 470. 

Where a patented machine was sold hy 
complainant with a license agreement that it 
was to be used only with mk made by com- 
plainant and defendant with knowledge of 
such license agreement sold to the owner of 
such machine, ink not made by complainant 
with the expectation that this ink was to be 
used in connection with such machine, held 
that the acts of disfendant constituted con- 
tributory infringement of complainant's ' 
patent. U. S' Supreme Court. Henry et al 
V. A. B. Dick Co., 176 O. G., 751. ' 



FOREIGN PATENTS. 



Canada, Dominion of. — The laws of Can- 
ada follow somewhat closely the practice in 
^e United States. The term of a patent is 
eighteen years. The general practice, however, 
is to divide the fees, making payment only for 
a term of six years at one time. Apphcations 
are subjected to examination as to novelty and 
usefulness, as in the United States. The appli- 
cation must be filed in Canada not later than 
during the year following the issue of the 
United States or other foreign patent. If the' 
inventor neglects to file his application within 
the twelve months, the invention becomes 
public property. It is not permissible to im- 
port the patented article into the Dominion 
after twelve months from the date of the Cana- 
dian patent. Within two years from said date 
the manufacture and sale of the article under 
the patent must have been begun. These exac- 
tions may be relaxed under certain conditions. 

Great Britain. — ^The term of the patent is 
fourteen years. An examination is made in 
Great Britain to ascertain whether the inven- 



tion has been disclosed in the specifications of 
British patents granted within fifty years of 
the filing of the British application. While this 
is the extent of the examination by the Patent 
Office, it is sufficient to invalidate a British 
patent to show in court that the invention was 
published, or was in public use, in Great Brit- 
ain before the ds^te of the invention of the 
British application. In Great Britain the true 
inventor should apply for the patent in his 
own name; but if the invention has been con- 
ceived in a foreign bountry, the first introducer 
may obtain the patent whether he be the true 
inventor or not. Under these circumstances, 
therefoi^, a foreign assignee may apply for the 
patent in his own name Vithout the true in- 
ventor being ktfown. After the fourth year 
there are annual tafces, gradually increasing in 
amount. The patent becomes void if the tax 
is not paid. No time is set within which the 
manufacture of the invention must be com- 
menced, but after three years if the manufac- 
ture has not begun, the patentee may be com- 




METROPOLITAN LIFE BUILDING. 



SINGER BUILDING. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



367 



pelled to grant Kcenses, or the patent may be 
declared invalid. 

France. — ^The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. There is no examination as to novelty, 
and the patent is granted to the first apphcant, 
whether or not he be the true inventor. The 
life of the patent depends upon the payment 
of annual taxes. The patent must be worked 
in France within two years from the date of 
the signing of the patent. If these conditions 
are not comphed with the patent becomes 
public property but the working provisions 
referreci to are modified by the terms^ of the 
International Convention, under which the 
revocation of a French patent is prevented 
when the patent is g^nted to a citizen of a 
country which is a member of the Convention 
until alter the expiration of the third year 
counting from the filing of the French ap- 
plication. 

Germant. — ^The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. The patent is issued to the first appli- 
cant, but if he is not the true inventor he 
should, before filing tiie application, obtain 
the written consent of the inventor. The ap- 
plication is subjected to a rigid examination. 
The patent is subject to an annual progressive 
tax, and must be worked within a period of 
three years but the working provisions in 
Germany are modified by a treaty between 
the United States and Germany, imder the 
provisions of which the revocation of a 
German patent granted to a citizen of the 
United States is prevented when the patented 
article is manufactured in the United States. 
Austria. — The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. The practice is somewhat similar to the 
practice in Germany, althou^ the examina- 
tion is generally not so exactmg. The patent 
is subject to an annual tax and it must be 
worked within a period of three years. 

HtTNGART. — ^The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. The laws are similar to those of Ger- 
many. There is a progressive annual tax and 
the patent must be worked within a period of 
three years. 

Bblgittii. — ^The term of a patent is twenty 
years. The first applicant obtains the patent 
whether or not he is the true inventor. There 
is a small annual tax, and the patent should 
be worked within one year of the working 
elsewhere but the ^working provisions in 
Belgium are modified under the terms of the 
International Convention which prevent the 
revocation of a Belgian patent granted to a 
citizen of a country which is a member of the 
Convention imtil after the expiration of three 
years counting from the filing of the Belgian 
patent Application. 

Italt. — The maximum term of a patent is 
fifteen years. The patent is granted to the 
first applicant. The patent is subject to an 
annual tax. The patent becom^ invalid if it 
is not worked withm one year or if work under 
it has been suspended for a whole year, where 
the term is five years or less; or, where the 
term is more ^an five years, if it is not worked 
within two years or work under it has been 
suspended for two years but the working 
provisions in Italy are modified by the pro- 
visions of the International Convention, with 
reference to which see "France," referred to 
above. 

Russia. — ^The term of the patent is fifteen 
years. The patent is subject to the payment 



of annual taxes and must be worked within 
five years. 

Spain. — ^The term of the patent is twenty 
years, subject to the payment of annual taxes. 
It must be worked withm two years. The pat- 
ent is issued to the first applicant, whether or 
not be .tile true inventor. The working 
provisions are modified under the terms of 
the International Convention. 

Switzerland. — The term of the patent is 
fifteen years, subject to an annual tax. Work- 
ing must take place witiiin three years. The 
true inventor or his assignee can obtain a 
patent but when the Swiss patent is granted 
to a citizen of the United States it is im- 
necessary for him to work the patent pro- 
vided the invention is being worked in the 
United States. 

Norway. — The term of a patent is fourteen 
years. The patent is subject to a small annual 
tax. The application must be filed in the name 
of the true inventor or his assignee. Applica- 
tions must be filed within twelve months of 
the publication of the patent in any foreign 
country. The patentee may be compelled to 
Krant licenses. The application must be 
filed either b^ore the issue of the United 
States patent or during the year following 
the filing of the United States application. 

Sweden. — ^The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. The patent is subject to an annual tax. 
The conditions are similar to those existent in 
Norway. Working is not now necessary in 
Sweden, but the patentee may be compelled 
to grant licenses should he fail to cariy on 
the manufacture in Sweden. 

Denmark. — The laws are similar to those 
of Sweden but the patent should be worked 
within three years. 

Portugal. — The term of the patent varies 
from one to fifteen years, the fees payable 
depending upon the term of the patent. A 
patent must be worked within two years but 
the working provisions are modified by the 
provisions of the International Convention 
under which the working is not required when 
the patentee is a citizen of a country which is 
a member of the Convention until after the 
expiration of three years from the date of 
filmg of the application in Portugal. 

Netherlands. — The term of a patent is 
fifteen years. The patent is granted to the first 
applicant. The patentee must have a bona 
fide industrial establishment where the pat- 
ented article is manufactured within five years 
or the patent is revocable. The patent is sub- 
ject to an annually increasing: tax. 

Australia. — The Australian patent pro- 
tects an invention in Victoria, New Souti) 
W-ales, Queensland, South Australia, Tas. 
mania. West Australia and Papua, but not in 
New Zealand, which has its own patent law. 
The term of tiie Australian patent is fourteen 
years, a tax being due before the expiration of 
the seventii year. When the patent is not 
worked a compulsory license or revocation of 
the patent may be enforced after two years 
from the granting of the patent but Australia 
is a member of the International Convention, 
and the working provisions are therefore 
modified by the terms of the convention. 

New Zealand. — The term of the patent is 
fourteen years, taxes being due before the end 
of the fourtii and seventh years. Compulsory 
licenses may be obtained. 



368 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Britibh India. — The patent is granted for 
fourteen years with a jpossible term bf ex- 
tension. The application should be filed 
within one year oi the issue of the patent in 
any other country and before the invention has 
been pubhcly \ised or made publicly known 
in any part of British Inma. Taxes are 
payable before the end of the fourth year and 
annually thereafter. If the patent is not 
worked to an adequate extent within four 

Sears the patentee may be compelled to grant 
censes to prevent the revocation oi the 
patent. 

Turkey. — Patents are f^^anted for five, ten 
or fifteen years. The apphcation must be filed 
by the inventor or his assimee. The patent is 
subject to an annual tax. The patent must be 
worked within two years. 

Porto Rico. — Protection is secured by fil- 
ing a certified copy of the United States pat^ 
ent with the Secretary of the Government and 
by complying with certain legal formalities. 

Philippines. — ^The modus operandi is the 
same as that just described as appljdng to 
Porto Rico. 

Cuba. — Since Cuba has become an inde- 
pendent republic it has established a patent 
system. The term of the patent is seventeen 
years. Working should be established within 
one year but the term for the working of the 
Cuban oatent is modified by the provisions 
of the Convention. No taxes after the issue 
of the patent. 

Mexico. — ^The term is twenty years. The 
application must be filed in Mexico either 
within twelve months from the date of filing 
of the first application in another country or 



within three months from the date of issue 
of ihe foreign patent. There are no taxes 
after the issue oi the patent. If the Mexican 
patent is not worked the patentee may be 
required, after the expiration of three years 
of the patent term, to grant licenses per- 
mitting others to manufacture in Mexico. 

South American Republics. — Patents are 
issued by all of the South American Republics. 
The principal countries in whidi patent pro- 
tection is sought are Brazil, in which the liaws 
are quite favorable to foreigners and where the 
term is fifteen years; Chile, where the term is 
generally ten years, and Argentina, where the 
terms are five, ten and fifteen years, according 
to the merits of the invention. Patents are 
also frequently secured in Venezuela, Peru, 
Ecuador, Colombia and Paraguay, but only 
for certain classes of invention, owing to the 
expense involved in procuring the patents. , 

South Africa. — Patents are obtainable in 
four important states. Cape Colony, Transvaal, 
Congo Free State and Orange Free State. In 
Cape Colony the term is fourteen years. There 
are no conditions as to working the patent. 
The law is otherwise similar to that of Great 
Britain. 

Japan. — ^The term of the patent is fifteen 
years. The applicant must be the inventor or 
derive his tiue from the inventor. There is an 
examination of the application. The patent is 
subject to an increasing tax. and must be 
worked within three years. The taxes for the 
first, second and third years of the pa|^^ 
term are paid before the patent is issued. The 
subsequent taxes are paid annually after the 
expiration of the third year of the patent term. 



THE PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The Constitutional Provision.— The Congress 
shall have power * * * to promote the 
progresB of Science and Useful Arts, by se- 
curing for limited Times to Authors and In- 
ventors the exclusive Right to their respective 
Writings and Discoveries. 

STATUTES. 
ORGANIZATION OP THE PATENT OFFICE. 

Title XI. Rev. Stat., p. 80: 

Sec. 475. There shall be in the Department 
of the Interior an office known as the Patent 
Office, where all records, books, models, draw- 
ings, specifications, and other papers and 
things pertaining to patents shall be safely 
kept and preserved. 

Sec. 476. There shall be in the Patent Of- 
fice a Commissioner of Patents, one Assistant 
Commissioner, and three examiners-in-chief, 
who shall be appointed by the President, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate. 'All other offices, clerks and employees 
authorized by law for the Office shall be ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of the Interior, upon 
the nomination of the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents. 

Sec. 480. All officers and employees of the 
Patent Office shall be incapable, during the 
period for which they hold their appoint- 
ments, to acquire or take, directly or indi- 
rectly, except by inheritance or bequest, any 
right of interest in any patent issued by the 
Office. 

Sec. 481. The Commissioner of Patents, 
under the direction of the Secretary of the 



Interior, shall superintend or perform all du- 
ties respecting the granting and issuing of 
patents directed by law; and he shall have 
charge of all books, records, papers, models, 
machines, and other things belonging to tbe 
Patent Office. 

Sec. 482. The examiners-in-chief shall be 
persons of competent legal knowledge and sci- 
entific ability, whose duty it shall be, on the 
written petition of the appellant, to revise and 
determine upon the validity of the advene 
decisions of examiners upon applications for 
patents, and for reissues of patents, and in 
interference cases; and when required by the 
Commissioner, they shall hear and report upon 
claims for extensions, and perform such other 
like duties as he may assign them. 

Sec. 483. The Commissioner of Patents, sub- 
ject to the approval of the Secretary of tbe 
Interior, may from time to time establish regu- 
lations, not inconsistent with law, for the 
conduct of proceedings in the Patent Office. 

Sec. 488. The Commissioner of Patents mar 
require all papers filed in the Patent Office, 
if not correctly, legibly, and clearly written, 
to be printed at the cost of the party filing 
them. 

Title XIII, Rev. Stat., p. 189: 

Sec. 892. Written or printed copies of any 
records, books, papers, or drawings belonging 
to the Patent Office, and of letters patent 
authenticated by the seal and certified by the 
Commissioner or Acting Conimissiooer thereof, 
shall be evidence in all cases wherein the 
originals could be evidence; and any person 
making application therefor, and paying the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



369 



fee required by law, shall have certified copies 
thereof. 

Sec. 893. Ck)pies of the specifications and 
drawings of foreign letters patent certified as 
provided in the preceding section, shall be 
prima facie evidence of the fact of the granting 
of such letters patent, and of the date and 
contents thereof. 

Sec. 894. The printed copies of specifica- 
tions and drawings of patents, which the 
Commissioner of Patents is authorised to print 
for gratuitous distribution, and to deposit in 
the capitols of the States and Territories, and 
in the clerks' offices of the district court, 
shall, when certified by him and authenticated 
by the seal of his office, be received in all 
courts as evidence of all matters therein con- 
tained. 

Sec. 973. When judgment or decree Is ren- 
dered for the plaintiff or complainant, in any 
suit at law or in equity, for the infringement 
of a part of a patent, in which it appears 
that the patentee, in his specification, claimed 
to be the original and first inventor or dis- 
coverer of any material or substantial part of 
the thing patented, of which he was not the 
original and first inventor, no costs shall be 
recovered, unless the proper disclaimer, as 
provided by the patent laws, has been entered 
at the Patent Office before the suit was 
brought. (See Sees. 4917, 4922.) 

Sec. 1637. No patented article connected 
with marine engines shall hereafter be pur- 
chased or used in connection with any steam 
vessels of war until the same shall have been 
submitted to a competent board of naval engi- 
neers, and recommended by such board, in 
writing, for purchase and use. 

Title XVII, Rev. Stat., p. 292: 

Sec. 1673. No royalty shall be paid by the 

United States to any one of its officers or 

employees for the use of any patent for the 

system, or any part thereof, nor for any such 

patent in which said officers or employees 

may be directly or indirectly interested. 

Title LX. Rev. Stat., 1878, chap. 1, p. 946: 

Sec. 4883. All patents shall be issued in 
the name o( the United States of America, 
under the seal of the Patent Office, and shall 
be signed by the Commissioner of Patents, and 
they shall be recorded, together with the spe- 
cifications, in the Patent Office in books to be 
kept for that purpose. 

Sec. 4884. Every patent shall contain a 
short title or description of the invention or 
discovery, correctly indicating its nature and 
design, and a grant to the patentee, his heirs 
or assigns, for the term of seventeen years, 
of the exclusive right to make, use, and vend 
the invention or discovery throughout the 
United States and the Territories thereof, re- 
ferring to the specification for the particulars 
thereof. A copy of the specification and draw- 
ings shall be annexed to the patent and be 
a part thereof. 

Sec. 4886. Bvery patent shall issue within 
a period of three months from the date of 
the payment of the final fee. which fee shall 
be paid not later than six months from the 
time at which the application was passed and 
allowed and notice thereof was sent to the 
applicant or his agent; and if the final fee 
is not paid within that period the patent 
shall be withheld. 

Sec. 4886. Any person who has invented or 
discovered any new and useful art, machine, 
manufacture, or composition of matter, or any 
new and useful Improvementa thereof, not 
known or used by others in this country, be- 



fore his invention or discovery thereof, and 
not patented or described in any printed pub- 
lication in this or any foreign country, before 
his invention or discovery thereof, or more 
than two years prior to his application, and 
not in public use or on sale in this country 
for more than two years prior to his appli- 
cation, unless the same is proved to have 
been abandoned, may, upon payment of the 
fees required by law, and other due proceed- 
ing had, obtain a patent therefor. 

The Secretary of the Interior and the Com- 
missioner of Patents are authorized to grant 
any officer of the Government, except officers 
and employees of the Patent Office, a patent 
for any invention of the classes mentioned in 
section 4886 of the Revised Statutes when such 
invention is used or to be used in the public 
service, without the payment of any fee; Pro- 
vided. That the applicant in his application 
shall state that the invention described therein, 
if patented, may be used by the Government, 
or any of Its officers or employees in prose- 
cution of work for the Government, or by 
any other person in the United States, without 
the payment to him of any royalty thereon, 
which stipulation shall be included in the 
patent. 

Sec. 4887. No person otherwise entitled 
thereto shall be debarred from receiving a 
patent for his invention or discovery, nor 
shall any patent be declared invalid by reason 
of its having been first patented or caused to 
be patented by the inventor or his legal rep- 
resentatives or assigns in a foreign country, 
unless the application for said foreign patent 
was filed more than twelve months, in cases 
within the provisions of section 4886 of the 
Revised Statutes, and four months in cases 
of designs, prior to the filing of the appli- 
cation in this country, in which case no 
patent shall be granted in this country. 

An application for patent for an Invention 
or discovery or for a design filed in this 
country by any person who has previously 
regularly filed an application for a patent 
for the same Invention, discovery, or design 
in a foreign country which, by treaty, con- 
vention, or law, affords similar privileges to 
citizens of the United States shall have the 
same force and effect as the same application 
would have if filed in this country on the 
date on which the application for patent for 
the same invention, discovery, or design was 
first filed in such foreign country, provided 
the application In this country is filed within 
twelve months in cases within the provisions 
of section 4886 of the Revised Statutes, and 
within four months in cases of designs, from 
the earliest date on which any such foreign 
application was filed. But no patent shall be 
granted on an application for patent for an 
invention or discovery or a design which had 
been patented or described in a printed pub- 
lication in this or any foreign country more 
than two years before the date of the actual 
filing of the application in this country, or 
which had been In public use or on sale in 
this country for more than two years prion 
to such filing. 

Sec. 4888. Before any inventor or discoverer 
shall receive a patent for his Invention or 
discovery, he shall make application therefor, 
in writing, to the Commissioner of Patents, 
and shall file In the Patent Office a written 
description of the same, and of the manner 
and process of making, constructing, compound- 
ing, and using it, in such full, clear, con- 
cise, and exact terms as to enable any person 
skilled in the art or science to which it ap- 



S70 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



pertains, or with which It is most nearly con- 
nected, to make, construct, compound, and 
use the same; and in case of a machine, he 
shall explain the principle thereof, and the 
best mode in which he has contemplated ap- 
plying that principle, so as to distinguish it 
from other inventions; and he shall particu- 
larly point out and distinctly claim the part, 
improvement, or combination which he claims 
as his invention or discovery. The specifica- 
tion and claim shall be signed by the in- 
ventor and attested by two witnesses. 

Sec. 4889. When the nature of the case 
admits of drawings, the applicant shall fur- 
nish one copy signed by the inventor or his 
attorney in fact, and attested by two wit- 
nesses, which shall be filed in the Patent 
Office; and a copy of the drawing, to be fur- 
nished by the Patent Office, shall be attached 
to the patent as a part of the specification. 

Sec. 4890. When the invention or discovery 
is of a composition of matter, the applicant, 
if required by the Commissioner, shall furnish 
specimens of ingredients and of the compo- 
sition, sufficient in quantity for the purpose 
of experiment. 

Sec. 4891. In all cases which admit of 
representation by model, the applicant, if 
required by the Commissioner, shall furnish 
a model of convenient size to exhibit advan- 
tageously the several parts of his invention or 
discovery. 

Sec. 4892. The applicant shall make oath 
that he does verily believe himself to be the 
original and first inventor or discoverer of the 
art, machine, manufacture, composition, or 
improvement for which he solicits a patent; 
that he does not know and does not believe 
that the same was ever before known or used; 
and shall state of what country he is a citi- 
zen. Such oath may be made before any 
person within the United States authorized 
by law to administer oaths, or, when the 
applicant resides in a foreign country, before 
any minister, charge d'affaires, consul, or 
commercial agent holding commission under 
the Government of the United States, or before 
any notary public. Judge, or magistrate having 
an official seal and authorized to administer 
oaths In the foreign country In which the 
applicant may be, whose authority shall be 
proved by certificate of a diplomatic or con- 
sular officer of the United States. 

Sec. 4893. On the filing of any such appli- 
cation and the payment of the fees required 
by law, the Commissioner of Patents shall 
cause an examination to be made of the al- 
leged new invention or discovery; and if on 
such examination it shall appear that the 
claimant is Justly entitled to a patent under 
the law, and that the same is sufficiently useful 
and important, the Commissioner shall issue 
a patent therefor. 

Sec. 4894. All applications for patents shall 
be completed and prepared for examination 
within one year after the filing of the appli- 
cation, and in default thereof, or upon failure 
of the applicant to prosecute the same within 
one year after any action therein, of which 
notice shall have been given to the applicant, 
they shall be regarded as abandoned by the 
parties thereto, unless it be shown to the 
satisfaction of the Commissioner of Patents 
that such delay was unavoidable. 

Sec. 4896. Patents may be granted and is- 
sued or reissued to the assignee of the inventor 
or discoverer; but the assignment must first 
be entered of record in the Patent Office. And 
in all cases of an application by an assignee 
for the issue of a patent, the application shall 



be made and the specification sworn to by the 
inventor or discoverer; and In all cases of an 
application for a reissue of any patent, the 
application must be made and the corrected 
specification signed by the Inventor or dis- 
coverer, if he is living, unless the patent 
was issued and the assignment made before 
the eighth day of July, 1870. 

Sec. 4896. When any person, having made 
any new invention or discovery for which a 
patent might have been granted, dies before 
a patent is granted, the right of applying for 
and obtaining the patent shall devolve on his 
executor or administrator, In trust for the 
heirs at law of the deceased, in case he shall 
have died intestate; or if he shall have left 
a will disposing of the same, then in trmt 
for his devisees, in as full manner and on tbe 
same terms and conditions as the fame might 
have been claimed or enjoyed by him in his 
lifetime; and when any person having made 
any new Invention or discovery for which a 
patent might have been granted becomes in- 
sane before a patent is granted the right of 
applying for and obtaining the patent shall 
devolve on his legally appointed guardian, 
conservator, or representative in trust for bis 
estate in as full manner and on the same 
terms and conditions as the same might have 
been claimed or enjoyed by him while sane 
and when the application is made by such 
legal representatives the oath or affirmation 
required to be made shall be so varied in 
form that it can be made by them. The exec- 
utor or administrator duly authorized under 
the law of any foreign country to administer 
upon the estate of the deceased inventor shall, 
in case the said inventor was not domiciled 
in the United States at the time of his death, 
have the right to apply for and obtain the 
patent. The authority of such foreign exec- 
utor or administrator shall be proved by cer- 
tificate of a diplomatic or consular officer of 
the United States. 

The foregoing section, as to insane persona, 
Is to cover all applications now on file in 
the Patent Office or which may be hereafter 
made. 

Sec. 4897. Any person who has an interest 
in an invention or discovery, whether as In- 
ventor, discoverer or assignee, for which a 
patent was ordered to issue upon the pay- 
ment of the final fee, but who fails to make 
payment thereof within six months from the 
time at which it was passed and allowed, and 
notice thereof was sent to the applicant or 
his agent, shall have a right to make an 
application for a patent for such invention 
or discovery the same as in the case of an 
original application. But such second appli- 
cation must be made within two years after 
the allowance of the original application. But 
no person shall be held responsible in damages 
for the manufacture or use of any article or 
thing for which a patent was ordered to Issue 
under such renewed application prior to the 
issue of the patent. And upon the hearing 
of renewed applications preferred under this 
section, abandonment shall be considered as a 
question of fact. 

Sec. 4898. Every patent or any interest 
therein shall be assignable in law by an in- 
strument in writing, and the patentee or his 
assigns or legal representatives may In like 
manner grant and convey an exclusive right 
under his patent to the whole or any specified 
part of the United States. An assignment, 
grant, or conveyance shall be void as against 
any subsequent purchaser or mortgagee for a 
valuable consideration, without notic«i unlMl 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



371 



it l8 recorded In the Patent Office within three 
months from the date thereof. 

If any such assignment, grant, or convey- 
ance of any patent shall be acknowledged be- 
fore any notary public of the several States 
or Territories or the District of Columbia, or 
any commissioner of the United States Circuit 
Court, or before any secretary of legation or 
consular officer authorized to administer oaths 
or perform notarial acts under section 1750 of 
the Revised Statutes, the certificate of such 
acknowledgment, under the hand and official 
seal of such notary or other officer, shall be 
prima facie evidence of the execution of such 
assignment, grant or conveyance. 

Sec. 4899. Every person who purchases of 
the Inventor or discoverer, or, with his knowl- 
edge and consent, constructs any newly in- 
vented or discovered machine, or other patent- 
able article, prior to the application by the 
Inventor or discoverer for a patent, or who 
sells or uses one so constructed, shall have 
the right to use, and vend to others to be 
used, the specific thing so made or purchased, 
without liability therefor. 

Sec. 4900. It shall be the duty of all pat- 
entees, and their assigns and legal represen- 
tatives, and of all persons making or vending 
any patented article for or under them, to 
give sufficient notice to the public that the 
same is patented either by fixing thereon the 
word "patented." together with the day and 
year the patent was granted; or when, from 
the character of the article, this cannot be 
done, by fixing to it, or to the package where- 
in one or more of them is inclosed, a label 
containing the like notice; and in any suit for 
infringement, by the party failing so to mark, 
no damages shall be recovered by the plain- 
tiff, except on proof that the defendant was 
duly notified of the infringement, and con- 
tinued, after such notice, to make, use, or 
vend the article so patented. 

Sec. 4901. Every person who, in any man- 
ner, marks upon anjrthmg made, used, or sold 
by him for which he has not obtained a pat- 
ent, the name or any imitation of the name 
of any person who has obtained a patent 
therefor, without the consent of such pat- 
entee, or his assigns or legal representatives; 
or 

Who, in any manner, marks upon or affixes 
to any such patented article the word "pat- 
ent" or "patentee," or the words "letters 
patent," or any word of like import, with 
intent to imitate or counterfeit the mark or 
device of the patentee, without having the 
license or consent of such patentee or his 
assigns or legal representatives; or 

Who, in any manner, marks upon or affixes 
to any unpatented article the word "patent" 
or any word importing that the same is pat- 
ented» for the purpose of deceiving the public, 
■hall be liable, for every such offense, to a 
penalty of not less than one hundred dollars, 
with costs; one-half of said penalty to the 
person who shall sue for the same, and the 
other to the use of the United States, to be 
recovered by suit in any district court of the 
United States within whose jurisdiction such 
offense may have been committed. 

Sec. 4903. Whenever, on examination, any 
claim for a patent is rejected, the Commis- 
sioner shall notify the applicant thereof, giving 
him briefly the reasons for such rejection, to- 
gether with such information and references 
as may be useful in judging of the propriety 
of renewing his application or of altering his 
specification; and if, after receiving such 
notice, the applicant persists in his claim for 



a patent, with or without altering his specifica- 
tions, the Commissioner shall order a re-ex- 
amination of the case. 

Sec. 4904. Whenever an application is made 
for a patent which, in the opinion of the 
Commissioner, would interfere with any pend- 
ing application, or with any unexpired patent, 
he shall give notice thereof to the applicants, 
or applicant and patentee, as the case may 
be, and shall direct the primary examiner to 
proceed to determine the question of priority 
of invention. And the Commissioner may 
issue a patent to the party who is adjudged 
the prior inventor, unless the adverse party 
appeals from the decision of the primary ex- 
aminer, or of the board of examfners-in-chief, 
as the case may be, within such time, not 
less than twenty days, as the Commissioner 
shall prescribe. 

Sec. 4905. The Commissioner of Patents may 
establish rules for taking affidavits and depo- 
sitions required in cases pending in the Pat- 
ent Office, and such affidavits and depositions 
may be taken before any officer authorized by 
law to take depositions to be used in the 
courts of the United States or of the State 
where the officer resides. 

Sec. 4906. The clerk of any court of the 
United States, for any district or Territory 
wherein testimony is to be taken for use in 
any contested case pending in the Patent 
Office, shall, upon the application of any party 
thereto, or of his agent or attorney, issue 
a subpoena for any witness residing or being 
within such district or Territory, commanding 
him to appear and testify before any officer in 
such district or Territory authorized to take 
depositions and affidavits, at any time and 
place in the subpoena stated.. But no witness 
shall be required to attend at any place more 
than forty miles from the place where the 
subpoena is served upon him. 

Sec. 4907. Every witness duly subpoenaed 
and in attendance shall be allowed the same 
fees as are allowed to witnesses attending the 
courts of the United States. 

Sec. 4908. Whenever any witness, after be- 
ing duly served with such subpoena, neglects 
or refuses to appear, or after appearing re- 
fuses to testify, the judge of the court whose 
clerk issued the subpoena may, on proof of 
such neglect or refusal, enforce obedience to 
the process, or punish the disobedience, as in 
other like cases. But no witness shall be 
deemed guilty of contempt for disobeying such 
subpoena, unless his fees and traveling ex- 
penses in going to, returning from, and one 
day's attendance at the place of examination, 
are paid or tendered him at the time of the 
service of the subpoena; nor for refusing to 
disclose any secret invention or discovery 
made or owned by himself. 

Sec. 4909. Every applicant for a patent or 
for the reissue of a patent, any of the claims 
of which have been twice rejected, and every 
party to an interference, may appeal from 
the decision of the primary examiner, or of 
the examiner in charge of Interferences in 
such case, to the board of examiners-in-chlef; 
having once paid the fee for such appeal. 

Sec. 4910. If such party is dissatisfied with 
the decision of the examiners-in-chief, he may, 
on payment of the fee prescribed, appeal to 
the Commissioner in person. 

Sec. 4911. If such party, except a party to 
an interference, is dissatisfied with the de- 
cision of the Commissioner, he may appeal 
to the Supreme Court of the District of Co- 
lumbia, sitting in banc. 



372 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



373 



Sec. 4912. When an appeal is taken to the 
Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, 
the appellant shall give notice thereof to the 
Commissioner, and file in the Patent Office 
within such time as the Commissioner shall 
appoint, his reasons of appeal, specifically set 
forth in writing. 

Sec. 4913. The court shall, before hearing 
such appeal, give notice to the Commissioner 
of the time and place of the hearing, and on 
receiving such notice the Commissioner shall 
give notice of such time and place in such 
manner as the court may prescribe, to all 
parties who appear to be interested therein. 
The party appealing shall lay before the court 
certified copies of all the original papers and 
evidence in the case, and the Commissioner 
shall furnish the court with the grounds of his 
decision, fully set forth in writing, touching 
all the points involved by the reasons of 
appeal. And at the request of any party in- 
terested, or of the court, the Commissioner 
and the examiners may be examined under 
oath, in explanation of the principles of the 
thing for which a patent is demanded 

Sec. 4914. The court, on petition, shall hear 
and determine such appeal, and revise the 
decision appealed from in a summary way, 
on the evidence produced before the Commis- 
sioner, at such early and convenient time as 
the court may appoint; and the revision shall 
be confined to the points set forth in the 
reasons of appeal. After hearing the case the 
court shall return to the Commissioner a cer- 
tificate of its proceedings and decision, which 
shall be entered of record in the Patent Of- 
fice, and shall govern the further proceedings 
in the case. But no opinion or decision of the. 
court in any such case shall preclude any 
person interested from the right to contest 
the validity of such patent in any court 
wherein the same may be called in question. 

Sec. 4915. Whenever a patent on applica- 
tion is refused, either by the Commissioner 
of Patents or by the Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia upon appeal from the 
Commissioner, the applicant may have remedy 
by bill in equity; and the court having cog- 
nizance thereof, on notice to adverse parties 
and other due proceedings had, may adjudge 
that such applicant is entitled, according to 
law, to receive a patent for his invention, as 
specified in his claim, or for any part thereof, 
as the facts in the case may appear. And such 
adjudication, if it be in favor of the right 
of the applicant, shall authorize the Commis- 
sioner to issue such patent on the applicant 
filing in the Patent Office a copy of the ad- 
judication, and otherwise complying with the 
requirements of law. In all cases where there 
is no opposing party, a copy of the bill shall 
be served on the Commissioner; and all the 
expenses of the proceeding shall be paid by 
the applicant, whether the final decision is in 
his favor or not. 

R. S., U. S., Sup., Vol. 2, c. 74, Feb. 9, 
1893. Be it enacted, etc.. That there shall 
be, and there is hereby, established in the 
District of Columbia a court, to be known as 
the court of appeals of the District of Colum- 
bia. 

Sec. 6. That the said court of appeals 
shall establish a term of the court during 
each and every month in each year excepting 
the months of July and August. 

Sec. 8. That any final Judgment or decree 
of the said court of appeals may be re-exam- 
ined and affirmed, reversed, or modified by the 
Supreme Court of the United States, upon 
writ of error or appeal. In all causes in which 



the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, shall 
exceed the sum of five thousand dollars, in 
the same manner and under the same regula- 
tions as heretofore provided for in cases of 
writs of error on Judgment or appeals from 
decrees rendered in the supreme court of the 
District of Columbia. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of Amer- 
ica in Congress assembled, That in any case 
heretofore made final in the court of appeals 
of the District of Columbia, it shall be com- 
petent for the Supreme Court to require, by 
certiorari or otherwise, any such case to be 
certified to the Supreme Court for its review 
and determination, with the same power and 
authority in the case as if it had been car- 
ried by appeal or writ of error to the Supreme 
Court. 

Sec. 9. That the determination of appeals 
from the decision of the Commissioner of 
Patents, now vested in the general term of 
the supreme court of the District of Columbia, 
in pursuance of the provisions of section 780 
of the Revised Statutes of the United States, 
relating to the District of Columbia, shall 
hereafter be and the same is hereby vested 
in the court of appeals created by this act; 

And In addition, any party aggrieved by a 
decision of the Commissioner of Patents in 
any interference case may appeal therefrom to 
said court of appeals. 

Title LX, Rev. Stat., 1878, p. 950: 

Sec. 4916. Whenever any patent is inopera- 
tive or invalid, by reason of a defective or 
insufficient specification, or by reason of the 
patentee claiming as his own invention or 
discovery more than he had a right to claim 
as new, if the error has arisen by inadvertence, 
accident, or mistake, and without any fraud- 
ulent or deceptive intention, the Commissioner 
shall, on the surrender of such patent and 
the payment of the duty required by law, 
cause a new patent for the same invention, 
and in accordance with the corrected speci- 
fication, to be issued to the patentee, or, in 
case of his death or of an assignment of the 
whole or any undivided part of the original 
patent, then to his executors, administrators, 
or assigns, for the unexpired part of the term 
of the original patent. Such surrender shall 
take effect upon the issue of the amended 
patent. The Commissioner may,' in his dis- 
cretion, cause several patents to be issued for 
distinct and separate parts of the thing pat- 
ented, upon demand of the applicant, and upon 
payment of the required fee for a reissue for 
each of such reissued letters patent. The spe- 
cifications and claim In every such case shall 
be subject to revision and restriction In the 
same manner as original applications are. 
Every patent so reissuea, together with the cor- 
rected specifications, shall have the same ef- 
fect and operation in law, on the trial of all 
actions for causes thereafter arising, as if the 
same had been originally filed in such cor- 
rected form; but no new matter shall be in- 
troduced into the specification, nor In case 
of a machine patent shall the model or draw- 
ings be amended, except each by the other; 
but when there is neither model nor drawing; 
amendments may be made upon proof satis- 
factory to the Commissioner that such new 
matter or amendment was a part of the orig- 
inal invention, and was omitted from the spe- 
cification by inadvertence, accident, or mis- 
take, as aforesaid. 

Sec. 4917. Whenever, through inadvertence, 
accident, or mistake, and without any fraud- 
ulent or deceptive Intention, a patentee hai 



374 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



claimed more than that of which he was the 
original or first inventor or discoverer, his 
patent shall be valid tor all that part which 
is truly and Justly his own. provided the 
same is a material or substantial part of the 
thing patented; and any such patentee, his 
heirs or assigns, whether of the whole or any 
sectional interest therein, may, on payment 
of the fee required by law, make disclaimer 
of such parts of the thing patented as he 
shall not chose to claim or to hold by virtue 
of the patent or assignment, stating therein 
the extent of his interest in such patent. Such 
disclaimer shall be in writing, attested by 
one or more witnesses, and recorded in the 
patent office; and it shall thereafter be con- 
sidered as part of the original specification to 
the extent of the interest possessed by the 
claimant and by those claiming under him 
after the record thereof. But no such dis- 
claimer shall afFect any action pending at the 
time of its being filed, except so far as may 
relate to the question of unreasonable neglect 
or delay in filing it. 

Sec. 4918. Whenever there are interfering 
patents, any person interested in any one 
of them, or in the working of the invention 
claimed under either of them, may have re- 
lief against the interfering patentee, and all 
parties interested under him, by suit in equity 
against the owners of the interfering patent; 
and the court, on notice to adverse parties, 
and other due proceedings had according to 
the course of equity, may adjudge and declare 
either of the patents void in whole or in part, 
or inoperative or invalid in any particular 
part of the United States, according to the 
interest of the parties in the patent or the 
invention patented. But no such Judgment 
or adjudication shall affect the right of any 
person except the parties to the suit and those 
deriving title under them subsequent to the 
rendition of such Judgment. 

Sec. 4919. Damages for the infringement 
of any patent may be recovered by action on 
the case, in the name of the party inter- 
ested either as patentee, assignee, or grantee. 
And whenever in any such action a verdict is 
rendered for the plaintiff, the court may enter 
Judgment thereon for any sum above the 
amount found by the verdict as the actual 
damages sustained, according to the circum- 
stances of -the case, not exceeding three times 
the amount of such verdict, together with the 
costs. 

Sec. 4920. In any action for infringement 
the defendant may plead the general issue, 
and, having given notice in writing to the 
plaintiff or his attorney thirty days before, 
may prove on trial any one or more of the 
following special matters: 

First. — That for the purpose of deceiving the 
public the description and specification filed by 
the patentee in the Patent Office was made 
to contain less than the whole truth relative 
to his invention or discovery, or more than 
is necessary to produce the desired effect; or. 

Second. — That he had surreptitiously or un- 
justly obtained the patent for that which was 
in fact invented by another, who was using 
reasonable diligence in adapting and perfect- 
ing the same; or. 

Third.— That it has been patented or de- 
scribed in some printed publication prior to 
his supposed invention or discovery thereof, or 
more than two years prior to his application 
for a patent therefor; or, 

Fourth.— That he was not the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of any material 
and substantial part of the thing patented; or. 



Fifth.— That it had been in public use or 
on sale in this country for more than two 
years before his application for a patent, or 
had been abandoned to the public. 

And In notices as to proof of previous in- 
vention, knowledge, or use of the thing pat- 
ented, the defendant shall state the names of 
the patentees and the dates of their patents, 
and when granted, and the names and resi- 
dences of the persons alleged to have invented 
or to have had the prior knowledge of the 
thing patented, and where and by whom it 
had been used; and if any one or more of 
the special matters alleged shall be found for 
the defendant. Judgment shall be rendered for 
him with costs. And the like defenses may 
be pleaded in any suit in equity for relief 
against an alleged infringement; and proofs 
of the same may be given upon like notice 
in the answer of the defendant, and with the 
like effect. 

Sec. 4921. The several courts vested with 
Jurisdiction of cases arising under the patent 
laws shall have power to grant injunctions 
according to the course and principles of 
courts of equity, to prevent the violation 
of any right secured by patent, on such 
terms as the court may deem reasonable; 
and upon a decree being rendered in any 
such case for an infringement the complain- 
ant shall be entitled to recover, in addition 
to the profits to be accounted for by the 
defendant, the damages the complainant has 
sustained thereby; and the court shall assess 
the same or cause the same to be assessed 
under its direction. And the court shall have 
the same power to increase such damages, in 
its discretion, as is given to increase the 
damages found by verdicts in actions in the 
nature of actions of trespass upon the case. 

But in any suit or action brought for 
the infringement of any patent there shall 
be no recovery of profits or damages for any 
infringement committed more than six years 
before the filing of the bill of complaint or 
the issuing of the writ in such suit or action, 
and this provision shall apply to existing 
causes of action. 

Sec. 2. That said courts, when sitting in 
equity for the trial of patent causes, may 
impanel a Jury of not less than five and 
not more than twelve persons, subject to 
such general rules in the premises as may, 
from time to time, be made by the Supreme 
Court, and submit to them such, questions of 
fact arising in such cause as such circuit 
court shall deem expedient. 
' And the verdict of such Jury shall be 
treated and proceeded upon in the same 
manner and with the same effect as in the 
case of issues sent from chancery to a court 
of law and returned with such findings. 

Sec. 4922. Whenever, through Inadvertence, 
accident, or mistake, and without any wilful 
default or intent to defraud or mislead the 
public, a patentee has, in his specification, 
claimed to be the original and first inventor 
or discoverer of any material or substan- 
tial part of the thing patented, of which 
he was not the original and first inventor 
or discoverer, every such patentee, his ex- 
ecutors, administrators, and assigns, whether 
of the whole or any sectional interest in the 
patent, may maintain a suit at law or In 
equity, for the infringement of any part 
thereof, which was bona fide his own, if it 
is a material and substantial part of ths 
thing patented, and definitely distinguishable 
from the parts claimed without right, not- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



375 



withstanding the specifications may embrace 
more than that of which the patentee was 
the first inventor or discoverer. But in every 
such case in which a Judgment or decree 
shall be rendered for the plaintiff, no costs 
shall be recovered unless the proper disclaimer 
has been entered at the Patent Office before 
the commencement of the suit But no patentee 
shall be entitled to the benefits of this 
section if he has unreasonably neglected or 
delayed to enter a disclaimer. 



Sec. 4923. Whenever it appears that a pat- 
entee, at the time of making his application 
for the patent, believed himself to be the 
original and first inventor or discoverer of the 
thing patented, the same shall not be held 
to be void on account of the invention or 
discovery or any part thereof having been 
known or used in a foreign country, before 
his invention or discovery thereof, if it had 
not been patented or described in a printed 
publication. 



DESIGNS. 



Sec. 4929. Any person who has invented any 
new, original, and ornamental design for an 
article of manufacture, not known or used 
by others in this country before his invention 
thereof, and not patented or described in any 
printed publication in this or any foreign 
country before his invention thereof, or more 
than two years prior to his application, and 
not in public use or on sale in this country 
for more than two years prior to his applica- 
tion, unless the same is proved to have been 
abandoned, may, upon payment of the fees 
required by law and other due proceedings 
had, the same as in cases of invention or 
discoveries covered by section 4886, obtain a 
patent therefor. 

Sec. 4930. The Commissioner may dispense 
with models of designs when the design can 
be sufficiently represented by drawings or 
photographs. 

Sec 4931. Patents for designs may be granted 
for the term of three years and six months, 
or for seven years, or for fourteen years, as 
the applicant may, in his application, elect. 

Sec. 4932. Patentees of designs issued prior 
to the second day of March, 1861, shall be 
entitled to extension of their respective pat- 
ents for the term of seven years, in the same 
manner and under the same restrictions as 
are provided for the extension of patents 
for inventions or discoveries issued prior to 
the second day of March, 1861. 

Sec. 4933. All the regulations and provisions 
which apply to obtaining or protecting pat- 
ents for inventions or discoveries not incon- 
sistent with the provisions of this Title, shall 
apply to patents for designs. 

CHAPTER 105.— An Act to Amend the Law 
Relating to Patents, Trade-marks, and Copy- 
rights. 

Be it enacted, etc., That hereafter during 
the term of letters patent for a design, it 
shall be unlawful for any person other than 
the ownier of said letters patent, without the 
license of such owner to apply the design 
secured by such letters patent, or any colorable 
imitation thereof, to any article of manufac- 
ture for the purpose of sale, or to sell or 
expose for sale any article of manufacture to 
which such design or colorable imitation shall, 
without the license of the owner, have been 
applied, knowing that the same has been so 
applied. Any person violating the provisions, 
or either of them, of this section, shall be 
liable in the amount of two hundred and 
fifty dollars; and in case the total profit made 



by him from the manufacture or sale, is 
aforesaid, of the article or articles to which 
the design, or colorable imitation thereof, 
has been applied, exceeds the sum of two 
hundred and fifty dollars, he shall be further 
liable for the excess of such profit over and 
above the sum of two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars; and the full amount of such liability 
may be recovered by the owner of the letters 
patent, to his own use, in any circuit court 
of the United States having Jurisdiction of 
the parties, either by action at law or upon 
a bill in equity for an injunction to restrain 
such infringement. 

Sec. 2. That nothing in this act contained 
shall prevent, lessen, impeach, or avoid any 
remedy at law or in equity which any owner 
of letters patent for a design, aggrieved by 
the infringement of the same, might have had 
if this act had not been passed; but such 
owner shall not twice recover the profit made 
from the infringement 

Sec. 4934. The following shall be the rates 
for patent fees : 

On filing each original application for a 
patent, except in design cases, fifteen dollars. 

On issuing each original patent, except in 
design cases, twenty dollars. 

In design cases: For three years and six 
months, ten dollars; for seven years, fifteen 
dollars; for fourteen years, thirty dollars. 

On every application for the reissue of a 
patent, thirty dollars. 

On filing each disclaimer, ten dollars. 

On an appeal for the first time from the 
primary examiners to the examiners-in-chief, 
ten dollars. 

On every appeal from the examiuers-ln-chief 
to the Commissioner, twenty dollars. 

For certified copies of patents and other 
papers, including certified printed copies, ten 
cents per hundred words. . 

For recording every assignment, power of 
attorney, or other paper, of three hundred 
words or under, one dollar; of over three 
hundred and under one thousand words, two 
dollars; and for each additional thousand words 
or fraction thereof, one dollar. 

Certified copies of such drawings and speci- 
fications may be furnished by the Commissioner 
of Patents to persons applying therefor upon 
payment of the present rates for uncertified 
copies, and twenty-five cents additional for 
each certification. 

For copies of drawings, the reasonable cost 
of making them. 



PATENT RIGHTS VEST IN ASSIGNEE IN BANKRUPTCY. 



Sec. 6046. • All property conveyed by the bank- 
rui>t in fraud of his creditors; all rights in 
equity, choses in action, patent rights, and 
copyrights; all debts due him, or any person 
for his use, and all liens and securities there- 
for; and all his rights of action for property 



or estate, real or personal, and for any cause 
of action which he had against any person 
arising from contract or from the unlawful 
taking or detention, or injury to the property 
of the bankrupt; and all his rights of re- 
deeming such property or estate; together with 



376 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



377 



the like right, title, power, and authority 
to sell, manage, dispose of, sue for, and 
recover or defend the same, as the bankrupt 
might hare had If no assignment had been 
made, shall. In virtue of the adjudication of 
bankruptcy and the appointment of his as- 
signee, but subject to the exceptions stated 
in the preceding section, be at once vested 
is [In] such assignee. 

Sec. 70. Title to Property. The trustee of 
the estate of a bankrupt, upon his appoint- 
ment and qualification, and his successor or 
successors, if he shall have one or more, upon 
his or their appointment and qualification, 
shall in turn be vested by operation of law 
with the title of the bankrupt, as of the date 
he was adjudged a bankrupt, except in so far 
as it is to property which is exempt, to all 
(1) documents relating to his property; (2) 
interests In patents, patent rights, copyrights, 
and trade-marks. 

PUBLIC— No. 305. June 26, 1910. 

An act to provide additional protection for 
owners of patents of the United States and 
for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of America 



in Congress assembled. That whenever an In- 
vention described in and covered by a patent 
of the United States shall hereafter be used 
by the United States without license of the 
owner thereof or lawful right to use the 
same, such owner may recover reasonable com- 
pensation for such use by suit In the Court 
of Claims: Provided, however, that said Court 
of Claims shall not entertain a suit or re- 
ward compensation under the provisions of 
this Act where the claim for compensation is 
based on the use by the United States of 
any article heretofore owned, leased, used by 
or in the possession of the United States: 
Provided further. That in any such suit the 
United States may avail itself of any and all 
defenses, general or special, which might be 
pleaded by a defendant In an action for In- 
fringement, as set forth in Title Sixty of the 
Revised Statutes, or otherwise; And provided 
further, That the benefits of this Act shall 
not inure to any patentee, who, when he 
makes such claim, is in the employment or 
service of the Government of the United States; 
or the assignee of any such patentee; nor 
shall this act apply to any device discovered 
or invented by such employee during the time 
of his employment or service. 



COURTS. 



Public—No. 475. March 3. 1911 
An Act to codify, revise and amend the laws 
relating to the judiciary. 

Title— The Judiciary. 

Sec 24. The district courts shall have orig- 
inal jurisdiction as follows: 

Seventh. Of all suits at law or in equity 
arising under the patent, the copyright, and 
the trade-mark laws. 

Sec. 48. In suits brought for the infringe- 
ment of letters patent, the district courts of 
the United States shall have Jurisdiction, in 
law or In equity, in the district of which the 
defendant is an Inhabitant, or in any district 
in which the defendant, whether a person, 
partnership, or corporation, shall have com- 
mitted acts of infringement and have a regu- 
lar and established place of business. If such 
suit is brought in a district of which the 
defendant is not an inhabitant, but in which 
such defendant has a regular and established 
place of business, service of process, summons, 
or subpoena upon the defendant may be made 
by service upon the agent or agents engaged 
in conducting such business in the district in 
which suit is brought. 

Sec. 128. The circuit courts of appeals shall 
exercise appellate jurisdiction to review by 
appeal or writ or error final decisions in the 
district courts, ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ in all cases 
other than those in which appeals and writs 
of error may be taken direct to the Supreme 
Court ♦♦♦♦♦; the judgments and de- 
crees of the circuit courts of appeal shall be 
final * * * in all cases arising under 
the patents laws, under the copyright 
laws. ♦ ♦ ♦. 

Sec. 239. In any case within its appellate 
jurisdiction, as defined in section one hundred 
and twenty-eight, the circuit court of appeals 
at any time may certify to the Supreme Court 
of the United States any questions or proposi- 
tions of law concerning which it desires the 
instruction of that court for its proper deci- 
sion; and thereupon the Supreme Court may 
either give Its Instruction on the questions 
and propositions certified to it, which shall be 
binding upon the circuit court of appeals in 
such case, or it may require that the whole 



record and cause be sent up to it for Its 
consideration, and thereupon shall decide the 
whole matter in controversy in the same man- 
ner as if it had been brought there for review 
by writ of error or appeal. 

Sec. 260. Any final Judgment or decree of 
the court of appeals of the District of Co- 
lumbia may be re-examined and alBrmed. re- 
versed, or modified by the Supreme Court of 
the United States upon writ of error or appeal, 
in the following cases: 

4i4i*«*ee*e 

Except as provided in the next succeeding 
section, the judgments and decrees of said court 
of appeals shall be final in all cases arising 
under the patent laws, the copyright 
laws, • * *. 

Sec. 251. In any case in which the judgment 
or decree of said court of appeals Is made final 
by the section last preceding, it shall be 
competent for the Supreme Court of the 
United States to require, by certiorari or 
otherwise, any such case to be certified to it 
for its review and determination, with the 
same power and authority in the case as if 
it had been carried by writ of error or ap- 
peal to said Supreme Court. It shall also 
be competent for said court of appeals, in 
any case in which its judgment or decree 
is made final under the section last preceding, 
at any time to certify to the Supreme Court 
of the United States any questions or proposi- 
tions of law concerning which it desires the 
instruction of that court for their proper de- 
cision; and thereupon the Supreme Court 
may either give its instruction on the ques- 
tions and propositions certified to it, which 
shall be binding upon said court of appeals In 
such case, or it may require that the whole 
record and cause be sent up to it for its 
consideration, and thereupon shall decide the 
whole matter in controversy in the same man- 
ner as if it had been brought there for review 
by writ of error or appeal. 

Sec. %6. The jurisdiction vested in the 
courts of the United States in the cases and 
proceedings hereinafter mentioned shall be ex- 
clusive of the courts of the several States. 

Fifth. Of all cases arising under the patent- 
right, or copyright laws of the United States. 



378 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PRINTS AND LABELS. 



Excerpts from an Act approved March 4, 
1909, entitled an Act to amend and consolidate 
the Acts respecting copyright, relating to 
prints and labels. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of America 
in Congress assembled. That any person en- 
titled thereto, upon complying with the pro- 
visions of this Act, shall have the exclusive 
right: 

(a) To print, reprint, publish, copy, and 
vend the copyrighted work; 

Sec. 7. That no copyright shall subsist in 
the original text of any work which is in 
the public domain, or in -any work which was 
published in this country or any foreign 
country prior to the going into effect of this 
Act and has not been already copyrighted in 
the United States, or in any publication of 
the United States Government, or any re- 
print, In whole or in part, thereof: Provided, 
however, That the publication or republica- 
tion by the Government, either separately or in 
a public document, of any material in which 
copyright is subsisting shall not be taken to 
cause any abridgment or annulment of the 
copyright or to authorize any use or appropri- 
ation of such copyright material without the 
consent of the copyright proprietor. 

Sec. 8. That the author or proprietor of 
any work made the subject of copyright by this 
Act. or his executors, administrators, or as- 
signs, shall have copyright for such work un- 
der the conditions and for the terms specified 
in this Act. Provided, however. That the 
copyright secured by this Act shall extend to 
the work of an author or proprietor who is 
a citizen or subject of a foreign state or 
nation, only: 

(a) When an alien author or proprietor shall 
be domiciled within the United States at the 
time of the first publication of his work; 
or 

(b) When the foreign state or nation of 
which such author or proprietor is a citizen 
or subject grants, either by treaty, conven- 
tion, agreement, or law, to citizens of the 
United States the benefit of copyright on 
substantially the same basis as to its own 
citizens, or copyright protection substantially 
equal to the protection secured to such foreign 
author under this Act or by treaty; or when 
such foreign state or nation is a party to 
an international agreement which provides for 
reciprocity In the granting of copyright, by 
the terms of which agreement the United 
States may, at its pleasure, become a party 
thereto. 

The existence of the reciprocal conditions 
aforesaid shall be determined by the President 
of the United States, by proclamation made 
from time to time, as the purposes of this 
Act may require. 

Sec. 9. That any person entitled thereto by 
this Act may secure copyright for his work 
by publication thereof with the notice of copy- 
right required by this Act; and such notice 
shall be affixed to each copy thereof pub- 
lished or offered for sale in the United States 
by authority of the copyright proprietor, ex- 
cept in the case of books seeking ad interim 
protection. ♦ ♦ • 

Sec. 18. That the notice of copyright re- 
quired by section nine of this Act shall con- 
sist either of the word "Copyright" or the 
abbreviation "Copr.", accompanied by the 
nsme of the copyright proprietor, and if the 
work be a printed literary, musical, or drama- 1 



tic work, the notice shall Include also the 
year in which the copyright was secured by 
publication. In the case, however, of copies 
of works specified in subsections (f) to (It), 
inclusive, of section five of this Act, the 
notice may consist of the letter C inclosed 
within a circle, accompanied by the initials, 
monogram, mark, or symbol of the copy- 
right proprietor: Provided, That on some 
accessible portion of such copies or of the 
margin, back, permanent base, or pedestal. 
or of the substance on which such copies shall 
be mounted, his name shall appear. But in 
the case of works In which copyright is sub- 
sisting when this Act shall go into effect, 
the notice of copyright may be either in 
one of the forms prescribed herein or in 
one of those prescribed by the Act of June 
eighteenth, eighteen hundred and seventy-four. 
Sec. 23. That the copyright secured by this 
Act shall endure for twenty-eight years from 
the date of first publication, whether the 
copyrighted work bears the author's true name 
or is published anonymously or under an 
assumed name: Provided, That in the case 
of any posthumous work or of any periodical, 
cyclopaedic, or other composite work upon 
which the copyright was originally secured by 
the proprietor thereof, or of any work copy- 
righted by a corporate body (otherwise than 
as assignee or licensee of the individual au- 
thor) or by an employer for whom such 
work is made for hire, the proprietor of such 
copyright shall be entitled to a renewal and 
extension of the copyright In such work for 
the further term of twenty-eight years when 
application for such renewal and extension 
shall have been made to the copyright ofiDce 
and duly registered therein within one year 
prior to the expiration of the original term 
of copyright: And Provided further. That in 
the case of any other copyrighted work, in- 
cluding a contribution by an individual au- 
thor to a periodical or to a cyclopaedic or 
other composite work when such contribution 
has been separately registered, the author of 
such work if still living, or the widow, widow- 
er, or children of the author, if the author 
be not living, or if such author, widow, wid- 
ower, or children be not living, then the au- 
thor's, executor's or in the absence of a will, 
his next of kin shall be entitled to a renewal 
and extension of the copyright in such work 
for a further term of twenty-eight years when 
application for such renewal and extension 
shall have been made to the copyright office 
and duly registered therein within one year 
prior to the expiration of the original term of 
copyright: And provided further, That in 
default of the registration of such application 
for renewal and extension, the copyright in 
any work shall determine at the expiration of 
twenty-eight years from first publication. 

Sec. 24. That the copyright subsisting in 
any work at the time when this Act goes 
into efCect may, at the expiration of the 
term provided for under existing law, be 
renewed and extended by the author of such 
work if still living, or the widow, widower, 
or children of the author, if the author be 
not living, or if such author, widow, widower, 
or children be not living, then by the au- 
thor's executors, or In the absence of a will, 
his next of kin, for a further period such 
that the entire term shall be equal to that 
secured by this Act. including the renewal 
period: Provided, however, That if the work 
be a composite work upon which copyrtKbt 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



379 



was originally secured by the proprietor there- 
of, then such proprietor shall be entitled to 
the privilege of renewal and extension granted 
under this section: Provided, That applica- 
tion for such renewal and extension shall be 
made to the copyright office and duly registered 
therein within one year prior to the expira- 
tion of the existing term. 

Sec. 42. That copyright secured under this 
or previous Acts of the United States may 
be assigned, granted, or mortgaged by an 
instrument in writing signed by the proprietor 
of the copyright, or may be bequeathed by 
will. 

Act approved June 18, 1874, relating to 
registration of prints and labels. 

Sections 3, 4, and 6 of the act of Congress 
relating to patents, trade-marks, and copy- 
rights, approved June 18, 1874 (18 Stat. L., 
p. 78) are as follows: 

Sec 3. That in the construction of this a(^ 
the words "engraving, cut, and print" shall be 



applied only to pictorial illustrations or works 
connected with the fine arts, and no prints or 
labels designed to be used for any other 
articles of manufacture shall be entered under 
the copyright law, but may be registered in 
the Patent Office. And the Commissioner of 
Patents is hereby charged with the supervi- 
sion and control of the entry or registry of 
such prints or labels, in conformity with the 
regulations provided by law as to copyright of 
prints, except that there shall be paid for 
recording the title of any print or label, not 
a trade-mark, six dollars, which shall cover 
the expense of furnishing a copy of the 
record, under the seal of the Commissioner of 
Patents, to the party entering the same. 

Sec. 4. That all laws and parts of laws in- 
consistent with the foregoing provisions be, 
and the same are hereby, repealed. 

Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect on 
and after the first day of August, eighteen 
hundred and seventy-four. 



TRADE-MARKS. 



Act of February 20, 1905 (As Amended). 

AN ACT To authorize the registration of trade- 
marks used in commerce with foreign na- 
tions or among the several States or with 
Indian tribes, and to protect the same. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of Ameri- 
ca in Congress assembled. That the owner 
of a trade-mark used in commerce with for- 
eign nations,' or among the several States, or 
with Indian tribes, provided such owner shall 
be domiciled within the territory of the United 
States, or resides in or is located in any for- 
eign country which, by treaty, convention, or 
law, affords similar privileges to the citizens 
of the United States, may obtain registration 
for such trade-mark by complying with the fol- 
lowing requirements: First, by filing in the 
Patent Office an application therefor, in writ- 
ing, addressed to the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, signed by the applicant, specifying his 
name, domicile, location, and citizenship; the 
class of merchandise and the particular de- 
scription of goods comprised in such class to 
which the trade-mark is appropriated; a state- 
ment of the mode in which the same is ap- 
plied and affixed to goods, and the length of 
time during which the trade-mark has been 
used; a description of the trade-mark itself 
shall be included, if desired by the applicant 
or required by the commissioner, provided such 
description is of a character to meet the ap- 
proval of the commissioner. With this state- 
ment shall be filed a drawing of the trade- 
mark, signed by the applicant, or his attorney, 
and such number of specimens of the trade- 
mark as actually used as may be required by 
the Commissioner of Patents. Second, by pay- 
ing into the Treasury of the United States the 
sum of ten dollars, and otherwise complying 
with the requirements of this act and such 
regulations as may be prescribed by the Com- 
missioner of Patents. 

Sec. 2 That the application prescribed in 
the foregoing section, in order to create any 
right whatever in favor of the party filing it, 
must be accompanied by a written declaration 
verified by the applicant, or by a member 
of the firm or an officer of the corporation 
or association applying, to the effect that the 
applicant believes himself or the firm, cor- 
poration, or association in whose behalf he 



makes the application to be the owner of the 
trade-mark sought to be registered, and that 
no other person, firm, corporation, or associa- 
tion, to the best of the applicant's knowledge 
and belief, has the right to use such trade- 
mark in the United States, either In the 
identical form or in such near resemblance 
thereto as might be calculated to deceive; that 
such trade-mark is used in commerce among 
the several States, or with foreign nations, or 
with Indian tribes, and that the description 
and drawing, presented truly represent the 
trade-mark sought to be registered. If the 
applicant resides or is located in a foreign 
country, the statement required shall, in ad- 
dition to the foregoing, set forth that the 
trade-mark has been registered by the appli- 
cant, or that an application for the registra- 
tion thereof has been filed by him in the 
foreign country in which he resides or is 
located, and shall give the date of such 
registration, or the application therefor, as 
the case may be, except that in the applica- 
tion in such cases it shall not be necessary to 
state that the mark has been used in com- 
merce with the United States or among the 
States thereof. The verification required by 
this section may be made before any person 
within the United States authorized by law 
to administer oaths, or, when the applicant 
resides in a foreign country, before any min- 
ister, charge d'affaires, consul, or commercial 
agent holding commission under the Govern- 
ment of the United States, or before any no- 
tary public. Judge, or magistrate having an 
official seal and authorized to administer oaths 
in the foreign country in which the applicant 
may be whose authority shall be proved by a 
certificate of a diplomatic or consular officer 
of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That every applicant for registra- 
tion of a trade-mark, or for renewal of regis- 
tration of a trade-mark, who is not domiciled 
within the United States, shall, before the 
Issuance of the certificate of registration, as 
hereinafter provided for, designate, by a no- 
tice in writing, filed in the Patent Office, 
some person residing within the United States 
on whom process or notice of proceedings 
affecting the right of ownership of the trade- 
mark of which such applicant may claim to be 
the owner, brought under the provisions of 
this act or under other laws of the United 



880 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



states, may be served, with the same force 
and effect as if served upon the applicant 
or registrant in person. For the purposes of 
this act It shall be deemed sufficient to 
serve such notice upon such applicant, regis- 
trant, or representative by leaving a copy of 
such process or notice addressed to him at 
the last address of which the Commissioner of 
Patents has been notified. 

Sec. 4. That an application for registration 
of a trade-mark filed in this country by any 
person who has previously regularly filed in 
any foreign country which, by treaty, conven- 
tion, or law, affords similar privileges to cit- 
izens of the United States an application for 
registration of the same trade-mark shall be 
accorded the same force and effect as would 
be accorded to the same application if filed 
in this country on the date on which appli- 
cation for registration of the same trade-mark 
was first filed in such foreign country: Pro- 
vided, That such application is filed in th s 
country within four months from the date on 
which the application was first filed in such 
foreign country: And provided. That certificate 
of registration shall not be issued for any 
mark for registration of which application has 
been filed by an applicant located in a foreign 
country until such mark has been actually 
registered by the applicant in the country in 
which he is located. 

Sec. 6. That no mark by which the goods 
of the owner of the mark may be disting- 
uished from other goods of the same class 
shall be refused registration as a trade-mark 
on account of the nature of such mark unless 
such mark — 

(a) Consists of or comprises immoral or 
scandalous matter. 

(b) Consists of or comprises the fiag or 
coat of arms or other insignia of the United 
States, or any simulation thereof, or of any 
State, or municipality, or of any foreign na- 
tion, or of any design or picture that has 
been or may hereafter be adopted by any 
fraternal society as its emblem: Provided, That 
trade-marks which are identical with a regis- 
tered or known trade-mark owned and in use 
by another, and appropriated to merchandise 
of the same descriptive properties, or which so 
nearly resemble a registered or known trade- 
mark owned and in use by another and ap- 
propriated to merchandise of the same de- 
scriptive properties, as to be likely to cause 
confusion or mistake in the mind of the pub- 
lic, or to deceive purchasers, shall not be 
registered: Provided, That no mark which 
consists merely in the name of an individual, 
firm, corporation, or association not written, 
printed, impressed, or woven in some par- 
ticular or distinctive manner or in association 
with a portrait of the individual or merely in 
words or devices which are descriptive of the 
goods with which they are used, or of the 
character or quality of such goods, or merely 
a geographical name or term, shall be regis- 
tered under the terms of the act: Provided 
further, That no portrait of a living individual 
may be registered as a trade-mark, except by 
the consent of such individual, evidenced by 
an instrument in writing: And provided fur- 
ther. That nothing herein shall prevent the 
registration of any mark used by the appli- 
cant or his predecessors, or by those from 
whom title to the mark is derived, in com- 
merce with foreign nations or among the sev- 
eral States, or with Indian tribes, which was 
in actual and exclusive use as a trade-mark 
of the applicant or his predecessors from 
whom he derived title for ten years next pre- 



ceding February twentieth, nineteen hundred 
and five: Provided further. That nothing here- 
in shall prevent the registration of a trade- 
mark otherwise registrable because of its being 
the name of the applicant or a portion thereof. 

Sec. 6. That on the filing of an application 
for registration of a trade-mark which com- 
plies with the requirements of this act, and 
the payment of the fees herein provided for, 
the Commissioner of Patents shall cause an 
examination thereof to be made, and if on 
such examination it shall appear that the ap- 
plicant is entitled to have his trade-mark 
registered under the provisions of this act, 
the commissioner shall cause the mark to be 
published at least once in the Official Gazette 
of the Patent Office. Any person who believes 
he would be damaged by the registration of a 
mark may oppose the same by filing notice of 
opposition, stating the grounds therefor, in the 
Patent Office within thirty days after the pub- 
lication of the mark sought to be registered, 
which said notice of opposition shall be veri- 
fied by the person filing the same before one 
of the officers mentioned in section two of 
this act. An opposition may be filed by a 
duly authorized attorney, but such opposition 
shall be null and void unless verified by the 
opposer within a reasonable time after such 
filing. If no notice of opposition is filed 
within said time, the commissioner shall issue 
a certificate of regist;ration therefor, as here- 
inafter provided for. If on examination an 
application Is refused, the commissioner shall 
notify the applicant, giving him his reasons 
therefor. 

Sec. 7. That in all cases where notice of 
opposition has been filed the Commissioner of 
Patents shall notify the applicant thereof and 
the grounds therefor. 

Whenever application is made for the regis- 
tration of a trade-mark which is substantially 
identical with a trade-mark appropriated to 
goods of the same descriptive properties, for 
which a certificate of registration has been 
previously issued to another, or for registra- 
tion of which another has previously made 
application, or which so nearly resembles such 
trade-mark, or a known trade-mark owned and 
used by another, as, in the opinion of the 
commissioner, to be likely to be mistaken 
therefor by the public, he may declare that 
an interference exists as to such trade-mark, 
and in every case of interference or opposition 
to registration he shall direct the examiner in 
charge of interferences to determine the ques- 
tion of the right of registration to such trade- 
mark, and of the sufficiency of objections to 
registration, in such manner and upon such 
notice to those interested as the commissioner 
may by rules prescribe. 

The commissioner may refuse to register the 
mark against the registration of which objec- 
tion is filed, or may refuse to register both of 
two interfering marks, or may register the 
mark, as a trade-mark, for the person first to 
adopt and use the mark, if otherwise entitled 
to register the same, unless an appeal is taken, 
as hereinafter provided for, from his decision, 
by a party interested in the proceeding, within 
such time (not less than twenty days) as the 
commissioner may prescribe. 

Sec. 8. That every applicant for the regis- 
tration of a trade-mark, or for the renewal 
of the registration of a trade-mark, which 
application is refused, or a party to an inter- 
ference against whom a decision has been ren- 
dered, or a party who has filed a notice of 
opposition as to a trade-mark, may appeal 
from the decision of the examiner in charge 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



881 



of trade-marks, or the examiner in charge of 
interferences, as the case may be, to the com- 
missioner in person, having once paid the tee 
for such appeal. 

Sec. 9. That if an applicant for registration 
of a trade-mark, or a party to an interference 
as to a trade-mark, or a party who has filed 
opposition to the registration of a trade-mark, 
or party to an application for the cancellation 
of the registration of a trade-mark, is dissatis- 
fied with the decision of the Commissioner of 
Patents, he may appeal to the court of ap- 
peals of the District of Columbia, on comply- 
ing with the conditions required in case of 
an appeal from the decision of the commis- 
sioner by an applicant for patent, or a party 
to an interference as to an invention, and the 
same rules of practice and procedure shall 
govern in every stage of such proceedings, as 
far as the same may be applicable. 

Sec. 10. That every registered trade-mark, 
and every mark for the registration of which 
application has been made, together with the 
application for registration of the same, shall 
be assignable in connection with the good will 
of the business in which the mark is used. 
Such assignment must be by an instrument in 
writing and duly acknowledged according to 
the laws of the country or State In which the 
same is executed; any such assignment shall 
be void as against any subsequent purchaser 
for a valuable consideration, without notice, 
unless it is recorded in the Patent Office 
within three months from date thereof. The 
commissioner shall keep a record of such as- 
signments. 

Sec. 11. That certificates of registration of 
trade-marks shall be issued in the name of the 
United States of America, under the seal of 
the Patent Office, and shall be signed by the 
Commissioner of Patents, and a record thereof, 
together with printed copies of the drawing 
and statement of the applicant, shall be kept 
in books for that purpose. The certificate 
shall state the date on which the application 
for registration was received in the Patent 
Office. Certificates of registration of trade- 
marks may be issued to the assignee of the 
applicant, but the assignment must first be 
entered of record in the Patent Office. 

Written or printed copies of any records, 
books, papers, or drawings relating to trade- 
marks belonging to the Patent Office, and of 
certificates of registration, authenticated by 
the seal of the Patent Office and certified by 
the commissioner thereof, shall be evidence 
in all cases wherein the originals could be 
evidence; and any person making application 
therefor and paying the fee required by law 
shall have certified copies thereof. 

Sec. 12. — That a certificate of registration 
shall remain in force for twenty years, except 
that in the case of trade-marks previously 
registered in a foreign country such certificate 
shall cease to be in force on the day on 
which the trade-mark ceases to be protected 
in such foreign country, and shall in no case 
remain in force more than twenty years, unless 
renewed. Certificates of registration may be 
from time to time renewed for like periods on 
payment of the renewal fees required by this 
act, upon request by the registrant, his legal 
representatives, or transferees of record in the 
Patent Office, and such request may be made 
at any time not more than six months prior 
to the expiration of the period for which the 
certificates of registration were issued or re- 
• newed. Certificates of registration in force at 
the date at which this act takes effect shall 
remain in force for the period for which they ■ 



were issued, but shall be renewable on the 
same conditions and for the same periods as 
certificates issued under the provisions of this 
act, and when so renewed shall have the same 
force and effect as certificates issued under this 
act. 

Sec. 13. That whenever any person shall 
deem himself injured by the registration of a 
trade-mark in the Patent Office he may at any 
time apply to the Commissioner of Patents 
to cancel the registration thereof. The com- 
missioner shall refer such application to the 
examiner in charge of interferences, who is 
empowered to hear and determine this question 
and who shall give notice thereof to the regis- 
trant. If it appear after a hearing before the 
examiner that the registrant was not entitled 
to the use of the mark at the date of his 
application for registration thereof, or that the 
mark is not used by the registrant, or has 
been abandoned, and the examiner shall so 
decide, the commissioner shall cancel the regis- 
tration. Appeal may be taken to the com- 
missioner in person from the decision of ex- 
aminer of interferences. 

Sec. 14. That the following shall be the 
rates for trade-mark fees: 

On filing each original application for regis- 
tration of a trade-mark, ten dollars: Provided, 
That an application for registration' of a 
trade-mark pending at the date of the passage 
of this act, and on which certificate of regis- 
tration shall not have issued at such date, may, 
at the option of the applicant, be proceeded 
with and registered under the provisions of 
this act without the payment of further fee. 

On filing each application for renewal of the 
registration of a trade-mark, ten dollars. 

On filing notice of opposition to the regis- 
tration of a trade-mark, ten dollars. 

On an appeal from the examiner in charge 
of trade-marks to the Commissioner of Patents, 
fifteen dollars. 

On an appeal from the decision of the ex- 
aminer in charge of interferences, awarding 
ownership of a trade-mark or canceling the 
registration of a trade-mark, to the Commis- 
sioner of Patents, fifteen dollars 

For certified and uncertified copies of cer- 
tificates of registration and other papers, and 
for recording transfers and other papers, the 
same fees as required by law for such copies 
of patents and for recording assignments and 
other papers relating to patents. 

Sec. 15. That sections forty-nine hundred and 
thirty-five and forty-nine hundred and thirty- 
six of the Revised Statutes, relating to the 
payment of patent fees and to the repayment 
of fees paid by mistake, are hereby made ap- 
plicable to trade-mark fees. 

Sec. 16. That the registration of a trade- 
mark under the provisions of this act shall be 
prima facie evidence of ownership. Any per- 
son who shall, without the consent of the 
owner thereof, reproduce, counterfeit, copy, 
or colorably Imitate any such trade-ma